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<title>Apple's Operating Systems are Malware
- GNU Project - Free Software Foundation</title>
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<h2>Apple's Operating Systems Are Malware</h2>

<p><a href="/proprietary/proprietary.html">Other examples of proprietary malware</a></p>

<div class="highlight-para"> class="comment">
<p>
<em>Malware</em> means software designed to function in ways that
mistreat or harm the user.  (This does not include accidental errors.)
This page explains how the software in Apple's computer products are
malware.
</p>

<p>
Malware and nonfree software are two different issues.  The difference
between <a href="/philosophy/free-sw.html">free software</a> and
nonfree software is in
<a href="/philosophy/free-software-even-more-important.html">
whether the users have control of the program or vice versa</a>.  It's
not directly a question of what the program <em>does</em> when it
runs.  However, in practice nonfree software is often malware,
because the developer's awareness that the users would be powerless to fix
any malicious functionalities tempts the developer to impose some.
</p>
</div>

<p>Here's how Apple's systems are malware.</p>

<div class="toc"> class="important" style="margin-bottom: 2em">
<p>If you know of an example that ought to be in this page but isn't
here, please write
to <a href="mailto:webmasters@gnu.org"><webmasters@gnu.org></a>
to inform us. Please include the URL of a trustworthy reference or two
to serve as specific substantiation.</p>
</div>
</div>

<div class="malfunctions"> class="summary">
<h3>Type of malware</h3>
<ul>
<li><strong>Type of malware</strong></li>
  <li><a href="#back-doors">Back doors</a></li>
  <li><a href="#censorship">Censorship</a></li>
<!-- <li><a href="#insecurity">Insecurity</a></li>
<li><a href="#pressuring">Pressuring</a></li>
<li><a href="#sabotage">Sabotage</a></li>
<li><a href="#interference">Interference</a></li>
<li><a href="#surveillance">Surveillance</a></li> href="#deception">Deception</a></li> -->
  <li><a href="#drm">Digital restrictions
    management</a> or “DRM” means functionalities “DRM”—functionalities designed
    to restrict what users can do with the data in their computers.</li>
  <li><a href="#incompatibility">Incompatibility</a></li>
  <li><a href="#insecurity">Insecurity</a></li>
<!-- <li><a href="#interference">Interference</a></li> -->
  <li><a href="#jails">Jails</a>—systems
    that impose censorship on application programs.</li>
  <li><a href="#manipulation">Manipulation</a></li>
  <li><a href="#pressuring">Pressuring</a></li>
  <li><a href="#sabotage">Sabotage</a></li>
  <li><a href="#surveillance">Surveillance</a></li>
  <li><a href="#tyrants">Tyrants</a>—systems
    that reject any operating system not “authorized” by the
    manufacturer.</li>
<li><a href="#deception">Deception</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>

<h3 id="back-doors">Apple Back Doors</h3>
<ul>
<li><p>
Mac

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201607284">
    <p>The Dropbox app for Macintosh <a
    href="http://applehelpwriter.com/2016/07/28/revealing-dropboxs-dirty-little-security-hack/">
    takes control of user interface items after luring the user into
    entering an admin password</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201504090">
    <p>Mac OS X had an <a
    href="https://truesecdev.wordpress.com/2015/04/09/hidden-backdoor-api-to-root-privileges-in-apple-os-x/">
    intentional local back door for 4 years</a>, which could be exploited
    by attackers to gain root privileges.
</p></li>

<li><p>The privileges.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201011220">
    <p>The iPhone has a back door for <a
    href="http://www.npr.org/2010/11/22/131511381/wipeout-when-your-company-kills-your-iphone">
    remote wipe</a>.  It's not always enabled, but users are led into
    enabling it without understanding.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200808110">
    <p>The iPhone has a back door <a
    href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3358134/Apples-Jobs-confirms-iPhone-kill-switch.html">
    that allows Apple to remotely delete apps</a> which Apple considers
    “inappropriate”.  Jobs said it's OK for Apple to have
    this power because of course we can trust Apple.
</p></li>

<li><p>The iPhone has a back door for <a
href="http://www.npr.org/2010/11/22/131511381/wipeout-when-your-company-kills-your-iphone">
remote wipe</a>.  It's not always enabled, but users are led into
enabling it without understanding.
</p></li> Apple.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="censorship">Apple Censorship</h3>
<ul>
<li><p>

<p>Apple mainly uses iOS, which is a typical jail, to impose censorship
through the Apple censors
games, Store. Please refer to the <a href="http://arstechnica.com/gaming/2016/05/apple-says-game-about-palestinian-child-isnt-a-game">banning
some games from href="#jails">Apple Jails</a>
section for more information.</p>


<h3 id="drm">Apple DRM</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201704070.1">
    <p>DRM makes the cr…app store</a> because of which political
points they suggest. Some political points are apparently considered
acceptable.</p> iPhone 7 nearly <a
    href="#iphone7-sabotage">unrepairable</a> by anyone else but Apple.</p>
  </li>

<li><p>

  <li id="M201512260">
    <p><a
    href="https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/bmvxp4/switzerland-wants-a-single-universal-phone-charger-by-2017">
    Apple <a href="http://ifixit.org/blog/7401/ifixit-app-pulled/">
banned a program uses DRM software to prevent people from the App Store</a> because its developers
committed the enormity of disassembling some iThings.
</p></li>

<li><p>
Apple rejected charging an app that displayed iThing
    with a generic USB cable</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200811210">
    <p><a
    href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2008/11/apple-downgrades-macbook-video-drm">
    DRM (digital restrictions mechanisms) in MacOS</a>. This article
    focuses on the locations fact that a new model of US drone
assassinations, giving various excuses. Each time the developers
fixed one “problem”, Apple complained about another.
After the fifth rejection,
Apple <a href="http://mashable.com/2014/02/07/apple-app-tracks-drone-strikes/">admitted
it was censoring Macbook introduced a
    requirement for monitors to have malicious hardware, but DRM software
    in MacOS is involved in activating the app based hardware. The software for
    accessing iTunes is also responsible.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200708130">
    <p><a href="http://arstechnica.com/apple/2007/08/aacs-tentacles/">
    DRM that caters to Bluray disks</a>.  (The article focused on Windows
    and said that MacOS would do the subject matter</a>.
</p></li>

<li><p>
As same thing subsequently.)</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M200703310">
    <p>iTunes videos have DRM, which allows Apple to <a
    href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FairPlay">dictate where its
    customers can watch the videos they purchased</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="incompatibility">Apple Incompatibility</h3>

<p>In this section, we list characteristics of 2015, Apple programs that block or
hinder users from switching to any alternative program—and, in
particular, from switching to free software which can liberate the device
the software runs on.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201803300">
    <p>In MacOS and iOS, the procedure for <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/23/apple-anti-choice-tendencies-showing-in-app-store-reproductive-rights">systematically bans apps
    href="https://support.apple.com/guide/photos/export-photos-videos-and-slideshows-pht6e157c5f/mac">
    converting images from the Photos format</a> to a free format is so
    tedious and time-consuming that endorse abortion
rights users just give up if they have a
    lot of them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201802120">
    <p>Apple devices lock users in <a
    href="https://gizmodo.com/homepod-is-the-ultimate-apple-product-in-a-bad-way-1822883347">
    solely to Apple services</a> by being designed to be incompatible
    with all other options, ethical or would help women find abortions</a>.</p>

<p> unethical.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201605044">
    <p>iWork (office software that runs on MacOS,
    iOS and iCloud) uses secret formats and <a
    href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IWork">provides no means of
    converting them to or from Open Document Formats</a>. iWork
    formats have changed several times since they were first
    introduced. This particular political slant may have had the effect of thwarting <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/dec/01/siri-abortion-apple-unintenional-omissions">
affects other Apple services</a>.
</p></li>
    href="https://github.com/obriensp/iWorkFileFormat">reverse engineering
    efforts</a>, thus preventing free software from fully supporting
    them.</p>

    <p>iWork formats are considered <a
    href="https://wiki.harvard.edu/confluence/download/attachments/204385883/Format%20profile%20-%20Apple%20iWork%20Pages%20v04.docx?version=1&modificationDate=1459873751000&api=v2">
    unfit for document preservation</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="insecurity">Apple Insecurity</h3>

<ul>
  <li>

<p>These bugs are/were not intentional, so unlike the rest of the file
  they do not count as malware. We mention them to refute the
  supposition that prestigious proprietary software doesn't have grave
  bugs.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201607220">
    <p>A vulnerability in Apple's Image I/O API allowed an attacker to <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/22/stagefright-flaw-ios-iphone-imessage-apple">execute
    malacious
    malicious code from any application which uses this API to render a
    certain kind of image file</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201604120">
    <p>A bug in the iThings Messages app <a
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/04/12/apple-bug-exposed-chat-history-with-a-single-click/">allowed
    a malicious web site to extract all the user's messaging history</a>.
    </p>
    history</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201311120">
    <p><a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180816030205/http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/privacy-scandal-nsa-can-spy-on-smart-phone-data-a-920971.html">
    The NSA can tap data in smart phones, including iPhones,
    Android, and BlackBerry</a>.  While there is not much
    detail here, it seems that this does not operate via
    the universal back door that we know nearly all portable
    phones have. It may involve exploiting various bugs.  There are <a
    href="http://www.osnews.com/story/27416/The_second_operating_system_hiding_in_every_mobile_phone">
    lots of bugs in the phones' radio software</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<!--
<h3 id="interference">Apple Interference</h3>
<p>Various proprietary programs often mess up the user's system. They are like sabotage, but they are not grave enough to qualify 
for the word “sabotage”. Nonetheless, they are nasty and wrong. This section describes examples of Apple committing
interference.</p>

<ul>
  <li><p>Apple forced millions -->


<h3 id="jails">Apple Jails</h3>

<p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IOS_jailbreaking&oldid=835861046">
iOS, the operating system of iThings the Apple iThings, is the prototype
of a jail</a>.  It was Apple that introduced the practice of
designing general purpose computers with censorship of application
programs.</p>

<p>Here is an article about the <a
href="http://weblog.rogueamoeba.com/2008/03/07/code-signing-and-you/">
code signing</a> that the iThings use to lock up the user.</p>

<p>Curiously, Apple is beginning to allow limited passage through the
walls of the iThing jail: users can now install apps built from
source code, provided the source code is written in Swift.  Users
cannot do this freely because they are required to identify
themselves. <a href="https://developer.apple.com/xcode/">Here
are details</a>. While this is a crack in the prison walls, it is not
big enough to mean that the iThings are no longer jails.</p>

<h4>Examples of censorship by Apple jails</h4>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201905150">
    <p>Users caught in the jail of an iMonster are <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2019/05/15/brittle-security.html"> sitting
    ducks for other attackers</a>, and the app censorship prevents security
    companies from figuring out how those attacks work.</p>

    <p>Apple's censorship of apps is fundamentally unjust, and would be
    inexcusable even if it didn't lead to security threats as well.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201710130">
    <p>Apple is <a
    href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2017/10/iranian-hardliners-want-isolated-internet">
    censoring apps for the US government too</a>. Specifically, it is
    deleting apps developed by Iranians.</p>

    <p>The root of these wrongs are in Apple. If Apple had not designed
    the iMonsters to let Apple censor applications, Apple would not have
    had the power to stop users from installing whatever kind of apps.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201707290">
    <p>Apple <a
    href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/29/technology/china-apple-censorhip.html">
    deleted several VPNs from its app store for China</a>, thus using its
    own censorship power to strengthen that of the Chinese government.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201701064">
    <p>Apple used its censorship system to enforce Russian surveillance <a
    href="http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/06/technology/linkedin-blocked-in-russia.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0">
    by blocking distribution of the LinkedIn app in Russia</a>.</p>

    <p>This is ironic because LinkedIn is a surveillance system itself.
    While subjecting its users to its own surveillance, it tries to
    protect its users from Russian surveillance, and is therefore subject
    to Russian censorship.</p>

    <p>However, the point here is the wrong of Apple's censorship of
    apps.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201701050">
    <p>Apple used its censorship system to enforce China's censorship <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/05/apple-removes-new-york-times-app-in-china">
    by blocking distribution of the New York Times app</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201605190">
    <p>Apple censors games, <a
    href="http://arstechnica.com/gaming/2016/05/apple-says-game-about-palestinian-child-isnt-a-game">
    banning some games from the cr…app store</a> because of which
    political points they suggest. Some political points are apparently
    considered acceptable.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201509290">
    <p>Apple <a href="http://ifixit.org/blog/7401/ifixit-app-pulled/">
    banned a program from the App Store</a> because its developers
    committed the enormity of disassembling some iThings.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201509230">
    <p>As of 2015, Apple <a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/23/apple-anti-choice-tendencies-showing-in-app-store-reproductive-rights">
    systematically bans apps that endorse abortion rights or would help
    women find abortions</a>.</p>

    <p>This particular political slant <a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/dec/01/siri-abortion-apple-unintenional-omissions">
    affects other Apple services</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201506250">
    <p>Apple has banned iThing
    applications that show the confederate flag.  <a
    href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/25/apple-confederate-flag_n_7663754.html">
    Not only those that use it as a symbol of racism</a>, but even
    strategic games that use it to represent confederate army units
    fighting in the Civil War.</p>

    <p>This ludicrous rigidity illustrates the point that Apple should
    not be allowed to censor apps.  Even if Apple carried out this act of
    censorship with some care, it would still be wrong.  Whether racism
    is bad, whether educating people about drone attacks is bad, are not
    the real issue.  Apple should not have the power to impose its views
    about either of these questions, or any other.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201412110">
    <p><a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/11/papers-please-game-ipad-nude-body-scans">
    More examples of Apple's arbitrary and inconsistent censorship</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201405250">
    <p>Apple used this censorship power in 2014 to <a
    href="http://boingboing.net/2014/02/07/apple-yanks-last-remaining-bit.html">
    ban all bitcoin apps</a> for the iThings for a time.  It also <a
    href="http://www.gamespot.com/articles/apple-removes-game-about-growing-marijuana-from-app-store/1100-6419864/">
    banned a game about growing marijuana</a>, while permitting games
    about other crimes such as killing people.  Perhaps Apple considers
    killing more acceptable than marijuana.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201402070">
    <p>Apple rejected an app that displayed the locations
    of US drone assassinations, giving various excuses. Each
    time the developers fixed one “problem”, Apple
    complained about another.  After the fifth rejection, Apple <a
    href="http://mashable.com/2014/02/07/apple-app-tracks-drone-strikes/">
    admitted it was censoring the app based on the subject matter</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="manipulation">Apple Manipulation</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201308290">
    <p>“Dark patterns” are <a
    href="http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/29/4640308/dark-patterns-inside-the-interfaces-designed-to-trick-you">user
    interfaces designed to mislead users, or make option settings hard
    to find</a>.</p>

    <p>This allows a company such as Apple to say, “We allow users
    to turn this off” while ensuring that few will understand how
    to download a system upgrade
         <a href="https://discussions.apple.com/thread/7256669?tstart0=">without asking the users</a>. 
         Apple did not forcibly install the upgrade but the downloading alone caused lots of trouble.</p> actually turn it off.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="pressuring">Apple Pressuring</h3>

<p>Proprietary companies can take advantage of their customers by imposing arbitrary limits to their use of the software.  This section reports examples of hard sell and other unjust commercial tactics by Apple.</p>

<ul>
  <li><p>Apple

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201510270">
    <p>Apple Siri <a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/27/apple-music-subscribers-siri-questions">refuses
    to give you information</a> about music charts if you're not an Apple
    Music subscriber.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="sabotage">Apple Sabotage</h3>

<p>The wrongs in this section

<p>These are not precisely malware, since they do
not involve making the program that runs situations in a way that hurts the user.
But they are a lot like malware, since they are technical which Apple
actions employs its power over users
to directly intervene in ways that harm to them or block their work.</p>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201810240">
    <p>Apple and Samsung deliberately <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/oct/24/apple-samsung-fined-for-slowing-down-phones">degrade
    the users performance of specific older phones to force users to buy their newer
    phones</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201805310">
    <p>Apple has <a
    href="https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/31/17412396/telegram-apple-app-store-app-updates-russia">blocked
    Telegram from upgrading its app for a month</a>.</p>

    <p>This evidently has to do with Russia's command to Apple software.</p>

<ul>
  <li> to block
    Telegram in Russia.</p>

    <p>The Apple Music Telegram client
      program is free software on other platforms, but not on
    iThings. Since <a href="/proprietary/proprietary-jails.html#apple">they
    are jails</a>, they don't permit any app to be free software.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201710044">
    <p>MacOS High Sierra forcibly reformats SSD boot drives, and <a href="https://blog.vellumatlanta.com/2016/05/04/apple-stole-my-music-no-seriously/">scans
    href="https://www.macworld.com/article/3230498/apple-file-system-apfs-faq.html">
    changes the user's file system from HFS+  to APFS</a>, which cannot be
    accessed from GNU/Linux, Windows or even older versions of MacOS.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201706060">
    <p>Apple will stop <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jun/06/iphone-ipad-apps-games-apple-5-5c-obsolete">fixing
    bugs for music files, copies them older model iThings</a>.</p>

    <p>Meanwhile, Apple stops people from fixing problems themselves;
    that's the nature of proprietary software.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201704070">
    <p id="iphone7-sabotage">The
    iPhone 7 contains DRM specifically designed to <a
    href="https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/kbjm8e/iphone-7-home-button-unreplaceable-repair-software-lock">
    brick it if an Apple
      server, and deletes them</a>.</p> “unauthorized” repair shop fixes it</a>.
    “Unauthorized” essentially means anyone besides Apple.</p>

    <p>The article uses the term “lock”
    to describe the DRM, but we prefer to use the term <a
    href="/philosophy/words-to-avoid.html#DigitalLocks"> digital
    handcuffs</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201606080">
    <p>Apple <a
href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160608183145/http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/04/14/uninstall_quicktime_for_windows/">
    href="https://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/04/14/uninstall_quicktime_for_windows/">
    stops users from fixing the security bugs in Quicktime for Windows</a>,
    while refusing to fix them itself.</p>
  </li>

  <li>

  <li id="M201605040">
    <p>The Apple Music client program <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170520213355/https://blog.vellumatlanta.com/2016/05/04/apple-stole-my-music-no-seriously/">scans
    the user's file system for music files, copies them to an Apple server,
    and deletes them</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201602050">
    <p>iOS version 9 for iThings <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/money/2016/feb/05/error-53-apple-iphone-software-update-handset-worthless-third-party-repair">sabotages
    them irreparably if they were repaired by someone other than
    Apple</a>. Apple eventually backed off from this policy under
    criticism from the users. However, it has not acknowledged users. However, it has not acknowledged that this
    was wrong.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201510020">
    <p>Apple forced millions of iThings to <a
    href="https://discussions.apple.com/thread/7256669?tstart=0">download
    a system upgrade without asking the users</a>. Apple did not
    forcibly install the upgrade but the downloading alone caused lots
    of trouble.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201412040">
    <p>Apple <a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/04/apple-deleted-music-ipods-rivals-steve-jobs">
    deleted from iPods the music that
    this was wrong.</p> users had got from internet music
    stores that competed with iTunes</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.computerworld.com/article/2541250/apple-mac/update--apple-plays-hardball--upgrade--bricks--unlocked-iphones.html">

  <li id="M200709270">
    <p><a
    href="https://www.computerworld.com/article/2541250/update--apple-plays-hardball--upgrade--bricks--unlocked-iphones.html">
    An Apple firmware “upgrade” bricked iPhones that had been
  unlocked.</a>
    unlocked</a>.  The “upgrade” also deactivated applications
    not approved by <a href="/proprietary/proprietary-jails.html">Apple
    censorship</a>.  All this was apparently intentional.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple
</ul>


<h3 id="surveillance">Apple Surveillance</h3>

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201906030">
    <p>Apple can <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/04/apple-deleted-music-ipods-rivals-steve-jobs">
  deleted
    href="https://www.macrumors.com/2019/06/03/apples-new-find-my-app/">
    track iMonsters even when they are suspended</a>.</p>

    <p>This distributed bluetooth network is said to be
    “secure,” but it is obviously <em>not</em> secure from iPods
    Apple or from governments that can command Apple's obedience (such
    as the music US and China).</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201905280">
    <p>In spite of Apple's supposed commitment to
    privacy, iPhone apps contain trackers that users had got from internet music
  stores are busy at night <a
    href="https://freediggz.com/2019/05/28/perspective-its-the-middle-of-the-night-do-you-know-who-your-iphone-is-talking-to/">
    sending users' personal information to third parties</a>.</p>

    <p>The article mentions specific examples: Microsoft OneDrive,
    Intuit’s Mint, Nike, Spotify, The Washington Post, The Weather
    Channel (owned by IBM), the crime-alert service Citizen, Yelp
    and DoorDash. But it is likely that competed with iTunes</a>.</p> most nonfree apps contain
    trackers. Some of these send personally identifying data such as phone
    fingerprint, exact location, email address, phone number or even
    delivery address (in the case of DoorDash). Once this information
    is collected by the company, there is no telling what it will be
    used for.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="surveillance">Apple Surveillance</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>iPhones

  <li id="M201809070">
    <p>Adware Doctor, an ad blocker for MacOS, <a
    href="https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/wjye8x/mac-anti-adware-doctor-app-steals-browsing-history">reports
    the user's browsing history</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201711250">
    <p>The DMCA and the EU Copyright Directive make it <a
    href="https://boingboing.net/2017/11/25/la-la-la-cant-hear-you.html">
    illegal to study how iOS cr…apps spy on users</a>, because
    this would require circumventing the iOS DRM.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201709210">
    <p>In the latest iThings system,
    “turning off” WiFi and Bluetooth the obvious way <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/21/ios-11-apple-toggling-wifi-bluetooth-control-centre-doesnt-turn-them-off">
    doesn't really turn them off</a>.  A more advanced way really does turn
    them off—only until 5am.  That's Apple for you—“We
    know you want to be spied on”.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201702150">
    <p>Apple proposes <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/feb/15/apple-removing-iphone-home-button-fingerprint-scanning-screen">a
    fingerprint-scanning touch screen</a>—which would mean no way
    to use it without having your fingerprints taken. Users would have
    no way to tell whether the phone is snooping on them.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201611170">
    <p>iPhones <a href="https://theintercept.com/2016/11/17/iphones-secretly-send-call-history-to-apple-security-firm-says">send
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/11/17/iphones-secretly-send-call-history-to-apple-security-firm-says/">send
    lots of personal data to Apple's servers</a>.  Big Brother can get
    them from there.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201609280">
    <p>The iMessage app on iThings <a
    href="https://theintercept.com/2016/09/28/apple-logs-your-imessage-contacts-and-may-share-them-with-police/">tells
    a server every phone number that the user types into it</a>; the
    server records these numbers for at least 30 days.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Users cannot make an Apple ID (<a href="http://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/49951/how-can-i-download-free-apps-without-registering-an-apple-idcool">necessary to install even gratis apps</a>) without giving a valid email address and receiving the verification code Apple 
      sends to it.</p>
  </li>
  <li><p>iThings

  <li id="M201509240">
    <p>iThings automatically upload to Apple's servers all the photos
    and videos they make.</p>

    <blockquote><p> iCloud Photo Library stores every photo and video you
    take, and keeps them up to date on all your devices. Any edits you
    make are automatically updated everywhere. [...] […] </p></blockquote>

    <p>(From <a href="https://www.apple.com/icloud/photos/">Apple's iCloud
    information</a> as accessed on 24 Sep 2015.) The iCloud feature is
    <a href="https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202033">activated by the
    startup of iOS</a>. The term “cloud” means “please
    don't ask where.”</p>

    <p>There is a way to
    <a href="https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201104"> deactivate
    iCloud</a>, but it's active by default so it still counts as a
    surveillance functionality.</p>

    <p>Unknown people apparently took advantage of this to <a
    href="https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/sep/01/naked-celebrity-hack-icloud-backup-jennifer-lawrence">get
    nude photos of many celebrities</a>. They needed to break Apple's
    security to get at them, but NSA can access any of them through
      <a href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html#digitalcash">PRISM</a>.
  </p></li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2014/10/30/how-one-mans-private-files-ended-up-on-apples-icloud-without-his-consent/">
  MacOS automatically sends to Apple servers unsaved documents being
  edited</a>. The <a
  href="https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/10/apple_copies_yo.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter">
  things you have not decided to save are even more sensitive than the
  things you have stored in files</a>.</p> of them through <a
    href="/philosophy/surveillance-vs-democracy.html#digitalcash">PRISM</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201411040">
    <p>Apple has made various <a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/04/apple-data-privacy-icloud">
    MacOS programs send files to Apple servers without asking
    permission</a>.  This exposes the files to Big Brother and perhaps
    to other snoops.</p>

    <p>It also demonstrates how you can't trust proprietary software,
    because even if today's version doesn't have a malicious functionality,
    tomorrow's version might add it. The developer won't remove the
    malfeature unless many users push back hard, and the users can't
    remove it themselves.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Various operations in
  <a href="http://lifehacker.com/safari-and-spotlight-can-send-data-to-apple-heres-how-1648453540">
  the latest

  <li id="M201410300">
    <p> MacOS send reports to Apple</a> servers.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Spyware in MacOS: automatically <a href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
  Spotlight search</a>
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170831144456/https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2014/10/30/how-one-mans-private-files-ended-up-on-apples-icloud-without-his-consent/">
    sends users' search terms to Apple.</p> Apple servers unsaved documents being edited</a>. The
    things you have not decided to save are <a
    href="https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/10/apple_copies_yo.html?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter/">
    even more sensitive</a> than the things you have stored in files.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201410220">
    <p>Apple admits the <a
    href="http://www.intego.com/mac-security-blog/spotlight-suggestions-in-os-x-yosemite-and-ios-are-you-staying-private/">
    spying in a search facility</a>, but there's a lot <a
    href="https://github.com/fix-macosx/yosemite-phone-home"> more snooping
    that Apple has not talked about</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/23/iphone-backdoors-surveillance-forensic-services">
  Several “features” of iOS seem to exist for no possible
  purpose other than surveillance</a>.  Here is the <a
  href="http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/iOS_Backdoors_Attack_Points_Surveillance_Mechanisms_Moved.pdf">
  Technical presentation</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201410200">
    <p>Various operations in <a
  href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
  iBeacon</a> lets stores determine exactly where
    href="http://lifehacker.com/safari-and-spotlight-can-send-data-to-apple-heres-how-1648453540">
    the iThing is, and
  get other info too.</p> latest MacOS send reports to Apple</a> servers.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>Apple

  <li id="M201409220">
    <p>Apple can, and regularly does, <a
    href="http://arstechnica.com/apple/2014/05/new-guidelines-outline-what-iphone-data-apple-can-give-to-police/">
    remotely extract some data from iPhones for the state</a>.
  </p> state</a>.</p>

    <p>This may have improved with <a
    href="http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/2014/09/17/2612af58-3ed2-11e4-b03f-de718edeb92f_story.html">
    iOS 8 security improvements</a>; but <a
    href="https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/22/apple-data/">
    not as much as Apple claims</a>.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="drm">Apple DRM</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p><a
  href="http://motherboard.vice.com/read/switzerland-wants-a-single-universal-phone-charger-by-2017">
  Apple uses DRM software to prevent people from charging an iThing with a 
  generic USB cable</a>.</p></li>
  
  <li><p><a
  href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2008/11/apple-downgrades-macbook-video-drm">
  DRM (digital restrictions mechanisms) in MacOS</a>. This article
  focuses on the fact that a new model of Macbook introduced a requirement
  for monitors to have malicious hardware, but DRM software in MacOS is
  involved in activating the hardware. The software for accessing iTunes
  is also responsible.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p><a href="http://arstechnica.com/apple/2007/08/aacs-tentacles/">
  DRM that caters to Bluray disks</a>.  (The article focused on Windows
  and said that MacOS would do the same thing subsequently.)</p></li>
</ul>

<h3 id="jails">Apple Jails</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p><a href="http://boingboing.net/2010/04/02/why-i-wont-buy-an-ipad-and-think-yo.html">
  iOS, the operating system of the Apple iThings, is a jail for
  users.</a>  That means it imposes censorship of application programs.</p>

  <p>Apple has used this power to
  <a href="http://boingboing.net/2014/02/07/apple-yanks-last-remaining-bit.html">
  censor all bitcoin apps</a> for the iThings.</p>

  <p>Apple, in the iThings, pioneered the practice

  <li id="M201407230">
    <p><a
    href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/23/iphone-backdoors-surveillance-forensic-services">
    Several “features” of general purpose
  computers that are jails, and the term comes from iThing users, who
  referred to escaping from the censorship as “jailbreaking.”</p>

  <p>Here iOS seem to exist
    for no possible purpose other than surveillance</a>.  Here is an article about the <a
  href="http://weblog.rogueamoeba.com/2008/03/07/code-signing-and-you/">
  code signing</a> that the iThings use
    href="http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/iOS_Backdoors_Attack_Points_Surveillance_Mechanisms_Moved.pdf">
    Technical presentation</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201401100.1">
    <p><a
    href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
    Spotlight search</a> sends users' search terms to jail Apple.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201401100">
    <p>The <a class="not-a-duplicate"
    href="http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/the-exchange/privacy-advocates-worry-over-new-apple-iphone-tracking-feature-161836223.html">
    iBeacon</a> lets stores determine exactly where the user.</p>

  <p>Curiously, iThing is, and
    get other info too.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201312300">
    <p><a
    href="http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-12-30/how-nsa-hacks-your-iphone-presenting-dropout-jeep">
    Either Apple is beginning to allow limited passage through the
  walls of helps the NSA snoop on all the data in an iThing, or it
    is totally incompetent</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201308080">
    <p>The iThing jail: users also <a
    href="https://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/08/08/ios7_tracking_now_its_a_favourite_feature/">
    tells Apple its geolocation</a> by default, though that can now install apps built from
  source code, provided the source code be
    turned off.</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201210170">
    <p>There is written in Swift.  Users
  cannot do this freely because they are required also a feature for web sites to identify themselves.
  <a href="https://developer.apple.com/xcode/">Here are details.</a></p>

  <p>While this track users, which is a crack in the prison walls, <a
    href="http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2012/10/17/how-to-disable-apple-ios-user-tracking-ios-6/">
    enabled by default</a>.  (That article talks about iOS 6, but it is not big enough
    still true in iOS 7.)</p>
  </li>

  <li id="M201204280">
    <p>Users cannot make an Apple ID (<a
    href="https://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/49951/how-can-i-download-free-apps-without-registering-an-apple-id">necessary
    to
  mean that the iThings are no longer jails.</p></li>

  <li><p><a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/11/papers-please-game-ipad-nude-body-scans">
  More examples of Apple's arbitrary install even gratis apps</a>) without giving a valid
    email address and inconsistent censorship</a>.</p> receiving the verification code Apple sends
    to it.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


<h3 id="tyrants">Apple Tyrants</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>Apple

<ul class="blurbs">
  <li id="M201412010">
    <p>Apple arbitrarily <a href="http://9to5mac.com/2014/12/01/ios-8-1-signing-window-closed/">
  blocks
    href="http://9to5mac.com/2014/12/01/ios-8-1-signing-window-closed/">blocks
    users from installing old versions of iOS</a>.</p>
  </li>

  <li><p>The

  <li id="M201205280">
    <p>The Apple iThings are tyrant devices: they do not permit
  installing a different or modified operating system. devices.  There is a
    port of Android to the iThings, but installing it requires <a
    href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150721065208/http://www.idroidproject.org/wiki/Status">
    finding a bug or “exploit”</a> to make it possible to
    install a different system.</p>
  </li>
</ul>

<h3 id="deception">Apple Deception</h3>
<ul>
  <li><p>“Dark patterns”
      are <a href="http://www.theverge.com/2013/8/29/4640308/dark-patterns-inside-the-interfaces-designed-to-trick-you">user
      interfaces designed to mislead users, or make option settings
      hard to find</a>.</p>

    <p>This allows a company such as Apple to say, “We allow
    users to turn this off” while ensuring that few will
    understand how to actually turn it off.</p>
  </li>
</ul>


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