This manual describes the Emacs auth-source library.
It is a way for multiple applications to share a single configuration (in Emacs and in files) for user convenience.
This file describes the Emacs auth-source library.
Copyright © 2008–2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
(a) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”
|Overview||Overview of the auth-source library.|
|Help for users|
|Multiple GMail accounts with Gnus|
|Secret Service API|
|Help for developers|
|GnuPG and EasyPG Assistant Configuration|
|GNU Free Documentation License||The license for this documentation.|
The auth-source library is simply a way for Emacs and Gnus, among others, to answer the old burning question “What are my user name and password?”
(This is different from the old question about burning “Where is the fire extinguisher, please?”.)
The auth-source library supports more than just the user name or the password (known as the secret).
Similarly, the auth-source library supports multiple storage backend, currently either the classic “netrc” backend, examples of which you can see later in this document, or the Secret Service API. This is done with EIEIO-based backends and you can write your own if you want.
2 Help for users
“Netrc” files are a de facto standard. They look like this:
machine mymachine login myloginname password mypassword port myport
machine is the server (either a DNS name or an IP address).
It’s known as :host in
auth-source-search queries. You
can also use
port is the connection port or protocol. It’s known as
user is the user name. It’s known as :user in
auth-source-search queries. You can also use
You can use spaces inside a password or other token by surrounding the token with either single or double quotes.
You can use apostrophes inside a password or other token by
surrounding it with double quotes, e.g.,
"he'llo". Similarly you
can use double quotes inside a password or other token by surrounding
it with apostrophes, e.g.,
'he"llo'. You can’t mix both (so a
password or other token can’t have both apostrophes and double quotes).
All this is optional. You could just say (but we don’t recommend it, we’re just showing that it’s possible)
to use the same password everywhere. Again, DO NOT DO THIS or you will be pwned as the kids say.
“Netrc” files are usually called .authinfo or .netrc; nowadays .authinfo seems to be more popular and the auth-source library encourages this confusion by accepting both, as you’ll see later.
If you have problems with the search, set
'trivia and see what host, port, and user the library is
checking in the *Messages* buffer. Ditto for any other
problems, your first step is always to see what’s being checked. The
second step, of course, is to write a blog entry about it and wait for
the answer in the comments.
You can customize the variable
auth-sources. The following may
be needed if you are using an older version of Emacs or if the
auth-source library is not loaded for some other reason.
(require 'auth-source) ;; probably not necessary (customize-variable 'auth-sources) ;; optional, do it once
- Variable: auth-sources
auth-sourcesvariable tells the auth-source library where your netrc files or Secret Service API collection items live for a particular host and protocol. While you can get fancy, the default and simplest configuration is:
;;; old default: required :host and :port, not needed anymore (setq auth-sources '((:source "~/.authinfo.gpg" :host t :port t))) ;;; mostly equivalent (see below about fallbacks) but shorter: (setq auth-sources '((:source "~/.authinfo.gpg"))) ;;; even shorter and the default: (setq auth-sources '("~/.authinfo.gpg" "~/.authinfo" "~/.netrc")) ;;; use the Secrets API Login collection ;;; (see Secret Service API) (setq auth-sources '("secrets:Login"))
By adding multiple entries to
auth-sourceswith a particular host or protocol, you can have specific netrc files for that host or protocol. Usually this is unnecessary but may make sense if you have shared netrc files or some other unusual setup (90% of Emacs users have unusual setups and the remaining 10% are really unusual).
Here’s a mixed example using two sources:
(setq auth-sources '((:source (:secrets default) :host "myserver" :user "joe") "~/.authinfo.gpg"))
If you don’t customize
auth-sources, you’ll have to live with
the defaults: the unencrypted netrc file ~/.authinfo will be
used for any host and any port.
If that fails, any host and any port are looked up in the netrc file ~/.authinfo.gpg, which is a GnuPG encrypted file (see GnuPG and EasyPG Assistant Configuration).
Finally, the unencrypted netrc file ~/.netrc will be used for any host and any port.
The typical netrc line example is without a port.
machine YOURMACHINE login YOU password YOURPASSWORD
This will match any authentication port. Simple, right? But what if there’s a SMTP server on port 433 of that machine that needs a different password from the IMAP server?
machine YOURMACHINE login YOU password SMTPPASSWORD port 433 machine YOURMACHINE login YOU password GENERALPASSWORD
For url-auth authentication (HTTP/HTTPS), you need to put this in your netrc file:
machine yourmachine.com:80 port http login testuser password testpass
This will match any realm and authentication method (basic or digest) over HTTP. HTTPS is set up similarly. If you want finer controls, explore the url-auth source code and variables.
For Tramp authentication, use:
machine yourmachine.com port scp login testuser password testpass
Note that the port denotes the Tramp connection method. When you don’t use a port entry, you match any Tramp method, as explained earlier. Since Tramp has about 88 connection methods, this may be necessary if you have an unusual (see earlier comment on those) setup.
3 Multiple GMail accounts with Gnus
For multiple GMail accounts with Gnus, you have to make two nnimap
entries in your
gnus-secondary-select-methods with distinct
(setq gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnimap "gmail" (nnimap-address "imap.gmail.com")) (nnimap "gmail2" (nnimap-address "imap.gmail.com"))))
Your netrc entries will then be:
machine gmail login firstname.lastname@example.org password "account password" port imap machine gmail2 login email@example.com password "account2 password" port imap
4 Secret Service API
The Secret Service API is a standard from freedesktop.org to securely store passwords and other confidential information. This API is implemented by system daemons such as the GNOME Keyring and the KDE Wallet (these are GNOME and KDE packages respectively and should be available on most modern GNU/Linux systems).
The auth-source library uses the secrets.el library to connect through the Secret Service API. You can also use that library in other packages, it’s not exclusive to auth-source.
- Variable: secrets-enabled
After loading secrets.el, a non-
nilvalue of this variable indicates the existence of a daemon providing the Secret Service API.
The atomic objects managed by the Secret Service API are secret items, which contain things an application wishes to store securely, like a password. Secret items have a label (a name), the secret (which is the string we want, like a password), and a set of lookup attributes. The attributes can be used to search and retrieve a secret item at a later date.
Secret items are grouped in collections. A collection is sometimes called a ‘keyring’ or ‘wallet’ in GNOME Keyring and KDE Wallet but it’s the same thing, a group of secrets. Collections are personal and protected so only the owner can open them.
The most common collection is called
A collection can have an alias. The alias
commonly used so the clients don’t have to know the specific name of
the collection they open. Other aliases are not supported yet.
Since aliases are globally accessible, set the
only when you’re sure it’s appropriate.
- Function: secrets-set-alias collection alias
Set alias as alias of collection labeled collection. Currently only the alias
- Function: secrets-get-alias alias
Return the collection name alias is referencing to. Currently only the alias
Collections can be created and deleted by the functions
Usually, this is not done from within Emacs. Do not delete standard
collections such as
The special collection
"session" exists for the lifetime of the
corresponding client session (in our case, Emacs’s lifetime). It is
created automatically when Emacs uses the Secret Service interface and
it is deleted when Emacs is killed. Therefore, it can be used to
store and retrieve secret items temporarily. The
collection is better than a persistent collection when the secret
items should not live longer than Emacs. The session collection can
be specified either by the string
"session", or by
whenever a collection parameter is needed in the following functions.
- Function: secrets-create-item collection item password &rest attributes
This function creates a new item in collection with label item and password password. attributes are key-value pairs set for the created item. The keys are keyword symbols, starting with a colon. Example:
;;; The session "session", the label is "my item" ;;; and the secret (password) is "geheim" (secrets-create-item "session" "my item" "geheim" :method "sudo" :user "joe" :host "remote-host")
- Function: secrets-get-secret collection item
Return the secret of item labeled item in collection. If there is no such item, return
The lookup attributes, which are specified during creation of a secret item, must be a key-value pair. Keys are keyword symbols, starting with a colon; values are strings. They can be retrieved from a given secret item and they can be used for searching of items.
- Function: secrets-get-attribute collection item attribute
Returns the value of key attribute of item labeled item in collection. If there is no such item, or the item doesn’t own this key, the function returns
- Function: secrets-get-attributes collection item
Return the lookup attributes of item labeled item in collection. If there is no such item, or the item has no attributes, it returns
(secrets-get-attributes "session" "my item") ⇒ ((:user . "joe") (:host ."remote-host"))
- Function: secrets-search-items collection &rest attributes
Search for the items in collection with matching attributes. The attributes are key-value pairs, as used in
(secrets-search-items "session" :user "joe") ⇒ ("my item" "another item")
The auth-source library uses the secrets.el library and thus
the Secret Service API when you specify a source matching
"secrets:COLLECTION". For instance, you could use
"secrets:session" to use the
"session" collection, open only
for the lifetime of Emacs. Or you could use
"Login" collection. As a special case, you can use the
auth-sources (not a string, but a
symbol) to specify the
"default" alias. Here is a contrived
example that sets
auth-sources to search three collections and
then fall back to ~/.authinfo.gpg.
(setq auth-sources '(default "secrets:session" "secrets:Login" "~/.authinfo.gpg"))
5 Help for developers
The auth-source library lets you control logging output easily.
- Variable: auth-source-debug
Set this variable to
'triviato see lots of output in *Messages*, or set it to a function that behaves like
messageto do your own logging.
The auth-source library only has a few functions for external use.
- Function: auth-source-search &rest spec &key type max host user port secret require create delete &allow-other-keys
This function searches (or modifies) authentication backends according to spec. See the function’s doc-string for details.
Let’s take a look at an example of using
(defun nnimap-credentials (address ports) (let* ((auth-source-creation-prompts '((user . "IMAP user at %h: ") (secret . "IMAP password for %u@%h: "))) (found (nth 0 (auth-source-search :max 1 :host address :port ports :require '(:user :secret) :create t)))) (if found (list (plist-get found :user) (let ((secret (plist-get found :secret))) (if (functionp secret) (funcall secret) secret)) (plist-get found :save-function)) nil)))
This call requires the user and password (secret) to be in the
results. It also requests that an entry be created if it doesn’t
exist already. While the created entry is being assembled, the shown
prompts will be used to interact with the user. The caller can also
pass data in
auth-source-creation-defaults to supply defaults
for any of the prompts.
Note that the password needs to be evaluated if it’s a function. It’s wrapped in a function to provide some security.
Later, after a successful login,
nnimap.el calls the
:save-function like so:
(when (functionp (nth 2 credentials)) (funcall (nth 2 credentials)))
This will work whether the
:save-function was provided or not.
:save-function will be provided only when a new entry was
created, so this effectively says “after a successful login, save the
authentication information we just used, if it was newly created.”
After the first time it’s called, the
:save-function will not
run again (but it will log something if you have set
'trivia). This is so it won’t ask
the same question again, which is annoying. This is so it won’t ask
the same question again, which is annoying. This is so it won’t ask
the same question again, which is annoying.
So the responsibility of the API user that specified
is to call the
:save-function if it’s provided.
- Function: auth-source-delete &rest spec &key delete &allow-other-keys
This function deletes entries matching spec from the authentication backends. It returns the entries that were deleted. The backend may not actually delete the entries.
- Function: auth-source-forget spec
This function forgets any cached data that exactly matches spec. It returns
tif it forget some data, and
nilif no matching data was found.
- Function: auth-source-forget+ &rest spec &allow-other-keys
This function forgets any cached data matching spec. It returns the number of items forgotten.
Appendix A GnuPG and EasyPG Assistant Configuration
auth-sources variable contains ~/.authinfo.gpg
before ~/.authinfo, the auth-source library will try to
read the GnuPG encrypted .gpg file first, before
the unencrypted file.
In Emacs 23 or later there is an option
automatically decrypt *.gpg files. It is enabled by default.
If you are using earlier versions of Emacs, you will need:
(require 'epa-file) (epa-file-enable)
If you want your GnuPG passwords to be cached, set up
or EasyPG Assistant
(see (epa)Caching Passphrases).
To quick start, here are some questions:
- Do you use GnuPG version 2 instead of GnuPG version 1?
- Do you use symmetric encryption rather than public key encryption?
- Do you want to use gpg-agent?
Here are configurations depending on your answers:
|Yes||Yes||Yes||Set up gpg-agent.|
|Yes||Yes||No||You can’t, without gpg-agent.|
|Yes||No||Yes||Set up gpg-agent.|
|Yes||No||No||You can’t, without gpg-agent.|
|No||Yes||Yes||Set up elisp passphrase cache.|
|No||Yes||No||Set up elisp passphrase cache.|
|No||No||Yes||Set up gpg-agent.|
|No||No||No||You can’t, without gpg-agent.|
To set up gpg-agent, follow the instruction in GnuPG manual (see (gnupg)Invoking GPG-AGENT).
To set up elisp passphrase cache, set
Appendix B GNU Free Documentation License
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
- APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.
A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
- VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
- COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
- Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
- List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
- State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
- Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
- Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
- Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
- Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
- Include an unaltered copy of this License.
- Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
- Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
- For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
- Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
- Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
- Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
- Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
- COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
- COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
- AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
- FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
“Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
“CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
|Jump to:||A S|
|Jump to:||A S|
|Jump to:||A S|
|Help for developers|
|Help for users|
|Secret Service API|
|Jump to:||A S|