Speech at WSIS, 16 July 2003
by Richard Stallman
The benefit of computers is that it's easier to copy and manipulate
information. Corporations are using two kinds of imposed monopolies
to deny you this benefit.
Software patents restrict how you use your computer. They restrict
developing software. A big program combines dozens or hundreds of
ideas. When each idea can be patented, only IBMs and Microsofts can
safely write software. Bye bye to any independent local software
industry. Software patents must be rejected.
Copyrights restrict using and sharing information—exactly what
your computer is for. It was fine to trade away the freedom to copy
when only publishers could copy; the public lost nothing. Today
peer-to-peer sharing must be legal. WSIS should not teach people that
sharing is wrong.
Copyrights block access to scientific publications. Every university
should be free to make an open-access mirror for any journal, so no one
is excluded from access.
Then there's the economic effect. When companies have power over you,
they bleed you dry. Copyrights and software patents increase the
digital divide and concentrate wealth. We have too much scarcity in
the world; let's not create more. TRIPS is bad enough, but software
patents and the WIPO copyright treaty go beyond TRIPS, and WSIS should
Computer users need software that respects their freedom. We call it
“free (libre) software”, meaning freedom, not gratis. You
have the freedom to run it, study it, change it, and redistribute
Free software means you control your computing. With non-free
software, the software owners control it. They put in spy features,
back doors, restrictions.
With free software, you can make the program do what you want.
“You” could mean an individual programmer, a company, or a
group of users with similar needs. Non-programmers can convince or
pay programmers to make changes for you. With free software, you're
free to make it handle your language. Free to adapt it for your
Software owners deliberately make programs incompatible. With free
software, users can make it follow standards.
You need free software to train master programmers. Non-free software
is a secret, so nobody can learn from it. Free software gives
talented young people in Africa the chance to learn how to work on
real software. School should also teach students the spirit of
cooperation. All schools should use free software.
Free software is necessary for sustainable development. If everyone
in your country uses a program that's secret and controlled by a
single company, that's not development, that's electronic