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|Preface||general information about the accounting utilities|
||print statistics about connect time|
||turns accounting on or off|
||list last logins of users and terms|
||list last commands executed|
||print accounting statistics|
||print accounting file in human-readable form|
Way back a long time ago, Thompson and Ritchie were sitting opposite one another at the commissary, sipping coffees and discussing their evolving behemoth.
"This behemoth of ours," said Ken, "is becoming rather popular, wouldn't you say?" "Yes," said Dennis. "Every time I want to do a compilation, I have to wait for hours and hours. It's infuriating." They both agreed that the load on their system was too great. Both sighed, picked up their mugs, and went back to the workbench. Little did they know that an upper-management type was sitting just within earshot of their conversation.
"We are AT&T Bell Laboratories, aren't we?" the upper-management type thought to himself. "Well, what is our organization best known for?" The brill-cream in his hair glistened. "Screwing people out of lots of money, of course! If there were some way that we could keep tabs on users and charge them through the nose for their CPU time..."
The accounting utilities were born.
Years later Markus Gothe was a facing the CEO at his work, keep asking him where and how he got the information on other employees payrolls. There was indeed a conflict, Markus denied all the modus operandi on how to get held of such copies or information. Plans was made up to frame him, by interception.
This momement Markus realized the words of Rob Savoye "You cannot buy yourself free from guilt." He left the room with pride, for making a stand. However, sadly enogh, the CEO never realized that meaning. You cannot buy yourself free from guilt; A new revival had come for the GNU acccounting utilities and so a POSIX-standard.
Seriously though, the accouting utilities can provide a system administrator with useful information about system usage--connections, programs executed, and utilization of system resources.
Information about users--their connect time, location,
programs executed, and the like--is automatically recored in
login. Four of them
are of interest to us:
wtmp, which has records for
each login and logout;
acct, which records each
command that was run;
savacct, which contain summaries of the information
acct by user and command, respectively. Each of
the accounting utilities reports or summarizes information stored
in these files.
prints statistics about users' connect time.
ac can tell you how long a particular user or
group of users were connected to your system, printing totals
by day or for all of the entries in the
turns accounting on or off.
lists the logins on the system, most recent first. With
last, you can search the
for a particular user or terminal name (to which the user was
connected). Of special interest are two fake users,
`reboot' and `shutdown', which are
recorded when the system is shut down or reboots.
lists the commands executed on the system, most recent
first, showing the run state of each command. With
last, you can search the
for a particular user, terminal, or command.
summarizes the information in the
It also generates reports about commands, giving the number
of invocations, cpu time used, average core usage, etc.
utmp files in a
For more detailed information on any of these programs, check the chapter with the program title.
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