This is c-graph.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.11 from
c-graph.texi.
This is a manual for GNU C-Graph version 2.0, a tool for learning about
convolution.
Copyright (C) 1982, 1983, 1996, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Adrienne Gaye
Thompson, Sole Author. GNU C-Graph version 2.0. Derived from BSc.
dissertation "Interactive Computer Package Demonstrating: Sampling
Convolution and the FFT", University of Aberdeen, Scotland (1983). For
the code from the dissertation, visit
.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
INFO-DIR-SECTION Mathematics
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* C-Graph:: Tool for demonstrating convolution.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
_for_ *ALL the VICTIMS of APARTHEID STRUGGLING to be FREE*
_and_
_to_ *REGNIER*
_You're sending me discrete signals from across the room,_
_I respond on impulse, reflecting on the sampling of events_
_That were a dichotomy from the day you left your mother's womb;_
_Multiplied in frequency, integrated in time, a weighted confluence_
_Of sliding, shifting trains of thought, alternative messages under transformation;_
_Counterpoint, duality, involution, contradistinction without confusion;_
_Independence in summation. Silence - this is convoluted conversation._
File: c-graph.info, Node: Top, Next: Foreword, Up: (dir)
C-Graph:
********
This is a manual for GNU C-Graph version 2.0, a tool for learning about
convolution.
* Menu:
* Foreword:: Origin and Motivaton
* Overview:: Description of C-Graph
* Invoking C-Graph:: How to Run C-Graph
* The Signals:: Selecting the Signals
* A C-Graph Session:: A Typical C-Graph Session
* Reporting Bugs:: Bug Reports and Suggestions
* Appendix A:: A Sketch of Convolution Theory
* Appendix B:: References
* GNU Free Documentation License:: Sharing This Document
* Index:: Index
File: c-graph.info, Node: Foreword, Next: Overview, Prev: Top, Up: Top
1 Foreword
**********
From the shadow cast by light to the echo in a cave convolution, like
the ubiquitous Fibonacci series, is a mathematical description of
naturally ocurring physical phenomena in any linear, time-invariant
system capable of responding to an input signal. Today, convolution -
the combination of two signals to produce a third - has wide ranging
applications. Edge detection in computer vision, algorithms for robot
motion, signal and image processing, crystallography, statistics and
probability theory, differential equations, linear algebra, numerical
analysis, and even recent innovations in music production - all utilise
techniques involving convolution.
GNU C-Graph (for Convolution Graph) is a tool for visualizing the
convolution of two signals. The package is a reproduction of the Fortran
77 program in my BSc. Electrical Engineering (Honours) dissertation
"Interactive Computer Program Demonstrating: Sampling Convolution and
the FFT", University of Aberdeen, Scotland, 1983. In this version I have
included pulses, scaling of the signals, and error-handling - features
that were not part of my original Thesis.
Whether student engineer or scientist, aspiring special-effects animator
or roboticist, GNU C-Graph will help you find the adventure in the
mathematics of convolution.
- _Adrienne Gaye Thompson_
File: c-graph.info, Node: Overview, Next: Invoking C-Graph, Prev: Foreword, Up: Top
2 Overview
**********
* Menu:
* About:: About C-Graph
* Required Software:: Dependencies
File: c-graph.info, Node: About, Next: Required Software, Up: Overview
2.1 About
=========
GNU C-Graph computes the linear convolution of two signals in the time
domain then compares their circular convolution by demonstrating the
"convolution theorem" - convolution of two signals in the time domain
corresponds to multiplication in the frequency domain. Each signal is
modelled by a register of discrete values simulating samples of a
signal, and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) computed by means of
the Fast Fourier Transform ("FFT"). *Note Appendix A::, for an
explanation of the convolution theorem.
GNU C-Graph is interactive, prompting the user to enter single character
or numerical values from the keyboard, thereby dispensing with the
learning curve for coding formulae. The user chooses 2 from a menu of 8
signal types, and up to 5 parameters to define the waveforms. The
signals chosen may be periodic, aperiodic, or pulses. C-Graph then plots
3 graphs:
1. The time domain representation of both signals;
2. Their Fourier transforms;
3. A comparison of their linear and circular convolution.
*Note A C-Graph Session::, for a typical C-Graph session.
GNU C-Graph will be useful to students of signal theory in the study of
convolution and spectral analysis. This version (2.0) uses a simple FFT
written by Arthur Wouk and converted to Fortran 90 by Alan Miller
(*note Appendix B::).
File: c-graph.info, Node: Required Software, Prev: About, Up: Overview
2.2 Required Software
=====================
GNU C-Graph is written in contemporary Fortran. The package runs on
GNU/Linux, was developed with GFortan and G95, and uses Gnuplot 4.2 as
well as Image Magick 6.6.
Experienced users wishing to use other compilers may supply the
necessary command-line options to `configure' during installation. See
the file `INSTALL' for basic installation instructions.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Invoking C-Graph, Next: The Signals, Prev: Overview, Up: Top
3 Invoking C-Graph
******************
To run GNU C-Graph, open up a terminal in X and type `c-graph'. C-Graph
supports the following options:
`--dedicate'
`-d'
Print the dedication and exit.
`--help'
`-h'
Print a summary of the command line options and exit.
`--no-splash'
`-n'
Invoke GNU C-Graph with no splash screen.
`--version'
`-v'
Print the version number and licensing information of GNU C-Graph,
then exit.
File: c-graph.info, Node: The Signals, Next: A C-Graph Session, Prev: Invoking C-Graph, Up: Top
4 The Signals
*************
* Menu:
* The Menu:: Available signals for convolution
* Parameters:: Input parameters for signal generation
* Defaults & Error Handling:: Assumptions for unexpected input
* Frequency Selection:: Frequency arithmetic
File: c-graph.info, Node: The Menu, Next: Parameters, Up: The Signals
4.1 The Menu
============
C-Graph presents the following menu of signals from which the user
chooses 2:
`SIGNAL' `CODE'
-------------------------
`Sine' `A'
`Cosine' `B'
`Triangle' `C'
`Square' `D'
`Sawtooth' `E'
`Exponential' `F'
`Ramp' `G'
`Step' `H'
Signals `A' to `E' are periodic, while `F', `G', and `H' are aperiodic.
Pulses may also be chosen; these are a half period in duration 1/2f,
where f is the frequency of the corresponding cyclical waveform.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Parameters, Next: Defaults & Error Handling, Prev: The Menu, Up: The Signals
4.2 Parameters
==============
The user enters up to 5 parameters to generate the signals, their FFTs
and their convolution:
1. The number of samples `N'
2. The code for the signal `A' to `H'
3. The wave/pulse parameter `w' or `p'
4. The frequency `f'
5. The scaling coefficient `sc'
Both signals are constructed from the same number of samples `N'. If
the user chooses a periodic signal, then he/she is prompted to select
either the cyclical waveform or a derived pulse, i.e., `w' or `p'. For
each periodic signal chosen the user is prompted to enter its frequency
`f' and a scale factor `sc'.
Pulses are monophasic and are defined on half the period of the modulus
of the corresponding periodic waveform.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Defaults & Error Handling, Next: Frequency Selection, Prev: Parameters, Up: The Signals
4.3 Defaults & Error Handling
=============================
If the required parameter is a number and the user has erroneously
entered character data, C-Graph generates an error message and gives the
user another try to enter a number. Otherwise, for input outside the
expected ranges C-Graph assumes default values.
`Number of samples `N''
`N' must lie in the range [64, 1024]. Values entered outside of
this range will default to 512. `N' is defined to be a power of 2.
If the user enters a value that is not a power of 2 C-Graph will
choose the nearest power of 2.
`Signal code `A' to `H''
For input outside the range `A' to `H', the default codes are `C'
for the first signal, and `D' for the second.
`Wave/Pulse parameter `w' or `p''
The default waveform is a pulse.
`Frequency `f''
C-Graph assumes a default frequency of 1Hz for values of `f'
entered outside the range [0.5, N/4].
`Scaling coefficient `sc''
The scaling coefficient `sc' may be positive or negative. The
maximum absolute value of `sc' for signals a, b, f, and h is
`N',while that for signals c,d,e, and g is 1. All signals will be
scaled to unity for input values of `sc' outside the permitted
range.
With the default scaling coefficient of 1, signals a, b, f, and h
are unit functions; signals d (square) an e (sawtooth) have a
maximum amplitude of half the period (1/(2f)) while that of c
(triangle) is one-quarter the period (1/(4f)).
File: c-graph.info, Node: Frequency Selection, Prev: Defaults & Error Handling, Up: The Signals
4.4 Frequency Selection
=======================
We can express the period P of a periodic signal as
P = N/(number of cycles)
= T/(N/n)
where T is the duration ofthe signal register in seconds, N is the
number of samples in the register (window length), and n is the number
of samples in 1 period.
The frequency of the signal f is the reciprocal of the period, so
f = N/(nT) samples/seconds or Hz
C=Graph assumes that the duration of the signal register is 1 second, so
f = N/n) Hz
The sampling rate f_s is given by
f_s = N/T Hz
The interval h between successive samples being the reciprocal
h = 1/f_s seconds
If the window length and frequency chosen are 512 and 20 Hz
(approximately the lower limit of the human audible range) then the
number of samples n in each period would therefore be
n = N/f
= 512/20
= 25.6
C-Graph requires that n be a multiple of 4. For each periodic signal,
the frequency entered by the user is accordingly adjusted so that n
approximates to the nearest multiple of 4. So the frequency of the
signal used by C-Graph would become
f = N/n
= 512/26
= 19.7 Hz
File: c-graph.info, Node: A C-Graph Session, Next: Reporting Bugs, Prev: The Signals, Up: Top
5 A C-Graph Session
*******************
In this session, we run C-Graph twice to compare the convolution of 2
signals of equal length:
1. When the signals are finite sequences and the remaining interval
is zero padded to the `N' with at least the same number of zeros
as samples in each signal;
2. When both signals extend across the full register of `N' samples.
We use a sawtooth pulse for the first signal, and a rectangular pulse
half the amplitude of the sawtooth for the second signal. We also
demonstrate the use of default values for unexpected input. The keychord
`ALT-' is used to toggle the terminal and the Gnuplot window.
In X, type `c-graph'. The splash screen will appear for a few seconds.
Pressing `ESC' will kill the display, but you may invoke C-Graph
without the splash screen with the `--no-splash' option. When the
splash screen disappears, the following text will appear:
GNU C-Graph version 2.0
Dedicated to Eliezer Regnier and all victims of apartheid.'
Copyright (C) 1982, 1983, 1996, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Adrienne
Gaye Thompson, Sole Author. GNU C-Graph version 2.0. Derived from
BSc. dissertation "Interactive Computer Package Demonstrating: Sampling
Convolution and the FFT", University of Aberdeen, Scotland (1983). For
the code from the dissertation, visit
.
GNU C-Graph is free software licensed under the terms of the GNU General
Public License (the GPL) version 3 or later. You are welcome to
distribute it under certain conditions.
GNU C-Graph is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the GPL section 15 regarding disclaimer of warranty.
Press then to display the GPL, or just press to
continue.
C-Graph:>> RET
THIS IS GNU C-Graph - a tool for visualizing convolution.
Compare the linear convolution of two signals with their circular
convolution.
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Generate 2 signals from the above menu with up to 5 parameters:
1. Number of samples `N'
2. Signal code `A' to `H'
3. Whether the signal, ifperiodic, is a wave `w' or a pulse `p'
4. The frequency `f'
5. The scaling coefficient `sc'
Choose a value for "N" between 64 and 1024.
C-Graph:>> 51
The number of samples "N" is: 512
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Enter code for first signal
C-Graph:>> e
Is the signal periodic or is it a pulse?
Type "w" for periodic wave, or "p" for pulse
C-Graph:>> p
Select the frequency "f" of this signal.
C-Graph:>> 1.0
The frequency of this signal is 1.00 Hz.
Do you wish to scale this signal?
Enter a value for the scaling coefficient "sc".
A coefficient of 1 will give the unit function.
C-Graph:>> 1
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Enter code for second signal
C-Graph:>> s
Is the signal periodic or is it a pulse?
Type "w" for periodic wave, or "p" for pulse
C-Graph:>> p
Select the frequency "f" of this signal.
C-Graph:>> 1
The frequency of this signal is 1.00 Hz.
Do you wish to scale this signal?
Enter a value for the scaling coefficient "sc".
A coefficient of 1 will give the unit function.
C-Graph:>> .5
You selected a square signal by default.
Press to see the signals in the time domain:>>
[image src="signals.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the signals. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
View the frequency-domain representation of the signals.
Press to see their FFTs:>>
[image src="transforms.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the FFTs. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
Press to compare linear and circular convolution:>>
[image src="convolutions.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the convolutions. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
Exiting GNU C-Graph ...
Bye.
galactica@regnier:~$ `c-graph --no-splash'
GNU C-Graph version 2.0
Dedicated to Eliezer Regnier and all victims of apartheid.'
Copyright (C) 1982, 1983, 1996, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Adrienne
Gaye Thompson, Sole Author. GNU C-Graph version 2.0. Derived from
BSc. dissertation "Interactive Computer Package Demonstrating: Sampling
Convolution and the FFT", University of Aberdeen, Scotland (1983). For
the code from the dissertation, visit
.
GNU C-Graph is free software licensed under the terms of the GNU General
Public License (the GPL) version 3 or later. You are welcome to
distribute it under certain conditions.
GNU C-Graph is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
See the GPL section 15 regarding disclaimer of warranty.
Press then to display the GPL, or just press to
continue.
C-Graph:>> RET
THIS IS GNU C-Graph - a tool for visualizing convolution.
Compare the linear convolution of two signals with their circular
convolution.
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Generate 2 signals from the above menu with up to 5 parameters:
1. Number of samples `N'
2. Signal code `A' to `H'
3. Whether the signal, ifperiodic, is a wave `w' or a pulse `p'
4. The frequency `f'
5. The scaling coefficient `sc'
Choose a value for "N" between 64 and 1024.
C-Graph:>> 521
The number of samples "N" is: 512.
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Enter code for first signal
C-Graph:>> g
Do you wish to scale this signal?
Enter a value for the scaling coefficient "sc".
A coefficient of 1 will give the unit function.
C-Graph:>> 1
Signal Code
====== ====
Sine A
Cosine B
Triangle C
Square D
Sawtooth E
Unit-Exponential F
Unit-Ramp G
Unit-Step H
Enter code for second signal
C-Graph:>> h
Do you wish to scale this signal?
Enter a value for the scaling coefficient "sc".
A coefficient of 1 will give the unit function.
C-Graph:>> q56
That was not a number. Try again!
C-Graph:>> 256
Press to see the signals in the time domain:>>
[image src="signals1.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the signals. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
View the frequency-domain representation of the signals.
Press to see their FFTs:>>
[image src="transforms1.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the FFTs. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
Press to compare linear and circular convolution:>>
[image src="convolutions1.png" text="[
See the pdf version of this manual for a graph of the convolutions. The
manual should be in the directory $(prefix)/share/doc/c-graph. By
default, this would be /usr/local/share/doc/c-graph/ on your system.
]"]
ALT-
Hit to continue:>>
Exiting GNU C-Graph ...
Bye.
On exit, the directory `c-graphs' will be created. Directory `c-graphs'
will have 2 subdirectories containing the graphs, Gnuplot command
files, and the data used for plotting generated by the last run. The
subdirectories and files are:
* c-graphs/graphs: signals.png, transforms.png, convolutions.png
* c-graphs/coms: signals.cg, transforms.cg, convolutions.cg time.dat
trans.dat
One can then print the graphs and display them either by using a
graphics editor like Image Magick, or by executing the command files
with Gnuplot.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Reporting Bugs, Next: Appendix A, Prev: A C-Graph Session, Up: Top
6 Reporting Bugs
****************
To report bugs or suggest enhancements for GNU C-Graph, please send
electronic mail to .
For bug reports, please include enough information for the maintainers
to reproduce the problem. Generally speaking, that means:
* The version numbers of GNU C-Graph (which you can find by running
`c-graph --version') and any other program(s) or
manual(s) involved.
* Hardware and operating system names and versions.
* The contents of any input files necessary to reproduce the bug.
* The expected behavior and/or output.
* A description of the problem and samples of any erroneous output.
* Options you gave to `configure' other than specifying
installation directories.
* Anything else that you think would be helpful.
When in doubt whether something is needed or not, include it. It's
better to include too much than to leave out something important.
Patches are welcome. Please follow the existing coding style.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Appendix A, Next: Appendix B, Prev: Reporting Bugs, Up: Top
Appendix A Sketch of Convolution Theory
***************************************
* Menu:
* Introductory Ideas:: The idea of convolution
* The Mathematics:: The mathematics of convolution
* Linear and Circular Convolution:: Modes of convolution
File: c-graph.info, Node: Introductory Ideas, Next: The Mathematics, Up: Appendix A
A.1 Introductory Ideas
======================
GNU C-Graph compares the linear and circular convolution of two
signals. Subroutine `convo' computes the linear convolution directly in
the time domain, while the FFT is exploited to compute circular
convolution through the convolution theorem, which is defined below
(*note The Convolution Theorem::).
Convolution is an operation by which two functions combine to produce a
third that represents a kind of moving average. This is a naturally
ocurring phenomenon that presents itself whenever there is a linear
system obeying the principles of superposition and shift/time
invariance. Accordingly, the mathematics of convolution has found
application to much of science and engineering in areas ranging from
statistics to computer vision.
The output of any linear shift invariant system may be described as the
convolution of the input with the impulse response of the system. In
computer vision, for example, where the system being considered is a
2-dimensional image, the output of the system may be blurred as a result
of the relative motion of the camera and the object. This blurred image
can be modelled by convolution of the static image with the
2-dimensional impulse response.
The 2-dimensional impulse response is called a "pointspread function"
(PSF). Each pixel in the image produces a copy of the PSF, scaled
according to the strength of the pixel and spatially shifted.
Superposition of these copies form the resultant output signal, the
system being linear and shift invariant. The output blurred image is
then a convolution that is, in fact, a linear combination of the PSFs.
The design of a filter for image restoration must then rely on inverse
convolution.
A thorough treatment of the mathematics of convolution is beyond the
scope of this manual. *Note Appendix B::, for some references on the
subject, and related engineering theory.
File: c-graph.info, Node: The Mathematics, Next: Linear and Circular Convolution, Prev: Introductory Ideas, Up: Appendix A
A.2 The Mathematics
===================
* Menu:
* Deriving the Convolution Sum:: Deriving the convolution expression
* The Convolution Theorem:: The Fourier Transform
Consideration of the 1-dimensional case simplifies the arithmetic. To
prove the convolution theorem, we first derive an expression for the
convolution of 2 signals, then apply the Fourier transform to this
expansion.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Deriving the Convolution Sum, Next: The Convolution Theorem, Up: The Mathematics
A.2.1 Deriving the Convolution Sum
----------------------------------
A discrete-time signal may be modelled as a series of piecewise
rectangular pulses. The summation of all such rectangular pulses
approximates the signal f:
f(n) = \sum_m f(m) rect(n - m)
where n - m denotes the rectangle whose base on the n axis is centred
at sample n=m.
In the limit, the series of rectangular pulses approaches a continuous
signal as the pulse width tends to zero and each pulse becomes an
impulse signal. Each impulse signal can then be represented as a scaled
and shifted unit impulse simulating one sample of the discrete signal.
f(n) = \sum_m f(m) \delta(n - m)
Applying a system transform M that maps the input signal f to the
output signal g,
g(n) = M[f(n)]
g(n) = M [f(n) = \sum_m f(m) \delta(n - m)]
= \sum_m f(m) M[\delta(n - m)]
Since the system transforms a delta function to the system "impulse
response" h
___
\
g[n] = /__ f[m] h[n - m] (1)
m
The above expression called the "convolution sum", denoted by f(*)h,
defines the output g(n) of the system.
File: c-graph.info, Node: The Convolution Theorem, Prev: Deriving the Convolution Sum, Up: The Mathematics
A.2.2 The Convolution Theorem
-----------------------------
GNU C-Graph demonstrates the "convolution theorem". The convolution of 2
signals in the time domain is equal to the inverse Fourier transform of
the product of their transforms in the frequency domain.
Just as a signal can be represented by a linear combination of scaled
and shifted impulses, we can also describe the signal as a linear
combination of sinusoidal basis functions. The Fourier transform
exploits this representation to deconstruct the signal into frequency
components, each corresponding to a basis sinusoid.
Using Euler's identity
e^j\theta = cos(\theta) + j \sin(\theta)
The sinusoidal sum representing the discrete time signal may be written
in the form
f(n) = 1/N \sum\limits_k=0^N-1 F(k) e^j\omega_kn
where \omega_k = 2k\pi/N, and the F(k) are Fourier transform
coefficients indicating the strength of the kth spectral sample of
frequency \omega_k (how much of the each basis sinusoid is present in
the signal).(1)
Accordingly, the F(k) may be computed from the signal
F(k) = \sum\limits_n=0^N-1 f(n) e^-j\omega_kn
This is the Fourier transform description of the signal as a function of
frequency.
From eqn (1), the convolution of an input signal f with the system
impulse response h to give an output g is defined as:
g(n) = f(*)h = \sum_m f(m) h(n - m)
Let the Fourier transform of g(n) be denoted by
\Gamma[g(n)]= g(n) e^-j\omegan, then
\Gamma[f(*)g]= \sum_n [f(*)g] e^-j\omegan
\Gamma[f(*)h]= \sum_n \sum_m f(m) h(n - m)] e^-j\omegan
= \sum_m f(m) \sum_n h(n - m) e^-j\omegan
Changing the variable to p = n - m
\Gamma[g(n)]= \sum_m f(m) \sum_p h(p) e^-j\omega(m+p)
= \sum_m f(m)e^-jm\omega \sum_p h(p)e^-j\omegap
Taking the inverse Fourier transform,
f(*)g = \Gamma^-1[ \Gamma[f] \Gamma[h]
This is the convolution theorem.
---------- Footnotes ----------
(1) For a periodic signal, these coefficients are the \delta functions
of the Fourier transform.
File: c-graph.info, Node: Linear and Circular Convolution, Prev: The Mathematics, Up: Appendix A
A.3 Linear and Circular Convolution
===================================
* Menu:
* Linear Convolution:: Actual Convolution
* Circular Convolution:: Convolution via the FFT
The simulation of actual or linear convolution requires a sequence of
multiplications and additions that are computationally too slow for high
speed operations such as deblurring filters for precision robotic
vision control systems. The "FFT", an algorithm for efficiently
computing the DFT, dramatically overcomes the computational load by
successively decomposing the multiplication of two sequences into
subsequences of half the length thereby reducing the number of
artithmetic operations by roughly N/logN.
The cost of this additional computational power is the treatment of the
convolving signals as periodic with N samples per period. The resulting
convolution is termed _circular convolution_. It can be shown that
circular convolution and linear convolution are equivalent if N \ge L +
P -1 where L, M are the unpadded lengths of the sequences being
convolved.
We illustrate the difference between linear and circular convolution
using abbreviated sequences for the pulses demonstrated in *note A
C-Graph Session::
File: c-graph.info, Node: Linear Convolution, Next: Circular Convolution, Up: Linear and Circular Convolution
A.3.1 Linear Convolution
------------------------
As noted above (*note Introductory Ideas::), in linear convolution,
each sample of f contributes a scaled and shifted copy of the h. This
is accomplished by the multiplication of the particular sample m of f
by each sample of h.
This sequential multiplication can be visualized as a physical
reflection of h(m)) about the vertical axis to obtain h(-m) followed by
discrete shifts of 1 sample interval (\delta n = 1) along the time axis
with no overlap of the signals at the beginning and end of the
translation. As the impulse response moves along the time axis, the
point by point multiplication of coincident samples is summed. The sum
at each point in the translation is the value of the convolution sum
g(n) at that point, and the length of the convolution is L + M.
For the sequences
f(m) = [1,1,1], and
h(m) = [0,1,2]
The series of operations for linear convolution
f(*)h = [0 1 3 3 2], are:
0. 1 1 1
2 1 0
---------
g(0) = f(m)h(0-m) 0+0+0+0+0 = 0
1. 1 1 1
2 1 0
-------
g(1) = f(m)h(1-m) 0+1+0+0 = 1
2. 1 1 1
2 1 0
-----
g(2) = f(m)h(2-m) = 2+1+0 = 3
3. 1 1 1
2 1 0
-------
g(3) = f(m)h(3-m) = 0+2+1+0 = 3
4. 1 1 1
2 1 0
---------
g(4) = f(m)h(4-m) = 0+0+2+0+0 = 2
File: c-graph.info, Node: Circular Convolution, Prev: Linear Convolution, Up: Linear and Circular Convolution
A.3.2 Circular Convolution
--------------------------
We can imagine circular convolution in terms of the relative rotation of
two concentric cylinders whose circumferences are of length N. A copy
of the N samples comprising f is wrapped anticlockwise round one
cylinder, while a copy of h is wrapped clockwise round the other
cylinder, reflecting h . Rotating the second cylinder anticlockwise by
1 sample interval each time, multiplying the coincident samples and
summing will give corresponding values of the convolved signal g.
f(m) = [1,1,1], and
h(m) = [0,1,2]
The series of operations for circular convolution
f(*)h = [0 1 3 3 2], are:
0. 1 1 1
0 2 1
-----
g(0) = f(m)h(0-m) 0+2+1 = 3
1. 1 1 1
1 0 2
-----
g(1) = f(m)h(1-m) 1+0+2 = 3
2. 1 1 1
2 1 0
-----
g(2) = f(m)h(2-m) 2+1+0 = 3
By zero-padding each sequence of length L = 3 to length N so that N\ge
L + L -1 (*note Linear and Circular Convolution::), we obtain the
sequences
f(m) = [1,1,1,0,0]
h(m) = [0,1,2,0,0]
Circular convolution then achieves the same as result as linear
convolution:
f(*)h = [0 1 3 3 2]
The operations are:
0. 1 1 1 0 0
0 0 0 2 1
---------
g(0) = f(m)h(0-m) 0+0+0+2+1 = 0
1. 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 2
-----
g(1) = f(m)h(1-m) 1+0+0+0+2 = 1
2. 1 1 1 0 0
2 1 0 0 0
---------
g(2) = f(m)h(2-m) 2+1+0+0+0 = 3
3. 1 1 1 0 0
0 2 1 0 0
---------
g(3) = f(m)h(3-m) 0+2+1+0+0 = 3
4. 1 1 1 0 0
0 0 2 1 0
---------
g(4) = f(m)h(4-m) 0+0+2+1+0 = 2
File: c-graph.info, Node: Appendix B, Next: GNU Free Documentation License, Prev: Appendix A, Up: Top
Appendix B References
*********************
The sources below were consulted in the preparation of GNU C-Graph
and/or the 1983 dissertation [1] from which GNU C-Graph is derived.
1. Thompson, Adrienne G. "Interactive Computer Package Demonstrating:
Sampling Convolution and the FFT", BSc. Engineering Honours
thesis, University of Aberdeen (Scotland), 1983, see
`http://codeartnow.com/law-project'.
2. Horn, Berthold, K. P. _Robot Vision_. MIT Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1986.
3. McGillem, Clare D., and Cooper, George R. _Continuous and Discrete
Signal and System Analysis_. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,
1990.
4. Oppenheim, Alan V., and Schafer, Ronald W. _Digital Signal
Processing_. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975.
5. Smith, Steven W. _The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital
Signal Processing_ `http://www.dspguide.com'
6. Stremler, Ferrel G. _Introduction to Communication Systems_.
Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Inc, 1977.
7. Wouk, Arthur. _fft-simple.f90_. Ed. Alan Miller. 2003. Retrieved
from `http://jblevins.org/mirror/amiller/fft_simple.f90'
8. Yuen, C. K. and Fraser, D. _Digital Spectral Analysis_.
CSIRO/Pitman, East Melbourne, Australia, 1979.
9. Ziemer, Rodger E., Tranter, William H., Fannin, D. Ronald.
_Signals Systems Continuous and Discrete_. 4th ed. Prentice Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 1998.
File: c-graph.info, Node: GNU Free Documentation License, Next: Index, Prev: Appendix B, Up: Top
Appendix C GNU Free Documentation License
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File: c-graph.info, Node: Index, Prev: GNU Free Documentation License, Up: Top
Index
*****
[index]
* Menu:
* -d: Invoking C-Graph. (line 11)
* -dedicate: Invoking C-Graph. (line 11)
* -h: Invoking C-Graph. (line 15)
* -help: Invoking C-Graph. (line 15)
* -n: Invoking C-Graph. (line 19)
* -no-splash: Invoking C-Graph. (line 19)
* -v: Invoking C-Graph. (line 23)
* -version: Invoking C-Graph. (line 23)
* aperiodic signals: The Menu. (line 20)
* bugs, reporting: Reporting Bugs. (line 6)
* checklist for bug reports: Reporting Bugs. (line 9)
* circular convolution <1>: Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* circular convolution: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* computer vision: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* convolution <1>: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* convolution <2>: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* convolution <3>: About. (line 6)
* convolution: Foreword. (line 6)
* convolution sum: Deriving the Convolution Sum.
(line 6)
* convolution theorem <1>: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* convolution theorem: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* convolution, circular: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* convolution, linear: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* default values: Defaults & Error Handling.
(line 6)
* delta function: Deriving the Convolution Sum.
(line 6)
* DFT <1>: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* DFT: About. (line 6)
* discrete Fourier transform, see DFT: About. (line 6)
* Dissertation <1>: Appendix B. (line 6)
* Dissertation: Foreword. (line 6)
* erroneous data: Defaults & Error Handling.
(line 6)
* Euler's identity: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* example run: A C-Graph Session. (line 6)
* Fast Fourier Transform, see FFT: About. (line 6)
* FFT <1>: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* FFT <2>: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* FFT: About. (line 6)
* Fourier coefficient: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* Fourier transform: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* frequency: Frequency Selection. (line 6)
* frequency domain: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* frequency, selecting: Parameters. (line 6)
* graphs, printing: A C-Graph Session. (line 319)
* impulse response <1>: Deriving the Convolution Sum.
(line 6)
* impulse response: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* impulse signal: Deriving the Convolution Sum.
(line 6)
* inverse Fourier transform: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* linear convolution <1>: Linear Convolution. (line 6)
* linear convolution: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* number of samples: Parameters. (line 6)
* parameters: Parameters. (line 6)
* patches, contributing: Reporting Bugs. (line 32)
* periodic signals: The Menu. (line 20)
* periodic wavform, selecting: Parameters. (line 6)
* point spread function: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* printing graphs: A C-Graph Session. (line 319)
* pulse signals: The Menu. (line 20)
* pulses, selecting: Parameters. (line 6)
* samples, number of: Parameters. (line 6)
* sampling rate: Frequency Selection. (line 20)
* scaling the signals: Parameters. (line 6)
* signals, types of waveforms: The Signals. (line 6)
* splash screen: A C-Graph Session. (line 6)
* subroutine convo: Introductory Ideas. (line 6)
* system impulse response: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* Thesis, see Dissertation <1>: Appendix B. (line 6)
* Thesis, see Dissertation: Foreword. (line 6)
* time domain: The Convolution Theorem.
(line 6)
* vision, computer: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* vision, robotic: Linear and Circular Convolution.
(line 6)
* waveform parameters: Parameters. (line 6)
Tag Table:
Node: Top1756
Node: Foreword2366
Node: Overview3787
Node: About3974
Node: Required Software5393
Node: Invoking C-Graph5873
Node: The Signals6414
Node: The Menu6785
Node: Parameters7403
Node: Defaults & Error Handling8238
Node: Frequency Selection9868
Node: A C-Graph Session11158
Node: Reporting Bugs21398
Node: Appendix A22512
Node: Introductory Ideas22857
Node: The Mathematics24855
Node: Deriving the Convolution Sum25377
Node: The Convolution Theorem26649
Ref: The Convolution Theorem-Footnote-128699
Node: Linear and Circular Convolution28797
Node: Linear Convolution30101
Node: Circular Convolution31991
Node: Appendix B34308
Node: GNU Free Documentation License35864
Node: Index61020
End Tag Table