The History library provides a history expansion feature that is similar
to the history expansion provided by
csh. This section
describes the syntax used to manipulate the history information.
History expansions introduce words from the history list into the input stream, making it easy to repeat commands, insert the arguments to a previous command into the current input line, or fix errors in previous commands quickly.
History expansion is performed immediately after a complete line is read, before the shell breaks it into words, and is performed on each line individually. Bash attempts to inform the history expansion functions about quoting still in effect from previous lines.
History expansion takes place in two parts. The first is to determine which line from the history list should be used during substitution. The second is to select portions of that line for inclusion into the current one. The line selected from the history is called the event, and the portions of that line that are acted upon are called words. Various modifiers are available to manipulate the selected words. The line is broken into words in the same fashion that Bash does, so that several words surrounded by quotes are considered one word. History expansions are introduced by the appearance of the history expansion character, which is ‘!’ by default.
History expansion implements shell-like quoting conventions: a backslash can be used to remove the special handling for the next character; single quotes enclose verbatim sequences of characters, and can be used to inhibit history expansion; and characters enclosed within double quotes may be subject to history expansion, since backslash can escape the history expansion character, but single quotes may not, since they are not treated specially within double quotes.
When using the shell, only ‘\’ and ‘'’ may be used to escape the history expansion character, but the history expansion character is also treated as quoted if it immediately precedes the closing double quote in a double-quoted string.
Several shell options settable with the
builtin (see The Shopt Builtin) may be used to tailor
the behavior of history expansion. If the
histverify shell option is enabled, and Readline
is being used, history substitutions are not immediately passed to
the shell parser.
Instead, the expanded line is reloaded into the Readline
editing buffer for further modification.
If Readline is being used, and the
shell option is enabled, a failed history expansion will be
reloaded into the Readline editing buffer for correction.
The -p option to the
history builtin command
may be used to see what a history expansion will do before using it.
The -s option to the
history builtin may be used to
add commands to the end of the history list without actually executing
them, so that they are available for subsequent recall.
This is most useful in conjunction with Readline.
The shell allows control of the various characters used by the
history expansion mechanism with the
as explained above (see Bash Variables). The shell uses
the history comment character to mark history timestamps when
writing the history file.