English [en]

BREAKING: Knocking Down The HACIENDA

GNU hackers opened the GHM by revealing the offensive HACIENDA global surveillance program for TWD, and how to knock it down with stealth TCP services! Watch it now! [more]

GNU's Bulletin, vol. 1 no. 24, March, 1998

Table of Contents


GNU's Who

New to GNU are Free Software Foundation officers Geoffrey Knauth, who serves as Treasurer, and Timothy Ney, who serves as Clerk and manages the FSF Distribution Office.

Our new technical writer, Michael Stutz, is about to begin writing A GNU/Linux Cookbook, which will explain to non-programmers how to use a GNU/Linux System for non-programming activities.

Those who have moved on are Jim Blandy (who still maintains GUILE), Miles Bader, Thomas Bushnell n/BSG (still working on the GNU HURD), and Melissa Weisshaus. We wish them the best of luck in their new endeavors.

Karl Heuer enhances Emacs and works on an accounting package. He also produces Deluxe Distributions with Ian Murdock, Noel Cragg, Alia Atlas, and others. Brian Youmans is our Distribution Manager and handles online inquiries. Paul Wendt handles the phones and much of the administrative work in the office. We thank them for their hard work.

Prof. Masayuki Ida is our Vice President for Japan. He organizes Japanese events and works with GNU's friends in Japan.

Volunteer Joel N. Weber II is system administrator for the GNU machines; Martin Hamilton handles the GNU mailing lists; Franklin R. Jones takes care of the GNU web site; Steve Morningthunder and Alex Bernadin help coordinate all of the many other volunteers in the GNU Project. Richard Stallman continues as a volunteer who does countless tasks including Emacs development.

Administrivia and Copyright

Written & Edited by Thomas Bushnell, n/BSG, Tim Ney, and Paul Wendt.
Illustrations by Etienne Suvasa and Jamal Hannah.
Japanese Edition by Mieko Hikichi and Nobuyuki Hikichi
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): 1075-7813

The GNU's Bulletin is published at least twice a year. Please note, there is no postal mailing list. To get a copy, send your name and address with your request to gnu@gnu.org. Enclosing $0.55 in U.S. postage or a donation of a few dollars is appreciated but not required. If you're outside the USA, enclosing a mailing label and enough International Reply Coupons for a package of about 100 grams is appreciated but not required. (Including a few extra International Reply Coupons for copying costs is also appreciated.)

Copyright (C) 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to anyone to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice.

Other GPL'ed Software

We maintain a list of copylefted software that we do not presently distribute. FTP the file `/pub/gnu/GPLedSoftware' from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software). Please let us know of additional programs we should mention. We don't list Emacs Lisp Libraries; host archive.cis.ohio-state.edu has a list of those you can FTP in the file `/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/LCD-datafile.Z'.

What Is the FSF?

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. We do this by promoting the development and use of free software. Specifically, we are putting together a complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix", pronounced "guh-noo") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix. Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or may not pay money to get GNU software, but either way you have three specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a program, and distribute it to your friends and co-workers; second, the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to source code; third, the freedom to distribute a modified version and thus help build the community. Free software means you can study the source and learn how such programs are written; it means you can port it or improve it, and then share your work with others.

If you redistribute GNU software, you may charge a distribution fee or you may give it away, so long as you include the source code and the GNU General Public License; see section What Is Copyleft?, for details.

Other organizations distribute whatever free software happens to be available. By contrast, the Free Software Foundation concentrates on the development of new free software, working towards a GNU system complete enough to eliminate the need to use a proprietary system.

Besides developing GNU, the FSF distributes GNU software and manuals for a distribution fee, and accepts gifts (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to support GNU development. Most of the FSF's funds come from its distribution service.

The Board of the Foundation is: Richard M. Stallman, President;
Gerald J. Sussman and Geoffrey Knauth, Directors.

What Is Copyleft?

The simplest way to make a program free is to put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. But this permits proprietary modified versions, which deny others the freedom to redistribute and modify; such versions undermine the goal of giving freedom to all users. To prevent this, copyleft uses copyrights in a novel manner. Typically, copyrights take away freedoms; copyleft preserves them. It is a legal instrument that requires those who pass on a program to include the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the code; the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable.

The copyleft used by the GNU Project is made from the combination of a regular copyright notice and the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL is a copying license which basically says that you have the aforementioned freedoms. An alternate form, the GNU Library General Public License (LGPL), applies to a few (but not most) GNU libraries. This license permits linking the libraries into proprietary executables under certain conditions. The appropriate license is included in each GNU source code distribution and in many manuals. Printed copies are available upon request.

We strongly encourage you to copyleft your programs and documentation, and we have made it as simple as possible for you to do so. The details on how to apply either form of GNU Public License appear at the end of each license.

What Is Linux?

Linux (named after its main author, Linus Torvalds) is a GPL'ed kernel that implements POSIX.1 functionality with SysV & BSD extensions. GNU/Linux systems are now available for Alpha & 386/486/Pentium/Pentium Pro An m68k port is in testing (it runs on high end Amiga & Atari computers). MIPS, PowerPC & Sparc ports are being worked on. FTP it from ftp.kernel.org in `/pub/linux' (USA) & from ftp.funet.fi in `/pub/Linux' (Europe).

Ask majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu about mailing lists. See USENET newsgroups such as comp.os.linux.misc for news.

What Is a GNU/Linux System?

by Richard M. Stallman

Many computer users run a modified version of the GNU system every day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which is widely used today is more often known as "Linux", and many users are not aware of the extent of its connection with the GNU Project.

There really is a Linux; it is a kernel, and these people are using it. But you can't use a kernel by itself; a kernel is useful only as part of a whole system. The system in which Linux is typically used is a modified variant of the GNU system--in other words, a Linux-based GNU system.

Many users are not fully aware of the distinction between the kernel, which is Linux, and the whole system, which they also call "Linux". The ambiguous use of the name doesn't promote understanding.

Programmers generally know that Linux is a kernel. But since they have generally heard the whole system called "Linux" as well, they often envisage a history which fits that name. For example, many believe that once Linus Torvalds finished writing the kernel, his friends looked around for other free software, and for no particular reason most everything necessary to make a Unix-like system was already available.

What they found was no accident--it was the GNU system. The available free software added up to a complete system because the GNU Project had been working since 1984 to make one. The GNU Project set forth the goal of developing a free Unix-like system, called GNU. By the time Linux was written, the system was almost finished.

Most free software projects have the goal of developing a particular program for a particular job. For example, Linus Torvalds set out to write a Unix-like kernel (Linux); Donald Knuth set out to write a text formatter (TeX); Bob Scheifler set out to develop a window system (X Windows). It's natural to measure the contribution of this kind of project by specific programs that came from the project.

If we tried to measure the GNU Project's contribution in this way, what would we conclude? One CD-ROM vendor found that in their "Linux distribution", GNU software was the largest single contingent, around 28% of the total source code, and this included some of the essential major components without which there could be no system. Linux itself was about 3%. So if you were going to pick a name for the system based on who wrote the programs in the system, the most appropriate single choice would be "GNU".

But we don't think that is the right way to consider the question. The GNU Project was not, is not, a project to develop specific software packages. It was not a project to develop a C compiler, although we did. It was not a project to develop a text editor, although we developed one. The GNU Project's aim was to develop a complete free Unix-like system.

Many people have made major contributions to the free software in the system, and they all deserve credit. But the reason it is a system---and not just a collection of useful programs--is because the GNU Project set out to make it one. We wrote the programs that were needed to make a complete free system. We wrote essential but unexciting major components, such as the assembler and linker, because you can't have a system without them. A complete system needs more than just programming tools, so we wrote other components as well, such as the Bourne Again SHell, the PostScript interpreter Ghostscript, and the GNU C library,

By the early 90s we had put together the whole system aside from the kernel (and we were also working on a kernel, the GNU Hurd, which runs on top of Mach). Developing this kernel has been a lot harder than we expected, and we are still working on finishing it.

Fortunately, you don't have to wait for it, because Linux is working now. When Linus Torvalds wrote Linux, he filled the last major gap. People could then put Linux together with the GNU system to make a complete free system: a Linux-based GNU system (or GNU/Linux system, for short).

Putting them together sounds simple, but it was not a trivial job. The GNU C library (called glibc for short) needed substantial changes. Integrating a complete system as a distribution that would work "out of the box" was a big job, too. It required addressing the issue of how to install and boot the system--a problem we had not tackled, because we hadn't yet reached that point. The people who developed the various system distributions made a substantial contribution.

Aside from GNU, one other project has independently produced a free Unix-like operating system. This system is known as BSD, and it was developed at UC Berkeley. The BSD developers were inspired by the example of the GNU Project, and occasionally encouraged by GNU activists, but their actual work had little overlap with GNU. BSD systems today use some GNU software, just as the GNU system and its variants use some BSD software; but taken as wholes, they are two different systems which evolved separately. A free operating system that exists today is almost certainly either a variant of the GNU system, or a kind of BSD system.

The GNU Project supports GNU/Linux systems as well as the GNU system--even with funds. We funded the rewriting of the Linux-related extensions to the GNU C library, so that now they are well integrated, and the newest GNU/Linux systems use the current library release with no changes. We also funded an early stage of the development of Debian GNU/Linux.

We use Linux-based GNU systems today for most of our work, and we hope you use them too. But please don't confuse the public by using the name "Linux" ambiguously. Linux is the kernel, one of the essential major components of the system. The system as a whole is more or less the GNU system. Please use the term "Linux-based GNU system" or "GNU/Linux" when you talk about the system which is a combination of Linux and GNU.

What Is the Hurd?

The Hurd is a collection of server processes that run on top of Mach, a free message-passing microkernel developed at CMU. The Hurd and Mach together form the kernel of the GNU/Hurd operating system. The GNU C Library implements the Unix "system call" interface by sending messages to Hurd servers as appropriate.

The Hurd allows users to create and share useful projects without knowing much about the internal workings of the system--projects that might never have been attempted without freely available source, a well-designed interface, and a multiple server design. The Hurd is thus like other expandable GNU software, e.g. Emacs and GUILE.

Currently, there are free ports of the Mach kernel to the 386 PC, the DEC PMAX workstation, and several other machines, with more in progress, including the Amiga, PA-RISC HP 700, & DEC Alpha-3000. Contact us if you want to help with one of these or start your own. Porting the GNU Hurd & GNU C Library is easy (easier than porting GNU Emacs, certainly easier than porting the compiler) once a Mach port to a particular platform exists.

We have made several test releases of the Hurd.

We need help with significant Hurd-related projects. Experienced system programmers who are interested should send mail to gnu@gnu.org. Porting the Mach kernel or the GNU C Library to new systems is another way to help.

You can obtain test releases of the Hurd from a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software) along with complete binaries for an i386 GNU/Hurd system. We will not be distributing these on CD-ROM until they are more stable.

Become a Patron of the FSF

The Free Software Foundation wants to acknowledge its supporters and contributors in a more visible fashion. You can now become an "official" supporter of the FSF. See section Thank GNUs, for the names of people and organizations who have done so.

The Free Software Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization; all contributions are tax deductible in the US.

Free Software Redistributors Donate

The FSF receives many donations generated by the redistribution of software or the sale of paper publications. For the users' sake, it is best when redistributors and publishers who donate to the FSF make clear and precise statements of the amount of donation on their packaging and book covers.

For example, IKARIOS of France donates 5 FF from sale of each LINDIS, SuSE, or Red Hat CD set. Their packaging specifies "5 FF to the Free Software Foundation for the GNU Project". And Kyoto Micro Computer of Japan regularly donates 10% of its GNU-related revenues.

Red Hat Software donates $1.00 for every copy of the Power Tools CD set.

The Sun Users' Group -- Deutschland is exceptionally clear: their CD says, "Price 90 DM, + 12 DM donation to the FSF." We thank all of these free software redistributors for contributing to the GNU Project in a clear way.

By arrangement with author Arnold Robbins, Specialized Systems Consultants donates 3% of revenues from Effective AWK Programming and the associated AWK Reference Card. Many authors of articles in SSC's Linux Journal designate us to receive their fees.

In the long run, the success of free software depends on how much new free software people develop. Distribution of free software or its documentation offers an opportunity to raise funds for such development in an ethical way. The redistributors and authors listed above make use of the opportunity, but many others let it go to waste.

You can help promote free software development by convincing for-a-fee redistributors to contribute--either by doing development themselves or by donating to development organizations (the FSF and others).

The way to convince distributors to contribute is to demand and expect this of them. This means choosing among distributors partly by how much they give to free software development. Then you can show distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

To make this work, you must insist on numbers that you can compare, such as, "We will give ten dollars to the Foobar project for each disk sold." A vague commitment, such as "A portion of the profits is donated," doesn't give you a basis for comparison. Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.

Also, press developers for firm information about what kind of development they do or support. Some kinds make much more long-term difference than others. For example, maintaining a separate version of a GNU program contributes very little; maintaining a program on behalf of the GNU Project contributes much. Easy new ports contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU compiler or to Mach contribute more; major new features and programs contribute the most.

By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the proper thing to do" when distributing free software or its documentation for a fee, we can assure a steady flow of resources for making more free software.

Help from Free Software Companies

When choosing a free software business, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partly on this factor, you can help encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

Wingnut (SRA's special GNU support group) supports the FSF by purchasing Deluxe Distribution packages on a regular basis. In this way they transfer 10% of their income to the FSF. Listing them here is our way of thanking them.

   Wingnut Project
   Software Research Associates, Inc.
   1-1-1 Hirakawa-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 102, Japan

   Phone:  +81-3-3234-2611
   Fax:    +81-3-3942-5174
   Email: info-wingnut@sra.co.jp
   Web: `http://www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/product/wingnut/'

European Distributor

The Free Software Foundation has a European distribution agent, "GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium," which accepts orders from Turkey and points Northwest (that's `Europe').

For many orders, especially smaller ones, the European distributor will provide faster delivery and/or lower cost. For all orders, GNU Europe accepts payment by European check or cash. Consult:

   GNU Distribution Europe, Belgium
   Sportstraat 28
   9000 Gent
   Belgium

   Phone: +32-9-2227542
   Fax:   +32-9-2224976
   Email: europe-order@gnu.org.
   Web: http://www.gnu.org/order/order-europe.html.

GNU/Linux Helps Bring Titanic To Life

In an article originally published in Linux Journal (issue 46), Daryll Strauss, a software engineer at Digital Domain, describes the use of GNU/Linux in generating visual effects for the film Titanic.

Using 200 DEC Alpha-based systems running the Red Hat 4.1 distribution of GNU/Linux, after upgrading the kernel to support the PC164 mainboard, Digital Domain found a performance increase of three to four over SGI systems. The combination of the GNU/Linux OS and Alpha CPUs also delivered the most cost-effective solution to time and processing demands.

Daryll Strauss writes that feature film and television visual effects development has provided a high performance, cost-sensitive, proving ground for GNU/Linux. He concludes that the low entry cost, versatility and interoperability of GNU/Linux is sufficiently attractive to warrant more extensive investigation, experimentation, and deployment.

GNU in Space

The European Space Agency says the Free Software Foundation's GNU C Compiler is essential to the on-board microprocessors it uses in space.

ESA computer procurement depends on the availability of appropriate tools to satisfy the specific needs of spacecraft software. The use of GCC (the GNU C Compiler) and GNAT (the GNU New York University Ada Translator) is being promoted by ESA as a way of obtaining low-cost compilation systems, especially for the MIL-STD-1750 and SPARC V7 architectures.

GCC and GNAT, an Ada-95 front-end for GCC, have a number of advantages that matter to the ESA:

The ESA found these GNU programs so useful that they gave a contract to Chris Nettleton Software, a free software company in Farnborough, UK `http://www.ccfn.demon.co.uk', to make modifications on GCC and GNU Ada. Nettleton developed GCC-1750 for the MIL-STD-1750 computer used in spacecraft. The compilation systems will be accompanied by a set of high-level tools and libraries to facilitate the development of software applications for space.

GNUs Flashes

Help the Translation Project

GNU is going international! The Translation Project gets users, translators, & maintainers together, so free software will gradually get to speak many native languages. As of December 1997, we have internationalized 27 packages into 17 languages, using 175 translation files; the translation teams have 474 subscribed members.

To complete this Translation Project, we need many people who like their own language and write it well, and who are also able to synergize with other translators speaking the same language as part of "translation teams".

If you want to start a new team, or want more information on existing teams or other aspects of this project, write to translation@iro.umontreal.ca. See section GNU Software, for information about gettext, the tool the Translation Project uses to help translators and programmers.

GNU & Other Free Software in Japan

Mieko (h-mieko@sra.co.jp) and Nobuyuki Hikichi (hikichi@sra.co.jp) continue to volunteer for the GNU Project in Japan. They translate each issue of this Bulletin into Japanese and distribute it widely, along with the translation of Version 2 of the GNU General Public License. This translation of the GPL is authorized by the FSF and is available by anonymous FTP from ftp.sra.co.jp in `/pub/gnu/local-fix/GPL2-j'. They also solicit donations and offer GNU software consulting.

The Hurd JP project is now developing the Hurd in Japan. This project plans to arrange documents and packages for the GNU system, in addition to porting software to the Hurd. For more details, write to okuji@mbox.kyoto-inet.or.jp; English is ok.

The Japanese mailing list to discuss GPL'ed software and hardware is no longer active. Ask ishiz@muraoka.info.waseda.ac.jp if you have any questions about it.

MULE (the MULtilingual Enhancement of GNU Emacs) can handle many character sets at once. See section GNU Software for some details. It is widely used in Japan and its features have been merged into the principal version of Emacs beginning with release 20. MULE is also available on the section March 1998 Source Code CD-ROMs, and by FTP from sh.wide.ad.jp in `/JAPAN/mule' or etlport.etl.go.jp in `/pub/mule'.

The Village Center prints a Japanese translation (ISBN 4-938704-02-1) of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual and puts the Texinfo source on various bulletin boards. They also print each issue of the Japanese GNU's Bulletin and publish Nobuyuki & Mieko's Think GNU (ISBN 4-938704-10-2), perhaps the first non-FSF copylefted publication in Japan. Their address is:

   Village Center, Inc.
   3-2 Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku
   Tokyo 101, Japan

   Phone: +81-3-3221-3520
   Web:  `http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/'
   Web:  `http://www.villagecenter.co.jp/gnu.html' for info
   about GNU books handled by the Village Center

Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd. has printed Japanese translations of the GNU Make Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9627-X), the Gawk Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9672-8), the Texinfo Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9684-7), and the GNU Emacs Manual 19.34 (ISBN 4-7952-9684-7), & will print the Japanese Bison Manual (ISBN 4-7952-9628-6) this January. Their address is:

   Addison-Wesley Publishers Japan Ltd.
   Gyokuroen Bldg.
   1-13-19 Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku
   Tokyo 112-0014, Japan

   Telephone: +81-3-3291-4581

Many groups in Japan now distribute GNU software, including ASCII, a periodical and book publisher.

It is easy to place an order directly with the FSF from Japan. Order at fsforder@gnu.org, where you can also get the FSF Order Form written in Japanese. We encourage you to buy our software CDs: for example, 150 CD-ROM orders at the corporate rate allow the FSF to hire a programmer for one year to write more free software.

The Research Institute for Advanced Information Technology (AITEC) releases ICOT Free Software (IFS) and other IFS related software to the public. IFS, which pertains to the fields of parallel processing & knowledge processing, was developed at ICOT in the Fifth Generation Computer Project & its Follow-on Project.

Besides IFS, AITEC recently released as free software many software systems developed by numerous research groups through AITEC's research funding program. Through their Web pages, AITEC releases 20 major IFS programs, 80 other IFS programs, and 22 programs developed through AITEC's FY 1996 research funding program. AITEC will soon release new software systems developed in FY 1997.

By the end of November 1997, more than 10,000 people had accessed AITEC's site (originally ICOT's) and more than 41,000 IFS files had been transferred since their first release in 1992.

For more information, please see URL `http://www.icot.or.jp/'.

The ImageSearcher is an object-oriented program to search images by specifying properties of the image itself, without relying on the name or attributes of the file. It searches focusing on typical color, average luminance, nine colors, image extent, center spectra, etc. It runs on VisualWorks 2.5.1 (Smalltalk). As a result of the "eMMa Project" sponsored by IPA and SRA (written by Atsushi Aoki), the source code and documentation are distributed under the GPL as free software, and are available via FTP from host ftp.sra.co.jp in the directory `/pub/lang/smalltalk/ipa/VisualWorks2.5/'.

Forthcoming GNUs

Information about the current status of released GNU programs can be found in section GNU Software. Here is some news of future plans.

GNU Software in the Year 2000

The Free Software Foundation does not provide warranties for its software. We can't afford to. So we can't promise that GNU software has no Year 2000 bugs, any more than we could promise you the same thing about another sort of bug. But we can tell you some reasons why such bugs are probably very few.

The main reason is theoretical. GNU systems, and Unix-like systems generally, represent date and time as a 32-bit integer, counting seconds from the beginning of 1970. This 32-bit count will overflow in 2038; but there will be no problem in that year, because by then all systems will have redefined time_t to be a 64-bit integer.

We also have some practical evidence that there are few problems. Some users running a Linux-based GNU system, specifically Debian GNU/Linux (see `http://www.debian.org'), used their machines for a while with the clocks set forward to the year 2000. They reported no special problems. Of course, that is not an exhaustive test, but it suggests that there are not enough Year 2000 bugs in GNU software to cause major or lasting difficulties.

If you would like to help us eliminate any Year 2000 bugs, we suggest that for a few days you set the clock on one of your machines ahead a few years. You could also set it to Dec 31, 1999, and see if anything unusual happens as the clock advances to the next century while you are working.

If you do find a problem, please send a bug report about it--then the bug will most likely get fixed in a new release, well before the year 2000 rolls around.

Whether you encounter a problem or not, we would appreciate hearing which programs you tested in this way, and for how long a period of actual working time. Please inform gnu@gnu.org of the results you get.

You can check that you are using the latest release of any particular GNU program by comparing version numbers with one of our FTP mirrors (see section How to Get GNU Software).

Free Software Support

The Free Software Foundation does not provide technical support. Our mission is developing software, because that is the most time-efficient way to increase what free software can do. We leave it to others to earn a living providing support. We see programmers as providing a service, much as doctors and lawyers do now; both medical and legal knowledge are freely redistributable, but their practitioners charge for service.

The GNU Service Directory is a list of people who offer support & other consulting services. See `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/SERVICE' at a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software), `etc/SERVICE' in the Emacs distribution, `SERVICE' in the GCC distribution, or URL `http://www.gnu.org/prep/service.html' on the Web.

Write to gnu@gnu.org to be listed (or to get a copy). Service providers who share their income with the FSF are listed in section Help from Free Software Companies.

If you find a deficiency in any GNU software or GNU documentation, we want to know. We have many Internet mailing lists for bug reports, announcements, and questions; they are also gatewayed into USENET news as our gnu.* newsgroups. For the Directory of GNU Mailing Lists and Newsgroups, see `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/MAILINGLISTS' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software), URL `http://www.gnu.org/prep/mailinglists.html' on the Web, or `etc/MAILINGLISTS' in the Emacs distribution; or write to gnu@gnu.org.

When we receive a bug report, we usually try to fix the problem. While our bug fixes may seem like individual assistance, they are not; they are part of preparing a new improved version that helps all users. We may send you a patch for a bug so that you can help us test the fix and ensure its quality. If your bug report does not evoke a solution from us, you may still get one from another user on our bug report mailing lists. Otherwise, use the Service Directory.

Please do not ask us to help you install software or learn how to use it--but do tell us how an installation script fails or where documentation is unclear.

When choosing a service provider, ask those you are considering how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development or by writing free software improvements themselves for general use. By basing your decision partially on this factor, you can encourage those who profit from free software to contribute to its growth.

GNU Software

All our software is available by FTP; see section How to Get GNU Software. We also offer section CD-ROMs, and printed section GNU Documentation, which includes manuals and reference cards. In those articles, describing the contents of each medium, the version number listed after each program name was current when we published this Bulletin. When you order a newer CD-ROM, some of the programs may be newer and so the the version numbers higher. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, for ordering information.

Some of the contents of our FTP distributions are compressed. We have software on our FTP sites to uncompress these files. Due to patent troubles with compress, we use another compression program, gzip.

You may need to build GNU make before you build our other software. Some vendors supply no make utility at all and some native make programs lack the VPATH feature essential for using the GNU configure system to its full extent. The GNU make sources have a shell script to build make itself on such systems.

We welcome all bug reports and enhancements sent to the appropriate electronic mailing list (see section Free Software Support).

Configuring GNU Software

We are using Autoconf, a uniform scheme for configuring GNU software packages in order to compile them (see "Autoconf" and "Automake" below, in this article). The goal is to have all GNU software support the same alternatives for naming machine and system types.

Ultimately, it will be possible to configure and build the entire system all at once, eliminating the need to configure each individual package separately.

You can also specify both the host and target system to build cross-compilation tools. Most GNU programs now use Autoconf-generated configure scripts.

GNU and Recommended Software Now Available

For future programs and features, see section Forthcoming GNUs.

Key to cross reference:

   BinCD        March 1998 Binaries CD-ROM
   SrcCD        March 1998 Source CD-ROMs

[FSFman] shows that we sell a manual for that package. [FSFrc] shows we sell a reference card for that package. To order them, section Free Software Foundation Order Form. See section GNU Documentation, for more information on the manuals. Source code for each manual or reference card is included with each package.

Program/Package Cross Reference

Here is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in. You can FTP the current list from the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex' on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software).

   * - rc
   * -- rc
   * --p rc
   * -p rc

   * .gitaction GIT

   * 4dview geomview

   * a2p perl
   * a2x xopt
   * ac acct
   * accton acct
   * aclocal Automake
   * acm acm
   * addbbox geomview
   * addftinfo Groff
   * addr2line Binutils
   * aegis aegis
   * afm2tfm TeX
   * afmtodit Groff
   * aid ID Utils
   * AnswerGarden xopt
   * any2ps MULE
   * appres xreq
   * ar Binutils
   * as Binutils
   * authwn WN
   * autoconf Autoconf
   * autoexpect DejaGnu
   * autoheader Autoconf
   * automake Automake
   * autopasswd DejaGnu
   * autoreconf Autoconf
   * autoscan Autoconf
   * autoupdate Autoconf
   * auto_box xopt
   * auto_box xreq
   * awk GAWK

   * b2m Emacs
   * basename Shellutils
   * bash BASH
   * bashbug BASH
   * bbcount Fontutils
   * bc bc
   * bdftops Ghostscript
   * beach_ball xopt
   * beach_ball xreq
   * beach_ball2 xopt
   * bibtex TeX
   * binary-session metahtml
   * bison Bison
   * bitmap xreq
   * bpltobzr Fontutils
   * buildhash Ispell
   * bzrto Fontutils

   * c++ GCC
   * c++filt Binutils
   * c2ph perl
   * ca100 xopt
   * captoinfo ncurses
   * cat Textutils
   * cfd cfengine
   * cfdoc cfengine
   * cfengine cfengine
   * cfrun cfengine
   * charspace Fontutils
   * chgrp Fileutils
   * chmod Fileutils
   * chown Fileutils
   * chroot Shellutils
   * ci RCS
   * cjpeg Ghostscript
   * cksum Textutils
   * clear ncurses
   * clisp CLISP
   * cmail xboard
   * cmmf TeX
   * cmodext xopt
   * cmp Diffutils
   * co RCS
   * coco MULE
   * comm Textutils
   * cook cook
   * cookfp cook
   * cooktime cook
   * cp Fileutils
   * cpicker xopt
   * cpio cpio
   * create-session metahtml
   * crock xopt
   * cryptdir DejaGnu
   * csplit Textutils
   * ctags Emacs
   * ctwm xopt
   * cu UUCP
   * cut Textutils
   * cvs CVS
   * cvsbug CVS
   * cxref cxref
   * cxref-cpp cxref
   * cxref-query cxref
   * cxterm xopt
   * c_incl cook

   * date Shellutils
   * dbcreate metahtml
   * dbdelete metahtml
   * dbdump metahtml
   * dbget metahtml
   * dbpack metahtml
   * dc bc
   * dd Fileutils
   * ddd DDD
   * decryptdir DejaGnu
   * defid ID Utils
   * delatex TeX
   * delete-session metahtml
   * detex TeX
   * df Fileutils
   * diff Diffutils
   * diff3 Diffutils
   * diffpp enscript
   * dir Fileutils
   * dircolors Fileutils
   * dirname Shellutils
   * dish xopt
   * dislocate DejaGnu
   * djpeg Ghostscript
   * dld dld
   * doschk doschk
   * double plotutils
   * dox xopt
   * du Fileutils
   * dump-acct acct
   * dump-utmp acct
   * dvi2tty TeX
   * dvicopy TeX
   * dvips TeX
   * dvitype TeX

   * echo Shellutils
   * ed ed
   * edit-pr GNATS
   * editres xreq
   * egrep grep
   * eid ID Utils
   * emacs Emacs
   * emacsclient Emacs
   * emu xopt
   * engine metahtml
   * enscript enscript
   * env Shellutils
   * eqn Groff
   * es es
   * etags Emacs
   * ex nvi
   * example geomview
   * exicyclog Exim
   * exigrep Exim
   * exim Exim
   * eximon Exim
   * eximon Exim
   * eximstats Exim
   * exinext Exim
   * exiwhat Exim
   * expand Textutils
   * expect DejaGnu
   * expr Shellutils
   * exterm xopt

   * f2c f2c
   * factor Shellutils
   * false Shellutils
   * fax2ps HylaFAX
   * fax2ps tiff
   * fax2tiff tiff
   * faxalter HylaFAX
   * faxanswer HylaFAX
   * faxcover HylaFAX
   * faxd HylaFAX
   * faxd.recv HylaFAX
   * faxmail HylaFAX
   * faxquit HylaFAX
   * faxrcvd HylaFAX
   * faxrm HylaFAX
   * faxstat HylaFAX
   * fc f2c
   * fdraw xopt
   * fgrep grep
   * fid ID Utils
   * find Findutils
   * find2perl perl
   * findaffix Ispell
   * find_libs cook
   * finger Finger
   * flex flex
   * flex++ flex
   * flythrough geomview
   * fmt Textutils
   * fnid ID Utils
   * fold Textutils
   * font2c Ghostscript
   * fontconvert Fontutils
   * forth Tile Forth
   * ftp Inetutils
   * ftp-rfc DejaGnu

   * g++ GCC
   * g77 g77
   * game Chess
   * gasp Binutils
   * gawk GAWK
   * gc-database metahtml
   * gcal gcal
   * gcal2txt gcal
   * gcc GCC
   * gcok guavac
   * gdb GDB
   * genclass libg++
   * geomstuff geomview
   * geqn Groff
   * get-session-var metahtml
   * gettext gettext
   * gettextize gettext
   * gforth gforth
   * gftodvi TeX
   * gftopk TeX
   * gftype TeX
   * ghostview Ghostview
   * gid ID Utils
   * gif2tiff tiff
   * gindxbib Groff
   * ginsu geomview
   * git GIT
   * gitaction GIT
   * gitkeys GIT
   * gitmount GIT
   * gitps GIT
   * gitregrep GIT
   * gitrfgrep GIT
   * gitrgrep GIT
   * gitview GIT
   * gitwipe GIT
   * gitxgrep GIT
   * glookbib Groff
   * gn GN
   * gnans Gnans
   * gnanslator Gnans
   * gneqn Groff
   * gnroff Groff
   * gnuan Chess
   * gnuchess Chess
   * gnuchessc Chess
   * gnuchessn Chess
   * gnuchessr Chess
   * gnuchessx Chess
   * gnuclient gnuserv
   * gnudoit gnuserv
   * gnugo GnuGo
   * gnuplot gnuplot
   * gnuplot_x11 gnuplot
   * gnuserv gnuserv
   * gnushogi Shogi
   * gnushogir Shogi
   * gnushogix Shogi
   * gpc gpc
   * gpc xopt
   * gpc xreq
   * gperf libg++
   * gpic Groff
   * gprof Binutils
   * graffiti geomview
   * graph plotutils
   * graph-fig plotutils
   * graph-ps plotutils
   * graph-tek plotutils
   * graph-X plotutils
   * grefer Groff
   * grep grep
   * grodvi Groff
   * groff Groff
   * grog Groff
   * grolj4 Groff
   * grops Groff
   * grotty Groff
   * groups Shellutils
   * gs Ghostscript
   * gsbj Ghostscript
   * gsdj Ghostscript
   * gsdj500 Ghostscript
   * gslj Ghostscript
   * gslp Ghostscript
   * gsnd Ghostscript
   * gsoelim Groff
   * gsrenderfont Fontutils
   * gst Smalltalk
   * gtbl Groff
   * gtroff Groff
   * guavac guavac
   * guavad guavac
   * guile guile
   * guile-snarf guile
   * gunzip gzip
   * gvclock geomview
   * gwm xopt
   * gzexe gzip
   * gzip gzip

   * h2ph perl
   * h2xs perl
   * head Textutils
   * hello hello
   * hinge geomview
   * hostname Shellutils
   * hp2xx hp2xx
   * hpftodit Groff
   * hterm xopt

   * i18nOlwmV2 xopt
   * i2mif xopt
   * ico xopt
   * ico xreq
   * icombine Ispell
   * id Shellutils
   * ident RCS
   * ifnames Autoconf
   * igawk GAWK
   * ijoin Ispell
   * ImageMagick xopt
   * imagemap metahtml
   * imageto Fontutils
   * iman xopt
   * imgrotate Fontutils
   * indent indent
   * indxbib Groff
   * inetd Inetutils
   * info Texinfo
   * infocmp ncurses
   * inimf TeX
   * initex TeX
   * install Fileutils
   * install-info Texinfo
   * install-sid GNATS
   * ispell Ispell
   * ispengine metahtml
   * ixterm xopt
   * ixx xopt

   * join Textutils

   * kgames xopt
   * kibitz DejaGnu
   * kinput2 xopt
   * kterm xopt

   * last acct
   * lastcomm acct
   * latex TeX
   * lclock xopt
   * ld Binutils
   * less less
   * lessecho less
   * lesskey less
   * libavcall.a ffcall
   * libbfd.a Binutils
   * libc.a C Library
   * libcurses.a ncurses
   * libexpect.a DejaGnu
   * libF77.a f2c
   * libfl.a flex
   * libform.a ncurses
   * libform_g.a ncurses
   * libg++.a libg++
   * libgdbm.a gdbm
   * libgmp.a gmp
   * libgnanslib.a Gnans
   * libgnussl.a gnussl
   * libgst.a Smalltalk
   * libguile.a guile
   * libI77.a f2c
   * libiberty.a Binutils
   * libintl.a gettext
   * libjpeg.a Ghostscript
   * libltc.a lesstif
   * libmenu.a ncurses
   * libmenu_g.a ncurses
   * libmmalloc.a GDB
   * libMrm.a lesstif
   * libncurses.a ncurses
   * libncurses_g.a ncurses
   * libnihcl.a NIHCL
   * libnihclmi.a NIHCL
   * libnihclvec.a NIHCL
   * libnls.a xreq
   * libobjects.a libobjects
   * liboctave.a Octave
   * liboldX.a xreq
   * libopcodes.a Binutils
   * libp2c.a p2c
   * libpanel.a ncurses
   * libpanel_g.a ncurses
   * libPEXt.a xopt
   * libplot.a plotutils
   * libplotfig.a plotutils
   * libplotps.a plotutils
   * libplottek.a plotutils
   * libplotX.a plotutils
   * libreadline.a readline
   * libregex.a regex
   * librx.a rx
   * libsipp.a SIPP
   * libstdc++.a libstdc++
   * libtcl7.5.a DejaGnu
   * libtelnet.a Inetutils
   * libtermcap.a Termcap
   * libtiff.a tiff
   * libtool libtool
   * libtoolize libtool
   * libUil.a lesstif
   * libvacall.a ffcall
   * libWc.a xopt
   * libX.a xreq
   * libXau.a xreq
   * libXaw.a xreq
   * libXcp.a xopt
   * libXcu.a xopt
   * libXdmcp.a xreq
   * libXm.a lesstif
   * libXmp.a xopt
   * libXmu.a xreq
   * libXO.a xopt
   * libXop.a xopt
   * libXp.a xopt
   * libXpex.a xopt
   * libXt.a xopt
   * libXt.a xreq
   * libXwchar.a xopt
   * libYgl.a Ygl
   * lid ID Utils
   * limn Fontutils
   * list-sessions metahtml
   * listres xopt
   * listres xreq
   * lkbib Groff
   * ln Fileutils
   * locate Findutils
   * logger Inetutils
   * logname Shellutils
   * logo ucblogo
   * lookbib Groff
   * lpunlock DejaGnu
   * ls Fileutils
   * lynx lynx
   * lz mtools

   * m2ps MULE
   * m4 m4
   * mail-files Sharutils
   * mailq smail
   * mailshar Sharutils
   * make make
   * make2cook cook
   * makeindex TeX
   * makeinfo Texinfo
   * MakeTeXPK TeX
   * man-macros Groff
   * maniview geomview
   * many2html enscript
   * mattrib mtools
   * maze xopt
   * maze xreq
   * mazewar xopt
   * mbadblocks mtools
   * mc mc
   * mcd mtools
   * mcedit mc
   * mcheck mtools
   * mcmfmt mc
   * mcomp mtools
   * mcopy mtools
   * mcserv mc
   * md5sum Textutils
   * mdb metahtml
   * mdel mtools
   * mdeltree mtools
   * mdir mtools
   * me-macros Groff
   * medit2gv geomview
   * merge RCS
   * mf TeX
   * mformat mtools
   * mft TeX
   * mgdiff xopt
   * mhc metahtml
   * mhttpd metahtml
   * minfo mtools
   * mkafmmap enscript
   * mkcache GN
   * mkdir Fileutils
   * mkfifo Fileutils
   * mkid ID Utils
   * mkisofs mkisofs
   * mklib metahtml
   * mkmanifest mtools
   * mknod Fileutils
   * mkpass metahtml
   * mkpasswd DejaGnu
   * mlabel mtools
   * mm-macros Groff
   * mmd mtools
   * mmount mtools
   * mmove mtools
   * mpartition mtools
   * mrd mtools
   * mread mtools
   * mren mtools
   * ms-macros Groff
   * msgcmp gettext
   * msgfmt gettext
   * msgmerge gettext
   * msgunfmt gettext
   * mt cpio
   * mterm xopt
   * mtools mtools
   * mtoolstest mtools
   * mtype mtools
   * mule MULE
   * muncher xopt
   * munchlist Ispell
   * mutt mutt
   * mv Fileutils
   * mwm lesstif
   * mwrite mtools
   * mxmkmf lesstif
   * mxtar mtools
   * mzip mtools

   * NDview geomview
   * neqn Groff
   * nethack NetHack
   * nice Shellutils
   * nl Textutils
   * nm Binutils
   * nohup Shellutils
   * nose geomview
   * notify HylaFAX
   * nph-fcgi-engine metahtml
   * nroff Groff

   * objcopy Binutils
   * objdump Binutils
   * obst-boot OBST
   * obst-CC OBST
   * obst-cct OBST
   * obst-cgc OBST
   * obst-cmp OBST
   * obst-cnt OBST
   * obst-cpcnt OBST
   * obst-csz OBST
   * obst-dir OBST
   * obst-dmp OBST
   * obst-gen OBST
   * obst-gsh OBST
   * obst-init OBST
   * obst-scp OBST
   * obst-sil OBST
   * obst-stf OBST
   * oclock xreq
   * octave Octave
   * od Textutils
   * ode plotutils
   * oleo Oleo
   * ora-examples xopt

   * p2c p2c
   * pal2rgb tiff
   * palette xopt
   * passmass DejaGnu
   * paste Textutils
   * patch patch
   * patgen TeX
   * pathchk Shellutils
   * pathto smail
   * pbmplus xopt
   * perl perl
   * perl5.003 perl
   * perl5.00403 perl
   * perl5.00404 perl
   * perlbug perl
   * perldoc perl
   * pfbtops Groff
   * pic Groff
   * pixedit xopt
   * pixmap xopt
   * pktogf TeX
   * pktype TeX
   * pl2pm perl
   * plaid xopt
   * plot2fig plotutils
   * plot2plot plotutils
   * plot2ps plotutils
   * plot2tek plotutils
   * plot2X plotutils
   * pltotf TeX
   * pod2html perl
   * pod2latex perl
   * pod2man perl
   * pod2text perl
   * pollrcvd HylaFAX
   * pooltype TeX
   * postprint Chess
   * ppm2tiff tiff
   * pr Textutils
   * prcs prcs
   * printenv Shellutils
   * printf Shellutils
   * protoize GCC
   * ps2ascii Ghostscript
   * ps2epsi Ghostscript
   * ps2fax HylaFAX
   * psbb Groff
   * pstruct perl
   * psycho xopt
   * ptx ptx
   * pubdic+ xopt
   * puzzle xopt
   * puzzle xreq
   * pwd Shellutils
   * pxboard xboard
   * pyramid xopt

   * query-pr GNATS

   * ranlib Binutils
   * ras2tiff tiff
   * rc rc
   * rcs RCS
   * rcs-checkin Emacs
   * rcs2log CVS
   * rcsclean RCS
   * rcsdiff RCS
   * rcsmerge RCS
   * rdjpgcom Ghostscript
   * reap-sessions metahtml
   * recode recode
   * recvstats HylaFAX
   * red ed
   * refer Groff
   * remsync Sharutils
   * reset ncurses
   * rftp DejaGnu
   * rgb2ycbcr tiff
   * rlog RCS
   * rlogin-cwd DejaGnu
   * rm Fileutils
   * rmdir Fileutils
   * roffpp cook
   * rr xopt
   * rsmtp smail
   * rsync rsync
   * runq smail
   * runtest DejaGnu

   * s2p perl
   * sa acct
   * saoimage SAOimage
   * scdisp xopt
   * screen screen
   * sctext xopt
   * sdiff Diffutils
   * sed sed
   * send-pr GNATS
   * sendfax HylaFAX
   * seq Shellutils
   * session-data-test metahtml
   * set-session-timeout metahtml
   * set-session-var metahtml
   * sgi2fax HylaFAX
   * sgn GN
   * shar Sharutils
   * shinbun xopt
   * showfont xopt
   * size Binutils
   * sj3 xopt
   * sjxa xopt
   * sleep Shellutils
   * sliceprint enscript
   * sln zlibc
   * smail smail
   * smtpd smail
   * smv zlibc
   * snftobdf xopt
   * soelim Groff
   * sort Textutils
   * sos2obst OBST
   * spell spell
   * spider xopt
   * splain perl
   * spline plotutils
   * split Textutils
   * sq Ispell
   * srm zlibc
   * ssln zlibc
   * start-servers metahtml
   * states enscript
   * stereo geomview
   * stf OBST
   * stop-servers metahtml
   * stow stow
   * strings Binutils
   * strip Binutils
   * strip-tags metahtml
   * stty Shellutils
   * su Shellutils
   * sum Textutils
   * superopt-alpha Superopt
   * superopt-am29k Superopt
   * superopt-hppa Superopt
   * superopt-i386 Superopt
   * superopt-i960a Superopt
   * superopt-i960b Superopt
   * superopt-m88000 Superopt
   * superopt-mc68000 Superopt
   * superopt-mc68020 Superopt
   * superopt-power Superopt
   * superopt-powerpc Superopt
   * superopt-pyr Superopt
   * superopt-sh Superopt
   * superopt-sparc Superopt
   * sweep geomview
   * sync Fileutils
   * syslog Inetutils
   * syslogd Inetutils

   * tabs Termutils
   * tac Textutils
   * tackdown geomview
   * tail Textutils
   * talk Inetutils
   * tangle TeX
   * tar tar
   * tbl Groff
   * tcal gcal
   * tclsh7.5 DejaGnu
   * tee Shellutils
   * telnet Inetutils
   * test Shellutils
   * tex TeX
   * texi2dvi Texinfo
   * texindex Texinfo
   * texspell TeX
   * textfmt HylaFAX
   * tfmtodit Groff
   * tftopl TeX
   * tftp Inetutils
   * tgrind TeX
   * tgz mtools
   * thumbnail tiff
   * tic ncurses
   * tiff2bw tiff
   * tiff2ps tiff
   * tiffcmp tiff
   * tiffcp tiff
   * tiffdither tiff
   * tiffdump tiff
   * tiffinfo tiff
   * tiffmedian tiff
   * tiffsplit tiff
   * time time
   * timed-read DejaGnu
   * timed-run DejaGnu
   * timex xopt
   * tknewsbiff DejaGnu
   * tkpasswd DejaGnu
   * tkpostage xopt
   * toe ncurses
   * togeomview geomview
   * touch Fileutils
   * tput Termutils
   * tr Textutils
   * transcript HylaFAX
   * transfig xopt
   * transformer geomview
   * trigrp geomview
   * troff Groff
   * true Shellutils
   * tryaffix Ispell
   * tset ncurses
   * tty Shellutils
   * ttygnans Gnans
   * tupdate gettext
   * tvtwm xopt
   * twm xreq
   * txt2gcal gcal

   * uil lesstif
   * uname Shellutils
   * unbuffer DejaGnu
   * uncompress.o zlibc
   * unexpand Textutils
   * uniq Textutils
   * units units
   * unprotoize GCC
   * unshar Sharutils
   * unsq Ispell
   * updatedb Findutils
   * uptime Shellutils
   * users Shellutils
   * uucp UUCP
   * uudecode Sharutils
   * uuencode Sharutils
   * uulog UUCP
   * uuname UUCP
   * uupath smail
   * uupick UUCP
   * uustat UUCP
   * uuto UUCP
   * uux UUCP
   * uz mtools

   * vandal xopt
   * vdir Fileutils
   * vftovp TeX
   * vi nvi
   * view nvi
   * viewres xopt
   * viewres xreq
   * vine xopt
   * virmf TeX
   * virtex TeX
   * vptovf TeX

   * waisgn GN
   * wc Textutils
   * wdiff wdiff
   * weather DejaGnu
   * weave TeX
   * webmail metahtml
   * wftopfa Ghostscript
   * wget wget
   * who Shellutils
   * whoami Shellutils
   * winterp xopt
   * wn WN
   * wndex WN
   * wrjpgcom Ghostscript

   * x11perf xreq
   * xalarm xopt
   * xancur xopt
   * xargs Findutils
   * xauth xreq
   * xbfe Fontutils
   * xbiff xopt
   * xbiff xreq
   * xboard xboard
   * xboing xopt
   * xbuffy3 xopt
   * xcalc xopt
   * xcalc xreq
   * xcalendar xopt
   * xcdplayer xopt
   * xcell xopt
   * xclipboard xreq
   * xclock xreq
   * xcmdmenu xopt
   * xcms xopt
   * xcmsdb xreq
   * xcmstest xreq
   * xco xopt
   * xcolorize xopt
   * xcolors xopt
   * xconsole xreq
   * xcopy mtools
   * xcrtca xopt
   * xdaliclock xopt
   * xdiary xopt
   * xditview xopt
   * xditview xreq
   * xdm xreq
   * xdpyinfo xreq
   * xdu xopt
   * xdvi TeX
   * xdvi xopt
   * xdvorak xopt
   * xearth xopt
   * xed xopt
   * xedit xopt
   * xedit xreq
   * xev xopt
   * xev xreq
   * xexit xopt
   * xeyes xopt
   * xeyes xreq
   * xfd xreq
   * xfed xopt
   * xfedor xopt
   * xfeoak xopt
   * xferstats HylaFAX
   * xfig xopt
   * xfontsel xopt
   * xfontsel xreq
   * xforecast xopt
   * xgas xopt
   * xgas xreq
   * xgc xopt
   * xgc xreq
   * xgettext gettext
   * xgrab xgrabsc
   * xgrabsc xgrabsc
   * xhearts xopt
   * xhelp xopt
   * xhost xreq
   * xinfo xinfo
   * xinit xreq
   * xkeycaps xopt
   * xkibitz DejaGnu
   * xkill xreq
   * xlax xopt
   * xlayout xopt
   * xlbiff xopt
   * xless xopt
   * xload xopt
   * xload xreq
   * xlogin xopt
   * xlogo xreq
   * xlsatoms xreq
   * xlsclients xreq
   * xlsfonts xreq
   * xmag xreq
   * xmail xopt
   * xmailbox xopt
   * xmailwatcher xopt
   * xman xopt
   * xman xreq
   * xmandel xopt
   * xmbind lesstif
   * xmessage xopt
   * xmeter xopt
   * xmh xreq
   * xmh-icons xopt
   * xmh.editor xopt
   * xmodmap xreq
   * xmon xopt
   * xmove xopt
   * xmphone xopt
   * xpd xopt
   * xphoon xopt
   * xpipeman xopt
   * xpostit xopt
   * xpr xopt
   * xpr xreq
   * xprompt xopt
   * xproof xopt
   * xprop xreq
   * xpserv xopt
   * xpstat DejaGnu
   * xrdb xreq
   * xrefresh xreq
   * xrsh xopt
   * xrubik xopt
   * xrunclient xopt
   * xscope xopt
   * xscreensaver xopt
   * xsession xopt
   * xset xreq
   * xsetroot xreq
   * xshogi xshogi
   * xstdcmap xreq
   * xtalk xopt
   * xterm xreq
   * xterm_color xopt
   * xtetris xopt
   * xTeXcad.13 xopt
   * xtiff xopt
   * xtokid ID Utils
   * xtree xopt
   * xtv xopt
   * xwd xreq
   * xwininfo xreq
   * xwud xreq

   * yes Shellutils
   * youbin xopt

   * zcat gzip
   * zcmp gzip
   * zdiff gzip
   * zforce gzip
   * zgrep gzip
   * zic2xpm xboard
   * zmore gzip
   * znew gzip

The Deluxe Distribution

The Free Software Foundation has been asked repeatedly to create a package that provides executables for all of our software. Normally we offer only sources. The Deluxe Distribution provides binaries with the source code and includes six T-shirts, all our CD-ROMs, printed manuals, & reference cards.

The FSF Deluxe Distribution contains the binaries and sources to hundreds of different programs including Emacs, the GNU C/C++ Compiler, the GNU Debugger, the complete X Window System, and all the GNU utilities.

We will make a Deluxe Distribution for most machines/operating systems. We may be able to send someone to your office to do the compilation, if we can't find a suitable machine here. However, we can only compile the programs that already support your chosen machine/system--porting is a separate matter. (To commission a port, see the GNU Service Directory; details in section Free Software Support.) Compiling all these programs takes time; a Deluxe Distribution for an unusual machine will take longer to produce than one for a common machine. Please contact the FSF Office with any questions.

We supply the software on a write-once CD-ROM (in ISO 9660 format with "Rock Ridge" extensions), or on one of these tapes in Unix tar format: 1600 or 6250bpi 1/2in reel, Sun DC300XLP 1/4in cartridge -- QIC24, IBM RS/6000 1/4in c.t. -- QIC 150, Exabyte 8mm c.t., or DAT 4mm c.t. If your computer cannot read any of these, please contact us to see if we can handle your format.

The printed documentation includes one each of Bison, Calc, Gawk, GCC, GNU C Library, GDB, Flex, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, Make, Texinfo, & Termcap manuals, six copies of the GNU Emacs manual, and ten reference cards for each of Emacs, Bison, Calc, Flex, & GDB.

Every Deluxe Distribution also includes the latest editions of our CD-ROMs (immediately below), which are in ISO 9660 format with Rock Ridge extensions.

The price of the Deluxe Distribution is $5000 (shipping included). These sales provide enormous financial assistance to help the FSF develop more free software. To order, please fill out the "Deluxe Distribution" section on section Free Software Foundation Order Form, and send it to:

   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor
   Boston, MA   02110-1301
   USA

   Phone: +1-617-542-5942
   Fax:   +1-617-542-2652 (including from Japan)
   Email: gnu@gnu.org
   Web: `http://www.gnu.org'

CD-ROMs

We offer the section Source Code CD-ROMs and section March 1998 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM. Older versions of each are available at a reduced price (while supplies last).

Our CDs are in ISO 9660 format & can be mounted as a read-only file system on most computers. If your driver supports it, you can mount each CD with "Rock Ridge" extensions & it will look like a regular Unix file system, rather than one full of truncated & otherwise mangled names that fit vanilla ISO 9660.

You can build most of the software without copying the sources off the CD. You only need enough disk space for object files and intermediate build targets.

Pricing of the GNU CD-ROMs

If a business or organization is ultimately paying, the March 1998 Source CD set costs $240; but if you, an individual, are paying out of your own pocket, the price is $60. The March 1998 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM costs $220 for a business or organization; $55 for an individual. The MS-DOS/Windows book and CD-ROM costs $140 for a business or organization; $35 for an individual.

What Do the Different Prices Mean?

The software on our disks is free; anyone can copy it and anyone can run it. What we charge for is the physical disk and the service of distribution.

We charge two different prices depending on who is buying. When a company or other organization buys the March 1998 Source CD-ROMs, we charge $240. When an individual buys the same CD-ROMs, we charge just $60. This distinction is not a matter of who is allowed to use the software. In either case, once you have a copy, you can distribute as many copies as you wish and there's no restriction on who can have or run them. The price distinction is entirely a matter of what kind of entity pays for the CDs.

You, the reader, are certainly an individual, not a company. If you are buying a disk "in person", then you are probably doing so as an individual. But if you expect to be reimbursed by your employer, then the disk is really for the company; so please pay the company price and get reimbursed for it. We won't try to check up on you--we use the honor system--so please cooperate.

Buying CDs at the company price is very helpful for GNU; just 150 Source CDs at that price support an FSF programmer or tech writer for a year.

Why Is There an Individual Price?

In the past, our distribution tapes were ordered mainly by companies. The CD at the price of $240 provides them with all of our software for a much lower price than they would previously have paid for six different tapes. To lower the price more would cut into the FSF's funds very badly and decrease the software development we can do.

However, for individuals, $240 is too high a price; hardly anyone could afford that. So we decided to make CDs available to individuals at the lower price of $60.

Is There a Maximum Price?

Our stated prices are minimum prices. Feel free to pay a higher price if you wish to support GNU development more. The sky's the limit; we will accept as high a price as you can offer. Or simply give a donation (tax-deductible in the U.S.) to the Free Software Foundation, a tax-exempt public charity.

March 1998 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM

We are releasing the fifth edition of our "Binaries" CD-ROM, which includes GNU compiler tools that run on several systems that are often distributed without a C compiler. (The source code is also included, of course.) Thus people who use those systems can compile GNU and other free software without buying a proprietary compiler. You can also use these GNU tools to compile your own programs written in C/C++/Objective-C (or Fortran). Older editions are available at a discount while supplies last; section Free Software Foundation Order Form. The March 1998, 5th edition includes:

These packages:

   * DJGPP
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C
   * GDB
   * Binutils
   * Bison
   * Emacs (MS-DOS only)
   * Flex
   * Make
   * libg++

On these platforms:

   * alpha-dec-osf3.2
   * alpha-dec-osf4.0
   * hppa1.1-hp-hpux9
   * hppa1.1-hp-hpux10
   * i386-pc-msdos
   * i386-pc-solaris2.6
   * powerpc-ibm-aix4.2
   * sparc-sun-solaris2.4
   * sparc-sun-solaris2.5
   * sparc-sun-sunos4.1

We hope to have more systems on each update of this CD. If you can help build binaries for new systems (especially those distributed without a C compiler), or have one to suggest, please contact us.

Source Code CD-ROMs

GNU Source CD-ROMs include no precompiled programs, so you will need a C compiler (programs that need some other interpreter or compiler normally provide the C source for a bootstrapping program). We ship C compiler binaries for some systems on the section March 1998 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM.

Most editions of our GNU Source Code CD-ROMs are available, including:

Editions 1--10 are available at a discount while supplies last. Each includes contemporary versions of GNU software, X Windows, and Texinfo source for the GNU manuals listed in section GNU Documentation. For some details see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

March 1998 Source Code CD-ROMs

The 11th edition of our Source Code CD set (2 disks) is now available. It has these packages, & some manuals that are not part of packages. (Some versions may be newer than listed here.)

   * abuse 2.0
   * acct 6.3
   * acm 4.8
   * aegis 3.0
   * apache 1.2.4
   * Autoconf 2.12
   * Automake 1.2
   * BASH 2.01.1
   * bc 1.04
   * Binutils 2.8.1
   * Bison 1.25
   * C Library 2.0.6
   * Calc 2.02f
   * cfengine 1.4.10
   * Chess 4.0.pl77
   * CLISP 1997.09.25
   * clx 5.02
   * Common Lisp 2.2.2
   * cook 2.0.1
   * cperf 2.1a
   * cpio 2.4.2
   * CVS 1.9
   * cxref 1.4
   * ddd 2.1.1
   * DejaGnu 1.3
   * Diffutils 2.7
   * dld 3.3
   * doschk 1.1
   * ed 0.2
   * Elib 1.0
   * elisp archive 1998.03.12
   * Emacs 18.59
   * Emacs 19.34
   * Emacs 20.2
   * enscript 1.5.0
   * es 0.84
   * Exim 1.73
   * f2c 1997.11.09
   * ffcall 1.3
   * Fileutils 3.16
   * Findutils 4.1
   * Finger 1.37
   * flex 2.5.4
   * Fontutils 0.6
   * g77 0.5.21
   * gawk 3.0.3
   * gcal 2.40
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.7.2.3
   * GCC/G++/Objective-C 2.8.1
   * GDB 4.16
   * gdbm 1.7.3
   * Generic NQS 3.50.2
   * geomview 1.6.1
   * gettext 0.10
   * gforth 0.3.0
   * Ghostscript 3.33
   * Ghostview 1.5
   * Ghostview for Windows 2.1
   * GIMP 0.99.20
   * GIT 4.3.16
   * gmp 2.0.2
   * GN 2.24
   * Gnans 1.5.1
   * gnat 3.09
   * GNATS 3.2
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 1.03
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.2
   * GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual 2.4.jp2.0
   * GnuGo 1.2
   * gnuplot 3.5
   * gnuserv 2.1alpha
   * gnussl 0.2.1
   * gpc 2.0
   * grep 2.1
   * Groff 1.11
   * guavac 0.3.1
   * guile 1.2
   * gzip 1.2.4
   * GTK 0.99.5
   * hello 1.3
   * hp2xx 3.1.4
   * HylaFAX 4.0.1
   * Hyperbole 4.01
   * ID Utils 3.2
   * ilisp 5.8.a04
   * indent 1.9.1
   * Inetutils 1.3.1
   * Ispell 3.1.20
   * jargon 4.0.0
   * karma 1.6
   * less 332
   * LessTif 0.81
   * libg++ 2.8.1
   * libobjects 0.1.19
   * libstdc++ 2.8.1
   * libtool 1.0
   * lout 3.11
   * lynx 2.7.1
   * m4 1.4
   * make 3.76.1
   * MandelSpawn 0.07
   * maxima 5.2
   * mc 4.1
   * MCSim 4.2.0
   * mesa 2.1
   * <Meta-HTML> 5.06
   * miscfiles 1.1
   * mkisofs 1.11GNU
   * mm 1.07
   * mtools 3.8
   * MULE 2.3
   * mutt 0.85e
   * nana 1.13
   * ncurses 4.2
   * NetHack 3.2.2
   * NIHCL 3.1.4
   * nvi 1.79
   * Oaklisp 930720
   * OBST 3.4.3
   * Octave 2.0.11
   * Oleo 1.6
   * p2c 1.20
   * patch 2.5
   * pcl-gcl 2.2
   * perl 4.036
   * perl 5.004.04
   * pips 1.01
   * plotutils 2.0
   * prcs 1.2.0
   * Programming in Emacs Lisp an Introduction 1.05
   * ptx 0.4
   * rc 1.4
   * RCS 5.7
   * readline 2.1
   * recode 3.4
   * regex 0.12
   * Roxen 1.1
   * rsync 1.6.3
   * rx 1.5
   * SAOimage 1.20
   * screen 3.7.4
   * sed 2.05
   * Sharutils 4.2
   * Shellutils 1.16
   * Shogi 1.2p03
   * SIPP 3.1
   * smail 3.2
   * Smalltalk 1.1.5
   * sneps 2.3.1
   * spell 1.0
   * stow 1.3.2
   * Superopt 2.5
   * swarm 1.0.3
   * tar 1.12
   * Termcap 1.3
   * Termutils 2.0
   * TeX 3.1415
   * Texinfo 3.12
   * Textutils 1.22
   * tiff 3.4
   * Tile Forth 2.1
   * time 1.7
   * ucblogo 4.2
   * units 1.54
   * UUCP 1.06.1
   * vera 1.2
   * vrweb 1.5
   * W3 2.2.26
   * wdiff 0.5
   * wget 1.4.5
   * windows32 0.1.2
   * WN 1.19.0
   * X11R6.3
   * xboard 3.6.2
   * xgrabsc 2.41
   * xinfo 1.01.01
   * xmcd 2.2
   * xshogi 1.2p03
   * Ygl 3.1
   * zlibc 0.9e

CD-ROM Subscription Service

Our subscription service enables you to stay current with the latest GNU developments. For a one-time cost equivalent to three editions, we will send you four successive editions of either the section Source Code CD-ROMs or section March 1998 Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROM. Each new edition will be shipped when available; our target is four Source editions per year and two Binaries (see "New Schedule" in section GNUs Flashes).

(Subscribers outside contiguous USA and Canada must pay shipping cost for four editions. For details, see section Free Software Foundation Order Form.)

GNU Documentation

GNU is dedicated to providing quality, easy-to-use online & printed documentation. GNU manuals are intended to explain underlying concepts, describe how to use all the features of each program, & give examples of command use. GNU manuals are distributed as Texinfo source files, which yield both typeset hardcopy via the TeX document formatting system and online hypertext display via the menu-driven Info system. Source for each manual comes with the software; here are those that we publish as printed books. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form, to order them.

Most GNU manuals are bound as soft cover books with lay-flat bindings. This allows you to open them so they lie flat on a table without creasing the binding. They have an inner cloth spine and an outer cardboard cover that will not break or crease as an ordinary paperback will. Manuals currently in lay-flat binding are: Using and Porting GNU CC, GDB, Emacs, Emacs Lisp Reference, Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction, GAWK: The GNU Awk User's Guide, Make, and Bison. Our other manuals also lie flat when opened, using a GBC (comb) binding. Our manuals are 7in by 9.25in except the 8.5in by 11in Calc manual.

The edition number of the manual and version number of the program listed after each manual's name were current at the time this Bulletin was published.

Debugging with GDB (for Version 4.16) tells how to run your program under GNU Debugger control, examine and alter data, modify a program's flow of control, and use GDB through GNU Emacs.

The GNU Emacs Manual (13th Edition for Version 20) describes editing with GNU Emacs. It explains advanced features, including international character sets; outline mode and regular expression search; how to use special programming modes to write languages like C++ and TeX; how to use the tags utility; how to compile and correct code; how to make your own keybindings; and other elementary customizations.

Programming in Emacs Lisp: An Introduction (October 1995 Edition 1.04) is for people who are not necessarily interested in programming, but who do want to customize or extend their computing environment. If you read it in Emacs under Info mode, you can run the sample programs directly.

The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual (Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) and The GNU Emacs Lisp Reference, Japanese Edition (Japanese Draft Revision 1.0, from English Edition 2.4 for Version 19.29) cover this programming language in depth, including data types, control structures, functions, macros, syntax tables, searching/matching, modes, windows, keymaps, byte compilation, and the operating system interface.

GNU Software for MS-DOS and MS-Windows is a book and CD combination containing both source code and runnable executables for MS-DOS, MS-Windows and MS-Windows 9X.

GAWK: The GNU Awk User's Guide (Edition 2 for Version 3.0.3) tells how to use gawk. It is written for those who have never used awk and describes features of this powerful string and record manipulation language. It clearly delineates those features which are part of POSIX awk from gawk extensions, providing a comprehensive guide to awk program portability.

GNU Make (Edition 0.50 for Version 3.75 Beta) describes GNU make, a program used to rebuild parts of other programs. The manual tells how to write makefiles, which specify how a program is to be compiled and how its files depend on each other. Included are an introductory chapter for novice users and a section about automatically generated dependencies.

The Flex manual (Edition 1.03 for Version 2.3.7) teaches you to write a lexical scanner definition for the flex program to create a C++ or C-coded scanner that recognizes the patterns defined. You need no prior knowledge of scanners.

The Bison Manual (November 1995 Edition for Version 1.25) teaches you how to write context-free grammars for the Bison program that convert into C-coded parsers. You need no prior knowledge of parser generators.

Using and Porting GNU CC (November 1995 Edition for Version 2.7.2) tells how to run, install, and port the GNU C Compiler to new systems. It lists new features and incompatibilities of GCC, but people not familiar with C will still need a good reference on the C programming language. It also covers G++.

The Texinfo manual (for Version 3.11 of Texinfo) explains the markup language that produces our online Info documentation & typeset hardcopies. It tells you how to make tables, lists, chapters, nodes, accented & special characters, indexes, cross references, & how to catch mistakes.

The Termcap Manual (3rd Edition for Version 1.3), often described as "twice as much as you ever wanted to know about termcap," details the format of the termcap database, the definitions of terminal capabilities, and the process of interrogating a terminal description. This manual is primarily for programmers.

The C Library Reference Manual (Edition 0.07 for Version 1.09 Beta) describes the library's facilities, including both what Unix calls "library functions" & "system calls." We are doing small copier runs of this manual until it becomes more stable. Please send fixes to bug-glibc-manual@gnu.org.

The Emacs Calc Manual (for Version 2.02) is both a tutorial and a reference manual. It tells how to do ordinary arithmetic, how to use Calc for algebra, calculus, and other forms of mathematics, and how to extend Calc.

How to Get GNU Software

All the software & publications from the FSF are distributed with permission to modify, copy, and redistribute. One way to get GNU software is to copy it from someone else who has it. You can also get GNU software directly from the FSF by ordering CD-ROMs and books. Such orders provide most of the funds for the FSF staff to develop more free software, so please support our work by ordering from the FSF if you can. See section Free Software Foundation Order Form.

There are also third party groups who distribute our software. Some are listed in section Free Software Redistributors Donate. Also see section Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems. Please note that the Free Software Foundation is not affiliated with them in any way and is not responsible for either the currency of their versions or the swiftness of their responses.

If you decide to do business with a commercial distributor of free software, ask them how much they do to assist free software development, e.g., by contributing money to free software development projects or by writing free software themselves for general use. By basing your decision partly on this factor, you can help encourage support for free software development.

Our main FTP host is very busy & limits the number of logins. Please use one of these other sites that also provide GNU software via FTP (program: ftp, user: anonymous, password: your Email address, mode: binary). If you can't reach one of them, get the software from GNU's main FTP host, ftp.gnu.org. More hosts & details are in `/pub/gnu/GETTING.GNU.SOFTWARE' & `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/FTP' on any host.

Most of the files on the FTP sites are compressed with gzip to reduce FTP traffic. Refer to `/pub/gnu/README-about-.gz-files' on any FTP site for instructions on uncompressing them. (uncompress and unpack do not work!)

If you can UUCP, get Email instructions from info@contrib.de (Europe).

FSF T-shirt

The front of our T-shirt has the "typing gnu" artwork from the first GNU T-shirt, with the words "GNU's Not Unix!" and "Free Software Foundation". The back of the shirt has the preamble to the GNU General Public License.

These thick 100% cotton shirts are available in black or natural (off-white) in sizes S, M, L, XL, and XXL; in burgundy or blue-green in L, XL, and XXL; and a few XXXL black. Check our web site to see what is currently available; there may also be older designs available in certain sizes and colors.

GNU T-shirts often create spontaneous friendships at conferences and on university campuses. Wear one today!

Free Software for Non-Unix-Like Systems

We do not support GNU software on most non-Unix-like systems because that is peripheral to our goal: making the free operating system GNU as good as possible. Volunteers have ported many GNU programs to MS-DOS and MS-Windows, and because these systems are so popular, we have decided to publish a book and CD-ROM containing those ports--but even these systems are a side issue. We do not want to get involved with supporting GNU software on non-Unix-like systems, not even Microsoft systems.

However, we are willing to publish information about groups who do support and maintain such ports. If you are aware of any such efforts, please send the details, including postal addresses, archive sites, and mailing lists, to either address on the top menu.

Please do not ask us for more information about the projects listed below, or any other software for these operating systems, or other non-Unix-like systems. We do not maintain any of it and have no additional information.

Project GNU Wish List

Thank GNUs

Several friends of GNU requested donations to the FSF in lieu of gifts or compensation to themselves. We appreciate their generosity.

Thanks to all who made substantial donations to the FSF in money or in kind (see section Become a Patron of the FSF). Since January 1997, that is:

Thanks also to the very many who made smaller donations. Thanks to all who purchased our CD-ROMs, manuals, reference cards, and T-shirts. Thanks to all the organizations who purchased Deluxe Distributions and to COS Inc., PCI Inc., and SPDCC Inc., for lending systems on which to build them.

Thanks to Hiroshi Koyama and the other authors of the Japanese Linux Primer, who have donated part of their payment from Toppan Publishing.

Thanks to Gentia Software for funding the port of GNU Objective-C to DEC Alpha/Windows NT. Thanks to the Institute for System Design Technology of GMD Forschungszentrum Informationstechnik for funding development of the GCC array bounds-checking and verbose reporting features.

For assistance of many kinds, thanks to the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Laboratory for Computer Science, and Project Athena, all at MIT; to Cygnus Solutions; and to Scott Christley and Net Community.

Thanks to the University of Massachusetts at Boston for providing space and internet access for our machines, to Networks On Line for providing our Web server machine, to Tim Carlson for arranging secondary name service at the Santa Fe Institute, and to the many providers of mirror Web and FTP sites.

Thanks to all those mentioned elsewhere, especially those volunteers listed on the inside front cover (see "GNU's Who"). Thanks to Aaron Ball, Karl Berry, Rick Martin, and Len Tower, for their help as system administrators. Thanks to AMB for invaluable technical assistance.

Thanks to Computer Publishing Group (SunExpert Magazine) for advertising space. Thanks to LXNY and Sergio Ruocco, who arranged tables at conferences in New York and Rome, and to those volunteers who helped staff them. For continuing help in Japan, thanks to Ken'ichi Handa, Professor Takafumi Hayashi, Mieko Hikichi, Nobuyuki Hikichi, the Japan Unix Society, and Mitsuru Nakamura of The Village Center Inc.

Thanks to all who assigned copyrights to the FSF or otherwise placed their source code under the GNU General Public License. Thanks to all who contributed documentation, good bug reports, or other useful criticism.

The creation of this Bulletin is our way of thanking all who have expressed interest in what we are doing. Thanks to those who distribute multiple copies where they will be read.

Donations Translate Into Free Software

If you appreciate Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, Ghostscript, and other free software, you may wish to help make sure there is more in the future. Remember, donations translate into more free software!

Donations to FSF are deductible for U.S. federal and some other taxes. We gladly accept donations in any currency, but the U.S. dollar is the most convenient.

If your employer has a matching program for charitable donations, please ask them to approve the FSF as a recipient and to match your donation. Consult your personnel department.

Circle the amount of your donation, complete this form, and send it with your donation to:

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You can donate by fax with a credit card; fax to +1-617-542-2652. We accept Carte Blanche, Diner's Club, Discover, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.

We offer public "Thank GNUs" and some modest gifts to $100 and greater donors (see section Become a Patron of the FSF; section Thank GNUs).

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If you participate in a United Way campaign, please consider designating the Free Software Foundation as the recipient of your donation.

Just how do to this depends on where you live, because the United Way is not a single nationwide corporation, but rather a loose alliance of separate local organizations with distinct bylaws and methods. Some United Way chapters list the FSF as an affiliated charitable organization, which is a pre-approved recipient of donations. Some will approve any 501(c)3 association, such as the FSF; some have a narrow explicit focus yet will "respond to our donors concern about a specific agency to which they are committed". Some chapters use a form that prompts for an unlisted "other" recipient; others require more initiative from you.

Free Software Foundation Order Form

All items are distributed with permission to copy and to redistribute.
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A possibly more current version of this order form can be found on the
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____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   Flex Manual, with a reference card.

____ @ $ 25  = $ ______   Texinfo Manual.

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Termcap Manual, 3rd Edition Revised.

Reference Cards
---------------

The following reference cards, in packets of ten.  For single copies please
contact us.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs version 20 reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GNU Emacs Calc reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   GDB reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Bison reference cards.

____ @ $ 10  = $ ______   Flex reference cards.

T-shirts
--------

GNU/FSF T-shirts (see section FSF T-shirt), thick 100% cotton, available in
black or natural (off-white) in sizes M, L, XL, and XXL, and in burgundy or
blue-green in sizes L and XL.  Please list 1st, 2nd, and 3rd choice of
color.

____ @ $ 18  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 18  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 18  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

____ @ $ 15  = $ ______   Size _____

                          Color choice: 1st _______ 2nd _______ 3rd _______

Older Items
-----------

Older items are only available while supplies last.

____ @ $ 30  = $ ______   Using and Porting GCC, 8.5 x 11 inches, with
                           plastic binding (same text as current edition)

Please fill in the number of each older CD-ROM you order:

     GNU Compiler Tools Binaries CD-ROMs:

Version 1 (December '93)  ______    Version 2 (December '94) ______

Version 3 (December '95)  ______    Version 4 (January '97)  ______

     GNU Source Code CD-ROMs: (Version 5 (Dec. '94) is not available.)

Version 1 (October '92)   ______    Version 2 (May '93) ______

Version 3 (November '93 - last edition with X11R5)  ______

Version 4 (May '94 - first edition with X11R6)  ______

Version 6 (June '95)  ______        Version 7 (Dec. '95)  ______

Version 8 (July '96)  ______        Version 9 (Jan. '97)  ______

Version 8 (March '98)  ______

Please put the total count and cost of the above older CD-ROMs here:

____ @ $ 80  = $ ______   for corporations and other organizations.

____ @ $ 20  = $ ______   for individuals.

                 ======

      Subtotal $ ______

Tax and Shipping Costs
----------------------

             + $ ______   For addresses in Massachusetts: add 5% sales tax
                          or give tax exempt number.  There is no sales tax
                          on T-shirts.
             + $ ______   Shipping fee for addresses in Alaska, Hawaii, or
                          Puerto Rico:
                            $  5.00 base charge;
                          + $  5.00 for *each* Emacs Calc or Emacs Lisp
                            Reference manual ($ 5.00 * #ofMans);
                          + $ 20.00 for *each* CD-ROM subscription
                                             ($20.00 * #ofSubs);
                          + $  1.00 for *each* item other than the above
                            (shipping for all other items =
                                                     $ 1.00 * #ofOtherItems).
             + $ ______   Shipping fee for most Foreign Destinations: (Please
                          do *not* use this formula for addresses in China,
                          Guam, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand,
                          Philippines, and Thailand.  Please contact us for
                          an exact shipping quote.)
                            $ 20.00 base charge for orders to other
                              addresses outside of U.S., Canada, & Puerto Rico:
                          + $ 10.00 for each item ordered, ($ 10.00 * #ofItems)
                          + $ 80.00 for each CD-ROM subscription
                              ($ 80.00 * #ofSubs) (don't count as an item).
                          In Europe, ordering via GNU Distribution Europe,
                          Belgium, may reduce these costs
                          (see section European Distributor).
             + $ ______   Optional (tax-deductible in the U.S.) donation.
                          We suggest 5% if paying by credit card.

         TOTAL $ ______   We pay for shipping via UPS ground transportation in
                          the contiguous 48 states and Canada.  For very
                          large orders, ask about actual shipping costs for
                          that order.

Note:  The shipping fee for foreign destinations covers express courier
       shipping.  If you would like shipping via air mail, please contact
       our distribution office for a quote on your order.

Shipping Information
--------------------

Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Mail Stop/Dept. Name: ________________________________________________________

Organization: ________________________________________________________________

Street Address: ______________________________________________________________

City, State/Province: ________________________________________________________

Zip Code/Postal Code, Country: _______________________________________________

Telephone number in case of a problem with your order.
For international orders, please include a fax number. _______________________

Email Address: _______________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                            |
|  Orders filled only upon receipt of check, money order, or credit card     |
|  order in U.S. dollars.  Unpaid orders will be returned to the sender.     |
|  We do not have the staff to handle the billing of unpaid orders.  Please  |
|  help keep our lives simple by including your payment with your order.     |
|                                                                            |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For orders from outside the U.S.:
---------------------------------

In Europe, you may find it cheaper and more convenient to use our European
Distributor.  See section European Distributor.

You are responsible for paying all duties, tariffs, and taxes.  If you
refuse to pay the charges, the shipper will return or abandon the order.

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 |                                                                         |
 |      Please make checks payable to the ``Free Software Foundation''.    |
 |                                                                         |
 |           Checks must be in U.S. dollars, drawn on a U.S. bank.         |
 |                                                                         |
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

For Credit Card Orders:
-----------------------

The Free Software Foundation takes these credit cards: Carte Blanche,
Diner's Club, Discover, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, or American Express.
Please note that we are charged about 5% of an order's total amount in
credit card processing fees.  Please consider paying by check instead,
or adding on a 5% donation to make up the difference.  To place a credit
card order, please give us this information:

Card type: ___________________________________________________________________

Account Number: ______________________________________________________________

Expiration Date: _____________________________________________________________

Cardholder's Name: ___________________________________________________________

Cardholder's Signature: ______________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                                            |
|     If you wish to pay by wire transfer or you are a reseller, please      |
|     contact us or write us for details.                                    |
|                                                                            |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A possibly more current version of this order form can be found on the
World Wide Web at `http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html' or
can be found in file `/pub/gnu/GNUinfo/ORDERS' on a GNU FTP host
(see section How to Get GNU Software).

                Please mail orders to:  Free Software Foundation
                                        51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor
                                        Boston, MA   02110
PRICES AND CONTENTS MAY CHANGE          +1-617-542-5942
WITHOUT NOTICE AFTER July 31, 1998      Fax (including Japan): +1-617-542-2652

Version: March 1998 Info Bull

Address Page

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                        -------
Free Software Foundation, Inc                          |       |
Electronic Mail: gnu@gnu.org                           | stamp |
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor                            |       |
Boston, MA  02110-1301                                 | here  |
USA                                                    |       |
                                                        -------

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