Emacs Unified Directory Client
This file documents EUDC version 1.40.0.
EUDC is the Emacs Unified Directory Client, a common interface to directory servers and contact information.
Copyright © 1998, 2000–2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual”, and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
(a) The FSF’s Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”
|Overview||Summary of EUDC features|
|Installation||How to install EUDC|
|Usage||The various usage possibilities explained|
|Credits||Who’s done what|
|GNU Free Documentation License||The license for this documentation.|
EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user interface to access directory servers using different directory protocols.
Currently supported back-ends are:
- LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
- BBDB, Big Brother’s Insidious Database
The main features of the EUDC interface are:
- Queries using a customizable form
- Inline query expansion (for instance you can expand a name to an email address in a mail message buffer using a server as an address book)
- Multiple servers can be tried in turn until a match is found for an inline query
- Fast minibuffer queries for email addresses and phone numbers
- Interface to BBDB to let you insert server records into your own BBDB database (see BBDB in BBDB Manual)
|• LDAP:||What is LDAP ?|
|• BBDB:||What is BBDB ?|
LDAP, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is a communication protocol for directory applications defined in RFC 1777.
Quoted from RFC 1777:
[LDAP] is designed to provide access to the X.500 Directory while not incurring the resource requirements of the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). This protocol is specifically targeted at simple management applications and browser applications that provide simple read/write interactive access to the X.500 Directory, and is intended to be a complement to the DAP itself.
LDAP servers usually store (but are not limited to) information about people such as their name, phone number, email address, office location, etc... More information about LDAP can be found at http://www.openldap.org/.
EUDC requires external support to access LDAP directory servers (see LDAP Configuration)
BBDB is the Big Brother’s Insidious Database, a package for Emacs originally written by Jamie Zawinski which provides rolodex-like database functionality featuring tight integration with the Emacs mail and news readers.
It is often used as an enhanced email address book.
EUDC considers BBDB as a directory server back end just like LDAP, though BBDB has no client/server protocol and thus always resides locally on your machine. The point in this is not to offer an alternate way to query your BBDB database (BBDB itself provides much more flexible ways to do that), but rather to offer an interface to your local directory that is consistent with the interface to external LDAP directories. This is particularly interesting when performing queries on multiple servers.
EUDC also offers a means to insert results from directory queries into your own local BBDB (see Creating BBDB Records)
Add the following to your .emacs init file:
This will install EUDC at startup.
After installing EUDC you will find (the next time you launch Emacs) a
Directory Search submenu in the ‘Tools’ menu that will
give you access to EUDC.
You may also find it useful to add the following to your .emacs initialization file to add a shortcut for email address expansion in email composition buffers (see Inline Query Expansion)
(with-eval-after-load "message" (define-key message-mode-map [(control ?c) (tab)] 'eudc-expand-inline)) (with-eval-after-load "sendmail" (define-key mail-mode-map [(control ?c) (tab)] 'eudc-expand-inline))
|• LDAP Configuration:||EUDC needs external support for LDAP|
2.1 LDAP Configuration
LDAP support is added by means of ldap.el, which is part of
Emacs. ldap.el needs an external program called
ldapsearch, available as part of OpenLDAP
(http://www.openldap.org/). The configurations in this section
were tested with OpenLDAP 2.4.23.
Most servers use LDAP-over-SSL these days; the examples here reflect that. The other possibilities are:
- Servers that do not require authentication or that do not encrypt
ldap-host-parameters-alist, which causes the
-xoption to be passed to
- Servers that require SASL authentication.
Pass any required extra options to
The following examples use a base of
ou=people,dc=gnu,dc=org and the host name
ldap.gnu.org, a server that supports LDAP-over-SSL (the
ldaps protocol, with default port
636) and which
requires authentication by the user
emacsuser with password
These configurations are meant to be self-contained; that is, each provides everything required for sensible TAB-completion of email fields. BBDB lookups are attempted first; if a matching BBDB entry is found then EUDC will not attempt any LDAP lookups.
Wildcard LDAP lookups are supported using the
* character. For
example, attempting to TAB-complete the following:
To: * Smith
will return all LDAP entries with surnames that begin with
Smith. In every LDAP query it makes, EUDC implicitly appends
the wildcard character to the end of the last word.
|• Emacs-only Configuration:||Configure with .emacs|
|• External Configuration:||Configure with /etc/openldap/ldap.conf|
|• Troubleshooting:||Debug |
2.1.1 Emacs-only Configuration
Emacs can pass most required configuration options via the
ldapsearch command-line. One exception is certificate
configuration for LDAP-over-SSL, which must be specified in
/etc/openldap/ldap.conf. On systems that provide such
certificates as part of the
OpenLDAP installation, this can be
as simple as one line:
In .emacs, these expressions suffice to configure EUDC for LDAP:
(with-eval-after-load "message" (define-key message-mode-map (kbd "TAB") 'eudc-expand-inline)) (customize-set-variable 'eudc-server-hotlist '(("" . bbdb) ("ldaps://ldap.gnu.org" . ldap))) (customize-set-variable 'ldap-host-parameters-alist '(("ldaps://ldap.gnu.org" base "ou=people,dc=gnu,dc=org" binddn "gnu\\emacsuser" passwd ldap-password-read)))
Specifying the function
will cause Emacs to prompt interactively for the password. The
password will then be validated and cached, unless
password-cache is nil. You can customize
password-cache-expiry to control the duration for which the
password is cached. If you want to clear the cache, call
2.1.2 External Configuration
Your system may already be configured for a default LDAP server. For example, /etc/openldap/ldap.conf might contain:
BASE ou=people,dc=gnu,dc=org URI ldaps://ldap.gnu.org TLS_CACERTDIR /etc/openldap/certs
Authentication requires a password, and a bind distinguished name
(binddn) representing the user, in this case,
gnu\emacsuser. These can be specified in
~/.authinfo.gpg with the following line:
machine ldaps://ldap.gnu.org binddn gnu\emacsuser password s3cr3t
Then in the .emacs init file, these expressions suffice to configure EUDC for LDAP:
(with-eval-after-load "message" (define-key message-mode-map (kbd "TAB") 'eudc-expand-inline)) (customize-set-variable 'eudc-server-hotlist '(("" . bbdb) ("ldaps://ldap.gnu.org" . ldap))) (customize-set-variable 'ldap-host-parameters-alist '(("ldaps://ldap.gnu.org" auth-source t)))
For this example where we only care about one server, the server name
can be omitted in ~/.authinfo.gpg and .emacs, in which
ldapsearch defaults to the host name in
The ~/.authinfo.gpg line becomes:
binddn gnu\emacsuser password s3cr3t
and the .emacs expressions become:
(with-eval-after-load "message" (define-key message-mode-map (kbd "TAB") 'eudc-expand-inline)) (customize-set-variable 'eudc-server-hotlist '(("" . bbdb) ("" . ldap))) (customize-set-variable 'ldap-host-parameters-alist '(("" auth-source t)))
ldapsearch exits with an error, you’ll see a message like
this in the
*Messages* buffer (all on one line):
ldap-search-internal: Failed ldapsearch invocation: ldapsearch "-Hldaps://ldap.gnu.org" "-bou=people,dc=gnu,dc=org" "-Dgnu\emacsuser" "-W" "-LL" "-tt" "(&(mail=name*))" "givenname" "sn" "mail"
ldapsearch command is formatted such that it can be
copied and pasted into a terminal. Set the
level to 5 by appending
-d 5 to the command line.
This chapter describes the usage of EUDC. Most functions and customization options are available through the ‘Directory Search’ submenu of the ‘Tools’ submenu.
|• Querying Servers:||How queries are performed and handled|
|• Query Form:||How to use and customize the query form|
|• Display of Query Results:||Controlling how query results are presented|
|• Inline Query Expansion:||How to use and customize inline queries|
|• The Server Hotlist:||How to use and manage the server hotlist|
|• Multi-server Queries:||How to query multiple servers successively|
|• Creating BBDB Records:||How to insert query results into your BBDB|
|• Server/Protocol Locals:||Customizing on a per server/protocol basis|
3.1 Querying Servers
EUDC’s basic functionality is to let you query a directory server and return the results back to you. There are several things you may want to customize in this process.
|• Selecting a Server:||The first thing to do|
|• Return Attributes:||Configuring what the server should return|
|• Duplicate Attributes:||What to do when records have duplicate attributes|
3.1.1 Selecting a Server
Before doing any query you will need to set the directory server. You need to specify the name of the host machine running the server software and the protocol to use. If you do not set the server in any fashion, EUDC will ask you for one when you make your first query.
You can set the server by selecting one from your hotlist of servers (see The Server Hotlist) available in the ‘Server’ submenu or by selecting ‘New Server’ in that same menu.
LDAP servers generally require some configuration before you can perform queries on them. In particular, the search base must be configured. If the server you select has no configured search base then EUDC will propose you to configure it at this point. A customization buffer will be displayed where you can edit the search base and other parameters for the server.
- Variable: eudc-server
The name or IP address of the remote directory server. A TCP port number may be specified by appending a colon and a number to the name of the server. You will not need this unless your server runs on a port other than the default (which depends on the protocol). If the directory server resides on your own computer (which is the case if you use the BBDB back end) then ‘localhost’ is a reasonable value but it will be ignored anyway.
- Variable: eudc-protocol
The directory protocol to use to query the server. Currently supported protocols in this version of EUDC are
- Command: eudc-set-server
This command accessible from ‘New Server’ submenu lets you specify a new directory server and protocol.
3.1.2 Return Attributes
Directory servers may be configured to return a default set of
attributes for each record matching a query if the query specifies none.
eudc-default-return-attributes controls the return
attributes you want to see, if different from the server defaults.
- Variable: eudc-default-return-attributes
A list of the default attributes to extract from directory entries. If set to the symbol
allthen all available attributes are returned. A value of
nil, the default, means to return the default attributes as configured in the server.
The server may return several matching records to a query. Some of the records may however not contain all the attributes you requested. You can discard those records.
- User Option: eudc-strict-return-matches
nil, entries that do not contain all the requested return attributes are ignored. Default is
3.1.3 Duplicate Attributes
Directory standards may authorize different instances of the same attribute in a record. For instance the record of a person may contain several email fields containing different email addresses, in which case EUDC will consider the attribute duplicated.
EUDC has several methods to deal with duplicated attributes. The available methods are:
Makes a list with the different values of the duplicate attribute. The record is returned with only one instance of the attribute with a list of all the different values as a value. This is the default method that is used to handle duplicate fields for which no other method has been specified.
Discards all the duplicate values of the field keeping only the first one.
Concatenates the different values using a newline as a separator. The record keeps only one instance of the field the value of which is a single multi-line string.
Duplicates the whole record into as many instances as there are different values for the field. This is the default for the email field. Thus a record containing 3 different email addresses is duplicated into three different records each having a single email address. This is particularly useful in combination with
selectas the method to handle multiple matches in inline expansion queries (see Inline Query Expansion) because you are presented with the 3 addresses in a selection buffer
Because a method may not be applicable to all fields, the variable
eudc-duplicate-attribute-handling-method lets you specify either a
default method for all fields or a method for each individual field.
- Variable: eudc-duplicate-attribute-handling-method
A method to handle entries containing duplicate attributes. This is either an alist of elements
(attr . method), or a symbol method. The alist form of the variable associates a method to an individual attribute name; the second form specifies a method applicable to all attribute names. Available methods are:
duplicate(see above). The default is
3.2 Query Form
The simplest way to query your directory server is to use the query
form. You display the query form with the ‘Query with Form’ menu
item or by invoking the command M-x eudc-query-form. The attribute
names presented in this form are defined by the
eudc-query-form-attributes variable (unless a non-
argument is supplied to
Since the different directory protocols to which EUDC interfaces may
use different names for equivalent attributes, EUDC defines its own set
of attribute names and a mapping between these names and their
protocol-specific equivalent through the variable
eudc-protocol-attributes-translation-alist. Names currently
defined by EUDC are
- Variable: eudc-query-form-attributes
A list of attributes presented in the query form. Attribute names in this list should be either EUDC attribute names or valid attribute names. You can get a list of valid attribute names for the current protocol with the ‘List Valid Attribute Names’ menu item or the M-x eudc-get-attribute-list command. Defaults to
- Command: eudc-query-form get-fields-from-server
Display a form to query the directory server. If given a non-
nilargument the function first queries the server for the existing fields and displays a corresponding form. Not all protocols may support a non-
Since the names of the fields may not be explicit enough or adapted to
be directly displayed as prompt strings in the form, the variable
eudc-user-attribute-names-alist lets you define more explicit
names for directory attribute names. This variable is ignored if
eudc-use-raw-directory-names is non-
- Variable: eudc-user-attribute-names-alist
This is an alist of user-defined names for the directory attributes used in query/response forms. Prompt strings for attributes that are not in this alist are derived by splitting the attribute name at underscores and capitalizing the individual words.
- Variable: eudc-use-raw-directory-names
nil, use attributes names as defined in the directory. Otherwise, directory query/response forms display the user attribute names defined in
3.3 Display of Query Results
Upon successful completion of a form query, EUDC will display a buffer containing the results of the query.
The fields that are returned for each record
are controlled by
eudc-default-return-attributes (see Return Attributes).
The display of each individual field can be performed by an arbitrary function which allows specific processing for binary values, such as images or audio samples, as well as values with semantics, such as URLs.
- Variable: eudc-attribute-display-method-alist
An alist specifying methods to display attribute values. Each member of the list is of the form
(name . func)where name is a lowercased string naming a directory attribute (translated according to
nil) and func a function that will be passed the corresponding attribute values for display.
This variable has protocol-local definitions (see see Server/Protocol Locals). For instance, it is defined as follows for LDAP:
(eudc-protocol-set 'eudc-attribute-display-method-alist '(("jpegphoto" . eudc-display-jpeg-inline) ("labeledurl" . eudc-display-url) ("audio" . eudc-display-sound) ("labeledurl" . eudc-display-url) ("url" . eudc-display-url)) 'ldap)
EUDC provides a set of built-in functions to display binary value types:
Right-clicking on a binary value button pops up a contextual menu with
options to process the value. Among these are saving the attribute
value to a file or sending it to an external viewer command. External
viewers should expect the value on their standard input and should
display it or perform arbitrary processing on it. Messages sent to
standard output are discarded. External viewers are listed in the
eudc-external-viewers which you can customize.
- Variable: eudc-external-viewers
This is a list of viewer program specifications. Each specification is a list whose first element is a string naming the viewer for unique identification, the second element is the executable program which should be invoked and the following elements are arguments that should be passed to the program.
3.4 Inline Query Expansion
Inline query expansion is a powerful method to get completion from your
directory server. The most common usage is for expanding names to email
addresses in mail message buffers. The expansion is performed by the
command M-x eudc-expand-inline which is available from the
‘Expand Inline Query’ menu item but can also be conveniently
bound to a key shortcut (see Installation). The operation is
controlled by the variables
If the query fails for a server, other servers may be tried successively until one of them finds a match (see Multi-server Queries).
- Command: eudc-expand-inline replace-p
Query the server and expand the query string before point. The query string consists of the buffer substring from the point back to the preceding comma, colon or beginning of line.
eudc-inline-query-formatcontrols how individual words are mapped onto directory attribute names. After querying the server for the given string, the expansion specified by
eudc-inline-expansion-formatis inserted in the buffer at point. If replace-p is
tthen this expansion replaces the query string in the buffer. If
nilthen the meaning of replace-p is negated.
- Variable: eudc-inline-query-format
Format of an inline expansion query. This is actually a list of formats. A format is a list of one or more EUDC attribute names. A format applies if it contains as many attributes as individual words in the inline query string. If several formats apply then they are tried in order until a match is found. If
nilall the words will be mapped onto the default server/protocol attribute name (generally
For instance, use the following
(setq eudc-inline-query-format '((name) (firstname) (firstname name)))
to indicate that single word expansion queries are to be considered as surnames and if no match is found then they should be tried as first names. Inline queries consisting of two words are considered as consisting of a first name followed by a surname. If the query consists of more than two words, then the first one is considered as the first name and the remaining words are all considered as surname constituents.
formats are in fact not limited to EUDC attribute names, you can use server or protocol specific names in them. It may be safer if you do so, to set the variable
eudc-inline-query-formatin a protocol or server local fashion (see see Server/Protocol Locals).
For instance you could use the following to match up to three words against the
cnattribute of LDAP servers:
(eudc-protocol-set 'eudc-inline-query-format '((cn) (cn cn) (cn cn cn)) 'ldap)
- Variable: eudc-inline-expansion-format
This variable lets you control exactly what is inserted into the buffer upon an inline expansion request. It is a list whose first element is a string passed to
format. Remaining elements are symbols corresponding to directory attribute names. The corresponding attribute values are passed as additional arguments to
format. Default is
("%s" email)but you may want to consider a value like
("%s <%s>" name email)
- Variable: eudc-multiple-match-handling-method
This variable controls what to do when multiple entries match a query for an inline expansion. Possible values are:
The first match is considered as being the only one, the others are discarded.
A selection buffer pops up where you can choose a particular match. This is the default value of the variable.
The expansion uses all records successively
An error is signaled. The expansion aborts.
3.5 The Server Hotlist
EUDC lets you maintain a list of frequently used servers so that you
can easily switch from one to another. This hotlist appears in the
‘Server’ submenu. You select a server in this list by clicking on
its name. You can add the current server to the list with the command
M-x eudc-bookmark-current-server. The list is contained in the variable
eudc-server-hotlist which is stored in and retrieved from the file
eudc-options-file. EUDC also provides a facility to
edit the hotlist interactively (see The Hotlist Edit Buffer).
The hotlist is also used to make queries on multiple servers successively (see Multi-server Queries). The order in which the servers are tried is the order they appear in the hotlist, therefore it is important to sort the hotlist appropriately.
- Variable: eudc-options-file
The name of a file where EUDC stores its internal variables (the hotlist and the current server). EUDC will try to load that file upon initialization so, if you choose a file name different from the defaults ~/.eudc-options, be sure to set this variable to the appropriate value before EUDC is itself loaded.
|• The Hotlist Edit Buffer:||An interactive hotlist editing facility|
3.5.1 The Hotlist Edit Buffer
The hotlist edit buffer offers a means to manage a list of frequently used servers. Commands are available in the context pop-up menu generally bound to the right mouse button. Those commands also have equivalent key bindings.
- Command: eudc-hotlist-add-server
Bound to a. Add a new server to the hotlist on the line after point
- Command: eudc-hotlist-select-server
Bound to s. Select the server the point is on as the current directory server for the next queries
- Command: eudc-hotlist-transpose-servers
Bound to t. Bubble up the server the point is on to the top of the list
- Command: eudc-hotlist-quit-edit
Bound to q. Save the changes and quit the hotlist edit buffer. Use x or M-x kill-buffer to exit without saving.
3.6 Multi-server Queries
When using inline query expansion (see Inline Query Expansion), EUDC can try to query successively a sequence of directory servers until one of them successfully finds a match for the query.
- Variable: eudc-inline-expansion-servers
This variable controls which servers are tried and in which order when trying to perform an inline query. Possible values are:
Only the current directory server is tried
The servers in the hotlist are tried in order until one finds a match for the query or
The current server then the servers in the hotlist are tried in the order they appear in the hotlist until one of them finds a match or
eudc-max-servers-to-queryis reached. This is the default.
- Variable: eudc-max-servers-to-query
This variable indicates the maximum number of servers to query when performing a multi-server query. The default,
nil, indicates that all available servers should be tried.
3.7 Creating BBDB Records
With EUDC, you can automatically create BBDB records (see BBDB in BBDB Manual) from records you get from a directory server. You do this by moving point to the appropriate record in a query result display buffer and invoking the command M-x eudc-insert-record-at-point-into-bbdb with the keyboard binding b1, or with the menu. EUDC cannot update an existing BBDB record and will signal an error if you try to insert a record matching an existing one.
It is also possible to export to BBDB the whole batch of records contained in the directory query result with the command M-x eudc-batch-export-records-to-bbdb.
Because directory systems may not enforce a strict record format, local server installations may use different attribute names and have different ways to organize the information. Furthermore BBDB has its own record structure. For these reasons converting a record from its external directory format to the BBDB format is a highly customizable process.
- Variable: eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist
The value of this variable should be a symbol naming an alist defining a mapping between BBDB field names onto directory attribute names records. This is a protocol-local variable and is initialized upon protocol switch (see Server/Protocol Locals). The alist is made of cells of the form
(bbdb-field . spec-or-list). bbdb-field is the name of a field that must be defined in your BBDB environment (standard field names are
notes). spec-or-list is either a single mapping specification or a list of mapping specifications. Lists of mapping specifications are valid for the
addressBBDB fields only. specs are actually s-expressions which are evaluated as follows:
- a string
evaluates to itself
- a symbol
evaluates to the symbol value. Symbols corresponding to directory attribute names present in the record evaluate to the value of the field in the record
- a form
is evaluated as a function. The argument list may contain attribute names which evaluate to the corresponding values in the record. The form evaluation should return something appropriate for the particular bbdb-field (see
eudc-bbdbify-addressare provided as convenience functions to parse phones and addresses.
- Function: eudc-bbdbify-phone phone location
This is a convenience function provided for use in
eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist. It parses phone into a vector compatible with
bbdb-create-internal. phone is either a string supposedly containing a phone number or a list of such strings which are concatenated. location is used as the phone location for BBDB.
- Function: eudc-bbdbify-address addr location
This is a convenience function provided for use in
eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist. It parses addr into a vector compatible with
bbdb-create-internal. addr should be an address string of no more than four lines or a list of lines. The last line is searched for the zip code, city and state name. location is used as the phone location for BBDB.
Note that only a subset of the attributes you selected with
eudc-default-return-attributes and that are actually displayed may
actually be inserted as part of the newly created BBDB record.
3.8 Server/Protocol Locals
EUDC can be customized independently for each server or directory protocol. All variables can be given local bindings that are activated when a particular server and/or protocol becomes active. This is much like buffer-local bindings but on a per server or per protocol basis.
|• Manipulating local bindings:||Functions to set and query local bindings|
3.8.1 Manipulating local bindings
EUDC offers functions that let you set and query variables on a per server or per protocol basis.
The following predicates allow you to test the existence of server/protocol local bindings for a particular variable.
The following functions allow you to set the value of a variable with various degrees of locality.
- Function: eudc-default-set var val
Set the EUDC default value of var to val. The current binding of var (if local to the current server or protocol) is not changed.
- Function: eudc-protocol-set var val &optional protocol
Set the binding of var local to protocol to val. If omitted, protocol defaults to the current value of
eudc-protocol. The current binding of var is changed only if protocol is omitted.
- Function: eudc-server-set var val &optional server
Set the binding of var local to server to val. If omitted, server defaults to the current value of
eudc-server. The current binding of var is changed only if server is omitted.
- Function: eudc-set var val
Set the most local (server, protocol or default) binding of var to val. The current binding of var is also set to val.
The following variables allow you to query the various bindings of a variable (local or non-local).
- Function: eudc-variable-default-value var
Return the default binding of var (outside of a particular server or protocol local binding). Return
unboundif var has no EUDC default value.
- Function: eudc-variable-protocol-value var &optional protocol
Return the value of var local to protocol. Return
unboundif var has no value local to protocol. protocol defaults to
- Function: eudc-variable-server-value var [server]
Return the value of var local to server. Return
unboundif var has no value local to server. server defaults to
Changing a protocol-local or server-local value of a variable has no
effect on its current value. The following command is used to
synchronize the current values of variables with their local values
given the current
EUDC was written by Oscar Figueiredo based on ph.el by the same author.
Thanks to Soren Dayton for his suggestions, his enthusiasm and his help in testing and proofreading the code and docs of ph.el.
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This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.
A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
- VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
- COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
- Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
- List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
- State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
- Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
- Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
- Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
- Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
- Include an unaltered copy of this License.
- Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
- Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
- For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
- Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
- Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
- Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
- Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
- COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
- COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
- AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
- FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
“Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
“CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with…Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
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