`factor` prints prime factors. Synopses:

factor [number]... factoroption

If no `number` is specified on the command line, `factor` reads
numbers from standard input, delimited by newlines, tabs, or spaces.

The `factor` command supports only a small number of options:

- ‘
`--help`’ - Print a short help on standard output, then exit without further
processing.
- ‘
`--version`’ - Print the program version on standard output, then exit without further processing.

Factoring the product of the eighth and ninth Mersenne primes takes about 30 milliseconds of CPU time on a 2.2 GHz Athlon.

M8=$(echo 2^31-1|bc) M9=$(echo 2^61-1|bc) n=$(echo "$M8 * $M9" | bc) /usr/bin/time -f %U factor $n 4951760154835678088235319297: 2147483647 2305843009213693951 0.03

Similarly, factoring the eighth Fermat number 2^256+1 takes about 20 seconds on the same machine.

Factoring large numbers is, in general, hard. The Pollard Rho
algorithm used by `factor` is particularly effective for
numbers with relatively small factors. If you wish to factor large
numbers which do not have small factors (for example, numbers which
are the product of two large primes), other methods are far better.

If `factor` is built without using GNU MP, only
single-precision arithmetic is available, and so large numbers
(typically 2^64 and above) will not be supported. The single-precision
code uses an algorithm which is designed for factoring smaller
numbers.

An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value indicates failure.