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7.2 shuf: Shuffling text

shuf shuffles its input by outputting a random permutation of its input lines. Each output permutation is equally likely. Synopses:

shuf [option]… [file]
shuf -e [option]… [arg]…
shuf -i lo-hi [option]…

shuf has three modes of operation that affect where it obtains its input lines. By default, it reads lines from standard input. The following options change the operation mode:


Treat each command-line operand as an input line.

-i lo-hi

Act as if input came from a file containing the range of unsigned decimal integers lohi, one per line.

shuf’s other options can affect its behavior in all operation modes:

-n count

Output at most count lines. By default, all input lines are output.

-o output-file

Write output to output-file instead of standard output. shuf reads all input before opening output-file, so you can safely shuffle a file in place by using commands like shuf -o F <F and cat F | shuf -o F.


Use file as a source of random data used to determine which permutation to generate. See Sources of random data.


Repeat output values, that is, select with replacement. With this option the output is not a permutation of the input; instead, each output line is randomly chosen from all the inputs. This option is typically combined with --head-count; if --head-count is not given, shuf repeats indefinitely.


Delimit items with a zero byte rather than a newline (ASCII LF). I.e., treat input as items separated by ASCII NUL and terminate output items with ASCII NUL. This option can be useful in conjunction with ‘perl -0’ or ‘find -print0’ and ‘xargs -0’ which do the same in order to reliably handle arbitrary file names (even those containing blanks or other special characters).

For example:

shuf <<EOF
A man,
a plan,
a canal:

might produce the output

A man,
a canal:
a plan,

Similarly, the command:

shuf -e clubs hearts diamonds spades

might output:


and the command ‘shuf -i 1-4’ might output:


The above examples all have four input lines, so shuf might produce any of the twenty-four possible permutations of the input. In general, if there are n input lines, there are n! (i.e., n factorial, or n * (n - 1) * … * 1) possible output permutations.

To output 50 random numbers each in the range 0 through 9, use:

shuf -r -n 50 -i 0-9

To simulate 100 coin flips, use:

shuf -r -n 100 -e Head Tail

An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value indicates failure.

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