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1.6 Locations

Many applications, like interpreters or compilers, have to produce verbose and useful error messages. To achieve this, one must be able to keep track of the textual location, or location, of each syntactic construct. Bison provides a mechanism for handling these locations.

Each token has a semantic value. In a similar fashion, each token has an associated location, but the type of locations is the same for all tokens and groupings. Moreover, the output parser is equipped with a default data structure for storing locations (see Tracking Locations, for more details).

Like semantic values, locations can be reached in actions using a dedicated set of constructs. In the example above, the location of the whole grouping is @$, while the locations of the subexpressions are @1 and @3.

When a rule is matched, a default action is used to compute the semantic value of its left hand side (see Actions). In the same way, another default action is used for locations. However, the action for locations is general enough for most cases, meaning there is usually no need to describe for each rule how @$ should be formed. When building a new location for a given grouping, the default behavior of the output parser is to take the beginning of the first symbol, and the end of the last symbol.