Since the user and group arguments to these commands
may be specified as names or numeric IDs, there is an
What if a user or group name is a string of digits?
Should the command interpret it as a user name or as an ID?
POSIX requires that these commands
first attempt to resolve the specified string as a name, and
only once that fails, then try to interpret it as an ID.
This is troublesome when you want to specify a numeric ID, say 42,
and it must work even in a pathological situation where
‘42’ is a user name that maps to some other user ID, say 1000.
chown 42 F, will set Fs owner ID to
1000—not what you intended.
GNU chown, chgrp, chroot, and id provide a way to work around this, that at the same time may result in a significant performance improvement by eliminating a database look-up. Simply precede each numeric user ID and/or group ID with a ‘+’, in order to force its interpretation as an integer:
chown +42 F chgrp +$numeric_group_id another-file chown +0:+0 /
The name look-up process is skipped for each ‘+’-prefixed string, because a string containing ‘+’ is never a valid user or group name. This syntax is accepted on most common Unix systems, but not on Solaris 10.
 Using a number as a user name is common in some environments.