Subscribe to the Free Software Supporter — the monthly update from the Free Software Foundation
 [image of a Brave GNU World]
《勇敢 GNU 世界》 - 〈第四十九期〉
Copyright © 2003 Georg C. F. Greve <>
中文翻译:刘 昭宏 <>
许可声明 如下

[CA | CN | DE | EN | IT | ZH]

Welcome to another issue of the Brave GNU World. I would like to apologize for the non-appearance last month, unfortunately there was trouble between the German Linux-Magazin and the Brave GNU World after they had cut out a part of issue #48 [5] ("Free Software Laptops").

欢迎来到又一期的《勇敢 GNU 世界》。〔在此〕为了上个月的消失向各位致歉,很不幸地因为德文的 Linux-Magazin 将〈第四十八期〉的一部份 [5] ( Free Software Laptops )删去之后,和《勇敢 GNU 世界》发生了一些问题。【译注:为求优译,中英文并陈将持续到发表之后约一个月;在此期间,请不吝於提供对於本文翻译的意见。】

This led to some not-so-good feelings and to the non-written issue of last month, but after intensive discussions, this should be history and don't happen again.


Skidbladnir (创造性问题解决理论的工具箱)

The first feature for this month is the Skidbladnir [6] project, the name of which might be equally mysterious as its description to some people. The author, Lars Brand, describes it as a "toolbox with information and programs for Computer Aided Innovation."

这个月的第一篇报道( feature )是 Skidbladnir [6] 工程〈这个名称对某些人而言,可能和它的描述一样神秘〉。它的作者 -- Lars Brand ,将它描述为一个“针对电脑辅助创新( Computer Aided Innovation )〔的目的〕,具有信息以及程序的工具箱( toolbox )。

The background for this will probably be unknown, but of interest to most readers and since Lars made an effort to supply it, it should not be withheld.

〔之所以有〕这个〔描述的〕背景将很有可能不被了解,但是为了〔满足〕大部份读者的兴趣〈同时也由於 Lars 作了一点努力来提供〉,它应该〔还是〕不要藏起来〔吊大家的胃口〕才是。

The scientific background of Skidbladnir is known as "Theory of Inventive Problem Solving;" in English abbreviated as TIPS, in German and Russian known as TRIZ. The theory has its origins in 1946 with Prof. Altschuller, who at the time was a patent engineer for the army.

Skidbladnir 的科学背景是知名的“创造性问题解决理论”( Theory of Inventive Problem Solving );在英文中是缩写为 TIPS ,而在德文和俄文中则是 TRIZ 。这理论是一九四六年 Altschuller 所创始的,他那时候是个军队的专利工程师。

When Prof. Altschuller sent a letter to Stalin, informing him about the beginnings of his theory, he immediately got imprisoned and sent to a camp for suspicious subjects. During his imprisonment he met numerous professors from different scientific areas, who helped him combining knowledge of many different disciplines.

当 Altschuller 教授送了封信给史达林,告诉他有关於他的理论的开始后,随即被囚禁起来并且送到了一个〔关〕可疑国民( suspicious subjects )的集中营。他在囚禁期间内遇到了许多来自不同科学背景的教授 -- 他们帮助他将很多不同学门( disciplines )的知识加以结合〔而成为一个完整的体系〕。

Released from the camp and again having become one of the undesirables around the end of the 60s until the mid 70s, he began publishing his results as SciFi novels in order to raise funds for his scientific work — see G. S. Altow: "Der Hafen der steinernen Stürme" ("Harbor of stony storms"). (Comment: I was unable to find out how the book is called in English or whether it has been translated into English, at all. Help appreciated.)

〔最后终於〕从集中营发行出来,但〈六○年代晚期一直到七○年代中期〉〔却〕再一次成了不受注目的理论( undesirables ),他开始将他的结果以科幻小说的形式加以出版,以募集他的科学工作所需要的资金 -- 请见 G. S. Altow :《 Der Hafen der steinernen Stürme 》(无情风暴的避风港; Harbor of stony storms )。 【原注:我没办法找到这书的英文名称,也不知道它到底有没有翻译为英文。〔欢迎并〕感谢〔这方面的〕帮忙。】

The TIPS theory is based upon the principle that independent of scientific discipline or industrial area, abstracted problems and their solutions usually repeat themselves. When analyzing about 40.000 extraordinarily successful patents, it was found that all of these were based on roughly 40 different solution principles only.

TIPS 理论是奠基於这项原则( principle ):抽象化的问题以及它们的解决方式通常会重复它们本身,而与〔哪一个〕科学学门或工业领域无关。在分析了大约四万件非常成功的专利后发现:所有这些〔全部〕仅仅基於四十种不同的〔问题〕解决原则〔而已〕。

Another basic principle of this theory is, that the evolution of technical systems is following certain tendencies and that essential innovation often requires an influx of scientific results from another area.

另外一个这个理论的基本原则就是:技术系统( technical systems )的进展,跟随著特定的趋势( tendencies ),并且必要的创新( essential innovation )经常需要来自於另一个领域的科学结果的导入。

What this means is an abstraction of problem-solving strategies; an often used example is: "A massive steel cube of 1m edge length is to be moved into a deep cavity without using cranes, ropes or similar tools. It also must not be thrown. Develop 3 appropriate solutions within 10 minutes."

这所指出的,是一个〔可以用来作为〕「问题解决策略」( problem-solving strategies )的抽象体( abstraction );一个经常被使用的例子是:一个边缘一公尺长的又大又重的钢管要被移到一个深洞中,并且不能使用起重机、绳索或〔其它〕相似的工具。同时也绝不能用转的( thrown )。在十分钟之内发展出二种适当的解决方式。

The most well-known project to solve this and other problems with software is probably the TechOptimizer, which — like all the other applications in this field — is proprietary and very expensive.

使用软件来解决这个以及其它问题的最为知名的工程大概就是 TechOptimizer 了,如同这个领域所有其它的应用〔程序〕,它〔也〕是私权的〔软件〕,并且价格十分高昂。

Skidbladnir now seeks to provide this functionality as Free Software. Besides the installation components, the project consists of andax, which contains the basic principle to resolve technical contradictions, sporadikus for web-brainstorming and perplexus, in which over 250 effects are available.

Skidbladnir 现在寻求著以自由软件的形式来提供这个功能( functionality )。除了元件( components )的安装之外,这工程还包含有 andax -- 它提供有可以解决「技术矛盾」( technical contradictions )以及针对「网络灵感」( web-brainstorming )和「复杂难题」( perplexus )的「偶发事件」( sporadikus )的基本原则,超过二百五十个「作用」( effects )可以取得。

The project itself isn't complete and also not very comfortable to use yet. Also the effect database is not as large as Lars would like it to be — especially the networking of effects, which allows for very efficient combinations, should be expanded.

这工程本身还没有完成,并且在操作上也不十分舒服。同时“作用”资料库也不像 Lars 所希望的那样大 -- 特别是应该要扩充〔以允许非常有效率的结合的〕“作用”的「网络化」【指的是 TIPS 的分析网络化,而不是互联网】。

The following provides a very simple example for this: 1. luminescent material converts UV light into visible light; 2. fine ground/spread metal inhibits luminescence; 3. before a moving part of an engine fails, small bits of metal are released into its oil. Combining these three facts easily leads to the idea that adding luminescent material to oil will allow determining when certain parts of machinery need to be replaced before they fail, because the luminescence in the oil will stop.

下面提供〔关於〕这个的一个非常简单的例子:一、发光材料将紫外线转换成可见光;二、细微的基础/延展金属会抑制发光性;三、在引擎的一个动作部份( moving part )失效前,金属的细小断片会被释放到油之中。结合这三项事实〔可以〕轻易地导出「加入发光材料到油中将可以允许〔我们〕确定〈在失效之前的〉什么时候,机器的特定部份需要被更换」的想法,因为油的发光性将会停止。

Real situations are often much more complex and require a large database of effects, that has to be assembled from technical literature, which is a tedious and work-intensive task.


Skidbladnir was written in Perl, PHP and MySQL and it is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Compared to proprietary projects, Skidbladnir may have comparably few effects, but it already contains software effects; possibly as the first of its kind.

Skidbladnir 是以 Perl 、 PHP 和 MySQL 所写成的,并且在 GNU General Public License (GPL) 下加以发行。与私权的工程相比, Skidbladnir 也许是〔只〕有少量的“作用”,但是它已经有了「软件作用」了;很有可能是它这类〔工程〕中的首例。

Help is very welcome in any form; especially developers and users who give feedback are needed. Also more data about effects and access to real-life problems would be appreciated.


In the mid- to long-term, Lars is convinced that Free Software will be extaordinarily succesful in this area, as both TIPS and Free Software are based upon the idea of preserving knowledge and making it accessible.

就中长期来看, Lars 深信自由软件将会在这个领域取得很大的成功,因为「 TIPS 」和「自由软件」两者都是「奠基於於保存知识并且使它可以〔广泛〕取得」的概念的。

Making these insights and methods available to all people seems like a very important project not much unlike an encyclopedia, worthy of support.

「让这些洞察力( insights )以及方法( methods )〔得以〕为所有人取得」看起来似乎是个非常重要的工程〈有点像是百科全书〉,〔相当〕值得支持。

As a side-effect it also reduces the market-entry barrier in this area, since many potential users cannot afford using the proprietary solutions, so it could help revitalizing the technical area.

随之而来的是【 side-effect 一般译为「副作用」,但此处并无不良的意涵,故采用其它译法】:它也降低了这个领域的市场进入门槛( market-entry barrier ),因为许多潜在的使用者支付不起使用私权的解决方案,所以它可能可以帮忙再次地使这一个技术领域充满活力。

Anyone interested and people from this area are encouraged to take a look. More information about the background are also available on the web. [7]

〔非常〕鼓励任何有兴趣以及来自於这个领域的人看一看〔这工程〕。关於这个背景的更多信息也可以在网上取得。 [7]

Lush (一个高速、完整的集成式科学应用程序语言)

The second project of this issue is also more scientifically oriented, albeit not limited to it. Lush [8] is an object-oriented programming language intended mainly for scientists, experimentors and engineers in need of larger numerical and graphical applications.

本期的第二个工程也是比较科学导向的,但并不仅限於此。 Lush [8] 是一个物件导向( object-oriented )的程序设计语言,主要针对的对象是需要较大的数值以及图形应用的科学家、实验人员以及工程师。

The design of Lush seeks to combine the strengths of three different approaches of programming languages into one. In fact Lush is turning three programming languages into one. The first is an interpreted, dynamic LISP-like language with automatic garbage collection and weak typing. The second language is a compiled, lexical language using the same syntax, but strong typing. And the third language is C, which can be mixed with the Lush syntax within a program or even a single function.

Lush 的设计〔理念〕是将三种不同〔类型〕的程序语言的强处结合为一。事实上, Lush 〔的作法〕是将三种程序语言转化为一个。〔其中〕第一个是解释型的( interpreted )动态「类 LISP 」语言,具有自动垃圾回收( garbage collection )〔机制〕以及弱〔资料〕型别( weak typing );第二个是一个编译型的( compiled )字汇( lexical )语言,使用的是相同的语法,不过是强〔资料〕型别( strong typing );第三个则是 C 语言,它可以在程序内部,或甚至单一个函数内,与 Lush 混合〔著使用〕。

Lush was developed since 1987; originally under the name "SN" as a script language for simulation of neural networks and has — over time — developed into a complete programming language with compiler. Main actors in this development were Bell Labs (later "AT&T Labs"), in Holmdel, NJ, USA, Neuristique S.A. in Paris, France and NEC Labs in Princeton, NJ, USA.

Lush 自一九八七年开始开发;刚开始时是名称为“SN”的一种脚本语言( script language )并且随著时间的推演,成了一个具有编译器( compiler )的完整的程序设计语言。主要的开发参与者有在美国纽约州 Holmdel 的 Bell 实验室( Bell Labs )(稍后则是“AT&T 实验室”)、法国巴黎的 Neuristique S.A. 以及美国纽泽西州普林斯顿的 NEC 实验室。

After Lush/SN has been used for years within AT&T for their internal research and development projects, the parties involved eventually agreed upon the GNU General Public License (GPL) and relicensed Lush as Free Software.

Lush/SN 经过几年时间在 AT&T 里面作为内部研究以及开发工程的使用之后,有关的团体最终决定在 GNU General Public License (GPL) 下将 Lush 发行为自由软件。

Today the project is maintained by Yann LeCun — who answered the questions of the Brave GNU World — and Leon Bottou of the "NEC Labs America" in Princeton, who receive support by a large number of volunteers from all over the world, for e.g. Fu Jie Hang, Patrice Simard, Patrick Haffner, Yoshua Bengio, Pascal Vincent, Jean Bourrelly, Xavier Drancourt or Secil Ugurel, to name some. More volunteers are always welcome.

工程现在是由回答《勇敢 GNU 世界》问题的 Yann LeCun 以及 Leon Bottou 所维护,两人都是来自位於普林斯顿的美国 NEC 实验室“NEC Labs America”,并且收到了来自世界各地的很大数量的志愿者的支持,例如在此列出的一部份人名: Fu Jie Hang 、 Patrice Simard 、 Patrick Haffner 、 Yoshua Bengio 、 Pascal Vincent 、 Jean Bourrelly 、 Xavier Drancourt 和 Secil Ugurel 。并且总是十分欢迎更多的志愿者加入。

Although primarily developed as a Free Software Matlab-replacement for scientists, researchers and students, Lush offers a complete all-purpose language. Thanks to the easy integration with C, Lush is a good choice for scripting or integration in order to assemble distributed functionality in a comfortable GUI application.

虽然主要是作为针对科学家、研究人员以及学生的 Matlab 自由软件替代品而开发, Lush 提供了一个完整的全方位( all-purpose )语言。由於 Lush 与 C 语言之间可以简单地加以集成( integration )的特性,因此成了一个〈针对在一个 GUI 应用〔程序中〕,「组合起分散式的功能」( to assemble distributed functionality )而言〉「撰写脚本」或「进行集成」的好选择。

This integration also makes integrating existing libraries quite easy, which is why Lush has bindings to numerous scientific, graphical and audiovisual libraries, like the GNU Scientific Library (GSL; see issue #35 [9]), OpenGL/GLU/GLUT, ALSA, Video4Linux or the Intel Vision Library.

这种集成机制同时也使得「集成现有的程序库」变得异常简单〈这就是为什么 Lush 已经与许多的科学、图形和视听程序库系结( bindings )起来的缘故〉,像是 GNU 科学程序库( GNU Scientific Library , GSL ;请见第三十五期 [9] )、 OpenGL/GLU/GLUT 、 ALSA 、 Video4Linux 以及 Intel Vision 程序库。

When comparing the levels of support for the GSL between Python and Lush, Lush looks pretty good with about 4000 supported functions opposed to the few hundred supported by Python at the moment. The syntax is cleaner than Perl and should be easier to learn than Scheme. And when comparing speed with Octave or Matlab, it is between 15 and 300 times faster, depending on the situation.

当与 Python 比较到对於 GSL 的支持层级时, Lush 看起来还不错:有大约四千个支持的函数,而 Python 此时则是支持了几百个。语法比 Perl 还清晰,应该也比 Scheme 好学。当与 Octave 和 Matlab 比较到速度时,根据不同的状况,它快了十五到三百倍。

These advantages seem to make Lush an interesting choice and definitely worth a glance. Lush has even been used for games already, like a simple moon-lander the screenshot of which can be found on the Lush home page.

这些优点似乎让 Lush 成了一个有趣的选择,绝对值得花点时间看一下。 Lush 甚至也已经使用在游戏〔的开发〕上了,像是可以在 Lush 首页找到的一个简单的月球登陆( moon-lander )的萤幕快照( screenshot )。

Lush was written in C and it traditionally runs on GNU/Linux, Solaris, Irix and OpenBSD, although since February 2003 a Cygwin Windows port is available.

Lush 是以 C 语言撰写,传统上是在 GNU/Linux 、 Solaris 、 Irix 和 OpenBSD 上运行。不过自二○○三年二月开始,一个 Cygwin Windows 的移殖版( port )已经可以取得了。

One of the problems of the project is that the compiler design is more than 10 years old and therefore has some strange and rigid limitations. Rewriting the compiler is therefore on the ToDo list.

这工程的一个问题是:编译器的设计已经超过十年了,因此有一些奇怪而难以逾越的限制( rigid limitations )。因此重写编译器就成了应做列表( ToDo list )的一个项目了。

Also on the list are adding support for more libraries, as well as improving the documentation system. Adding a template mechanism to Lush is also planned in for the mid-term.

在列表中的还有「增加更多程序库的支持」以及「改进文档系统( documentation system )」。增加一个范本机制( template mechanism )到 Lush 中也已经排定为中程目标了。

Additionally, there is a lot of interest in a Mac OS-X port, for which volunteers are sought. An automated parser for C/C++ header files for automagical inclusion in Lush would also be a quite useful project.

另外, Mac OS X 移殖版引起了极大的兴趣,因此在找这方面的志愿者。〔完成〕一个 C/C++ 标头档( header files )的自动剖析器( parser ),以使〔我们〕可以在 Lush 中做到自动内含( automatical inclusion )也会是个非常有用的工程。

Should you live in the United States, you run a good chance of already haven gotten in indirect contact with Lush. Some ATMs by NCR use Lush-generated code on embedded DSP processors to automatically read the amounts on deposited checks. And a high-speed check reading engine written in Lush ready about 10% of all checks deposited in the USA.

如果您住在美国,那么您就已经有了一个好机会与 Lush 有著非正式的接触。一些 NCR 的自动柜员机( ATMs )在其内嵌的( embedded ) DSP 处理器使用由 Lush 制作的代码,以自动地读取存款支票中的金额。还有一个高速的支票读取引擎( check reading engine )读取存在美国的所有支票中的大约百分之十。

jMax (专业音效应用程序)

As regular readers of the Brave GNU World should know, the Free Software Foundation Europe is partner in the AGNULA project, [10] which aims at putting together an entirely Free Software GNU/Linux distribution for professional audio users.

《勇敢 GNU 世界》的老读者应该知道欧洲自由软件基金会是 AGNULA 工程的〔合作〕伙伴 [10] ,这工程的目标在:为专业音响/音效( audio )使用者建构起一个完完全全自由软件的 GNU/Linux 散布件。

Another partner of the AGNULA project is the "Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique" (IRCAM) — the center of music of the Centre Pompidou in Paris, France. One of the applications written by IRCAM is jMax, [11] a graphical development environment for interactive multimedia applications.

AGNULA 工程的另一个伙伴是“Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique”( IRCAM ) -- 在法国巴黎的 Centre Pompidou 音乐中心。由 IRCAM 所撰写的其中一个应用〔程序〕是 jMax [11] ,那是一个针对互动式多媒体应用程序的图形化开发环境。

Audio applications traditionally had the problem that they were often written for specific hardware and therefore very platform dependent. Because of the rapid development in hardware, programs had to be rewritten every three years for a new platform, otherwise the music written for these programs was in danger of getting lost.

音效应用程序传统上所面临的问题是:它们通常是为了特定的硬件而撰写的,因此具有很高的平台相依性( platform dependent )。由於硬件的快速发展,程序〔因此〕必须每三年〔就〕为了一个新平台而重写,否则在这些程序上所写的音乐会有消失的危险。

This motivated the development of a pure software solution that would not be dependant on a specific platform.


The paradigm employed also in jMax allows creating combining certain basic elements like frequency generators, signal filters, effects, input- and output-modules, sliders, DSPs, amplifiers with each other and assembling them to so-called "patches."

这在 jMax 中也同样采用的典型( paradigm )允许了创造出互相组合有某些基本元件〈像是:频率产生器( frequency generators )、信号过滤器( signal filters )、效果( effects )、输出入模组、滑动杆( sliders )、 DSPs 以及增幅器( amplifiers )〉并且将它们组装成所谓的“增补件”( patches )。

这些增补件集成了它们〔内部〕的组成〔元件〕,并且可以〔互相〕组合成没有上限的复杂构造( constructs ),这使得它一般而言,能够实现出任何类型或型式的数位信号处理( digital signal processing )、效果或〔音效〕合成器( synthesizer )。

One implementation of this paradigm that is rather well-known among musicians is the proprietary "Max." In 1995 jMax started out with the intention of creating a platform independent version of Max. In mid-1999 it was then released as Free Software under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

采用这个典型的一个在音乐家之中较为有名的实现品是私权的“Max”。在一九九五年, jMax 以创造出一个 Max 的平台独立版本为目标开始了,并且於一九九九年中,在 GNU General Public License (GPL) 下发行为自由软件。

The IRCAM jMax team working on the project consists mainly of François Déchelle and Patrice Tisserand. François, who also filled out the Brave GNU World standard questions, sees the main advantages of jMax mainly in its platform independence — it runs on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X and Windows — and the higher flexibility when compared with other implementations of the paradigm, such as Max or PD.

致力於这工程的 IRCAM jMax 小组主要包括有 François Déchelle 和 Patrice Tisserand 。填来了《勇敢 GNU 世界》标准问题的 François 认为 jMax 的主要优势在於它的平台独立性〈它可以在 GNU/Linux 、 Mac OS X 和 Windows 上运行〉,以及与使用相同典型的实现品〈如: Max 或 PD 〉相比时较高的弹性( flexibility )。

One of the key advantages is also that jMax consists of two components. The central component is a server, a real-time engine written in C, which does all the work. This allows running the engine with GUI, writing alternative GUIs or integrating the engine into a plugin environment (LADSPA).

另一个关键的优势是 jMax 包括了两个组成元件。中心元件是一个做了全部工作的服务器〈是个以 C 语言写成的实时引擎( real-time engine )〉。这允许了以 GUI 来运行这引擎、撰写可替代的 GUIs 或是集成这引擎到一个 plugin (插接)的环境( LADSPA )。

Normally, this server is controlled via a client written in Java. Java was chosen to make sure that the client would run on as many platforms as possible with the minimum amount of problems. Unfortunately the situation of Java is not unproblematic wrt to Free Software.

- is not unproblematic wrt to Free Software.
+ is not unproblematic ??? to Free Software.

正常来说,这个服务器是经由以 Java 撰写的客户端( client )所控制的。选择 Java 〔的原因〕是〔为了〕确定客户端可以在最少问题的状况下,在尽可能多的平台上运行。不幸的是 Java 的情况对其〔作为〕自由软件〔的性质〕而言并不是毫无问题的。

Java 相关性(自由软件使用 Java 的问题)

The problem of Java is not its technical specifications or implementation; although some people have different opinions about them, they are not the cause of the problem for Free Software.

Java 的问题不是它的技术规格( technical specifications )或实现;虽然一些人对它们有不同的意见,但它们并不是对自由软件造成问题的原因。

Cause of the problems is how Java itself is developed and distributed, since there are essentially only two wide-spread implementations, both of which are proprietary: one is maintained by Sun, the other by IBM. Although these may be distributed without licensing cost, they do not offer the freedoms necessary to make them Free Software.

问题的产生是在於 Java 它本身是如何开发并且散布的,因为实际上只有两种广泛传播的实现品,而这两者都是私权的:一个是由 Sun 维护,另一个则是 IBM 。虽然都可以在不用授权费用( licensing cost )的情况下散布,但是它们并没有提供必需的自由以使得它们成为自由软件。

In consequence every application running on these platforms — even software that is under a Free Software license — is putting the freedom of the user at risk. A situation not unlike Free Software running on Windows.

结果造成每个在这些平台上运行的应用〔程序〕〈即使是在自由软件许可证下发行的〉将它们的自由置於危险的境地。这情况和在 Windows 上运行自由软件并无不同。

There are some approaches and initiatives, to implement Java entirely in Free Software (see "GNU and the Java language" [12]). But since the dominant reference implementations are proprietary, the free projects always need to reimplement what their current version has come out with.

有一些〔解决〕途径和创始〔工程〕要将 Java 完全实现为自由软件(参见“GNU and the Java language” [12] )。但是由於占有主导地位的参考实现品是私权的,自由的工程总是需要随著它们版本的发行而重新实现。

Not every developer likes participating in such a biased race that cannot be won. Free Software is put at a disadvantage and therefore offers a smaller degree of functionality.


When developers of Java applications make use of the more advanced features of proprietary Java implementations, these can usually not be run on Free Software Java implementations anymore and in consequence are dependent on the proprietary platforms. A situation not at all unlike Free Software only running on Windows that cannot be used on any Free Software operating system.

当 Java 应用〔程序〕的开发者利用了私权 Java 实现品较为进阶的特徵功能时,这些〔程序〕通常就从此不能再在自由软件的实现品上运行了,结果就是:〔它们变得〕与私权的平台相依了。这情况就如同自由软件只能在 Windows 上运行,但却不能在任何自由软件操作系统上使用一样。

This is precisely the problem of the jMax client. And since adding proprietary software into AGNULA is out of question for all partners, AGNULA may not be capable of including jMax with a fully functional GUI.

这正是 jMax 客户端的问题〔所在〕。同时由於加入私权软件对所有的伙伴来说都是不予考虑的问题,〔因此〕 AGNULA 可能没有办法具有完整功能 GUI 地包括 jMax 。

pyMax (以 Python 实现客户端)

After all the alternatives did not seem very promising to resolve the problem in time — more information is available on the FSF Europe home page [13] — it was now decided to do with Java entirely and reimplement the client in Python.

- home page [13] — it was now decided to do with Java entirely and
+ home page [13] — it was now decided to do nothing with Java entirely and

在所有的实现品看起来似乎都不是很有在时程内解决问题的希望后〈可以在 FSF 欧洲取得更多信息 [13] 〉,现在决定了要完全地与 Java 脱离关系,并且重新以 Python 实现客户端。

The choice for Python was influenced by its platform independence, which is comparable to Java, and the fact that it allows rapid development while (naturally) being entirely Free Software.

选择 Python 是由於它的平台独立性〈足以和 Java 匹敌〉,以及它允许快速开发的事实,同时(天生)就是完全的自由软件。

It is not clear whether IRCAM will be capable of finishing that client in time, though. Therefore they are looking for volunteers that can help them writing the Python-client for jMax.

然而,并不清楚 IRCAM 是否将能够即时地完成那个客户端。因此他们正在寻找可以帮助他们为 jMax 撰写 Python-客户端 的自愿者。

According to François, IRCAM cannot make large promises, but they offer to provide priority support to people working on the Python client and guarantee a response time of 24hrs during working days. So if you are interested in this, you could take a look at the jMax developers mailing list. [14]

根据 François , IRCAM 无法作出大的承诺,但是他们对致力於 Python-客户端 的人提供优先的支持,并且保证在工作天期间内可以有二十四小时以内的回覆时间。如果您对此有兴趣,可以看一下 jMax 开发者的邮寄清单。 [14]


That's enough Brave GNU World for this month. Should you come across an interesting project, please let me know. Often it was the readers of the column that have discovered the jems — the Lush feature for instance was triggered by a tip by Stefan Kamphausen, the author of the Brave GNU World logo.

这个月的《勇敢 GNU 世界》已经足够了。如果您遇见了一个有趣的工程,请〔通知〕让我知道。经常是这个专栏的读者发现了这样的工程( jems ) -- 举例来说: Lush 这一篇报道是由 Stefan Kamphausen 这另一位《勇敢 GNU 世界》标识( logo )〔的作者〕所提出的建议而起了头的。

As usual, I of course also ask for general comments, questions, ideas and comments to the usual address. [1]

一如往常,我当然也请求〔大家〕以邮件送来一般的意见、问题、想法和意见到通常的〔电子邮件〕地址。 [1]

[1] 请将想法、意见和问题送到 《勇敢 GNU 世界》 <>
[2] GNU 工程的首页
[3] 乔格的《勇敢 GNU 世界》首页
[4] 「 GNU 艺廊」原创
[5] 《勇敢 GNU 世界》 - 〈第四十八期〉
[6] Skidbladnir 首页
[7] TRIZ 在线(德文)
[8] Lush 首页
[9] 《勇敢 GNU 世界》 - 〈第三十五期〉
[10] AGNULA 首页
[11] jMax 首页
[12] GNU and Java 首页
[13] AGNULA Java 议题
[14] jMax 开发者邮寄清单

[ 上一期 | 《勇敢 GNU 世界》首页 ]

返回 GNU 首页

请将有关 自由软件基金会 与 GNU 的 查询 与 问题 送到
您也可以使用 其它方法联系 自由软件基金会。

请将有关乔格的《勇敢 GNU 世界》专栏的意见(以英文或德文)送到

Copyright (C) 2003 Georg C. F. Greve
中文翻译:刘 昭宏

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this transcript as long as the copyright and this permission notice appear.


Last modified: Fri May 2 11:51:34 CEST 2003