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5. sa

sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as recorded in the acct file. In addition, it condenses this data into the savacct summary file, which contains the number of times the command was called and the system resources used. The information can also be summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information into usracct. Usage:

sa [opts] [file]

If no arguments are specified, sa will print information about all of the commands in the acct file. If command names have unprintable characters, or are only called once, sa will sort them into a group called ***other. Overall totals for each field are gathered and printed with a blank command name.

If called with a file name as the last argument, sa will use that file instead of acct.

By default, sa will sort the output by sum of user and system time.

The output fields are labeled as follows:

cpu

sum of system and user time in cpu seconds

re

"real time" in cpu seconds

k

cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

avio

average number of I/O operations per execution

tio

total number of I/O operations

k*sec

cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)

u

user cpu time in cpu seconds

s

system time in cpu seconds

Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the table, but after each numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every row. For example, you might see 79.29re, meaning 79.29 cpu seconds of "real time."

An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but didn't call exec.


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