A file is not merely its contents, a name, and a file type (see Special file types). A file also has an owner (a user ID), a group (a group ID), permissions (what the owner can do with the file, what people in the group can do, and what everyone else can do), various timestamps, and other information. Collectively, we call these a file’s attributes.
These commands change file attributes.
|• chown invocation:||Change file owners and groups.|
|• chgrp invocation:||Change file groups.|
|• chmod invocation:||Change access permissions.|
|• touch invocation:||Change file timestamps.|