Dired Extra

This documents the “extra” features for GNU Emacs's Dired Mode that are provided by the file dired-x.el.

Copyright © 1994–1995, 1999, 2001–2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being “A GNU Manual”, and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”

Introduction
Installation
Omitting Files in Dired
Local Variables
Shell Command Guessing
Virtual Dired
Advanced Mark Commands
Multiple Dired Directories
Find File At Point
Miscellaneous Commands
Bugs
GNU Free Documentation License
Concept Index
Command Index
Key Index
Variable Index

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1 Introduction

This documents some extra features for GNU Emacs's Dired Mode that are provided by dired-x.el (derived from Sebastian Kremer's original dired-x.el).

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1.1 Features

Some features provided by Dired Extra:

  1. Omitting uninteresting files from Dired listing (see Omitting Files in Dired).
  2. Guessing shell commands in Dired buffers (see Shell Command Guessing).
  3. Running Dired command in non-Dired buffers (see Virtual Dired).
  4. Finding a file mentioned in a buffer (see Find File At Point).
  5. Commands using file marking (see Advanced Mark Commands).

dired-x.el binds some functions to keys in Dired Mode (see Key Index) and also binds C-x C-j and C-x 4 C-j globally to dired-jump (see Miscellaneous Commands). Optionally, it also binds C-x C-f and C-x 4 C-f to dired-x-find-file and dired-x-find-file-other-window, respectively (see Find File At Point).

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1.2 Technical Details

When dired-x.el is loaded, some standard Dired functions from dired.el and dired-aux.el offer additional features. dired-add-entry obeys Dired Omit mode (see Omitting Files in Dired), if it is active. dired-find-buffer-nocreate and dired-initial-position respect the value of dired-find-subdir (see Miscellaneous Commands). dired-clean-up-after-deletion respects the value of dired-clean-up-buffers-too. dired-read-shell-command uses dired-guess-shell-command (see Shell Command Guessing) to offer a smarter default command.

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2 Installation

This manual describes the Dired features provided by the file dired-x.el. To take advantage of these features, you must load the file and (optionally) set some variables.

In your ~/.emacs file, or in the system-wide initialization file default.el in the site-lisp directory, put

     (add-hook 'dired-load-hook
               (lambda ()
                 (load "dired-x")
                 ;; Set dired-x global variables here.  For example:
                 ;; (setq dired-guess-shell-gnutar "gtar")
                 ;; (setq dired-x-hands-off-my-keys nil)
                 ))
     (add-hook 'dired-mode-hook
               (lambda ()
                 ;; Set dired-x buffer-local variables here.  For example:
                 ;; (dired-omit-mode 1)
                 ))

This will load dired-x.el when Dired is first invoked (for example, when you first type C-x d).

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2.1 Optional Installation Dired Jump

In order to have dired-jump and dired-jump-other-window (see Miscellaneous Commands) work before dired and dired-x have been properly loaded you should set-up an autoload for these functions. In your .emacs file put

     (autoload 'dired-jump "dired-x"
       "Jump to Dired buffer corresponding to current buffer." t)
     
     (autoload 'dired-jump-other-window "dired-x"
       "Like \\[dired-jump] (dired-jump) but in other window." t)
     
     (define-key global-map "\C-x\C-j" 'dired-jump)
     (define-key global-map "\C-x4\C-j" 'dired-jump-other-window)

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2.2 Optional Installation File At Point

If you choose to have dired-x.el bind dired-x-find-file over find-file (see Find File At Point), then you will need to set dired-x-hands-off-my-keys. To do this, either set it before dired-x.el is loaded, or use M-x customize-variable, or call dired-x-bind-find-file after changing the value.

     (add-hook 'dired-load-hook
               (lambda ()
                 ;; Bind dired-x-find-file.
                 (setq dired-x-hands-off-my-keys nil)
                 (load "dired-x")
                 ))

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3 Omitting Files in Dired

Omitting a file means removing it from the directory listing. Omitting is useful for keeping Dired buffers free of “uninteresting” files (for instance, auto-save, auxiliary, backup, and revision control files) so that the user can concentrate on the interesting files. Like hidden files, omitted files are never seen by Dired. Omitting differs from hiding in several respects:

C-x M-o
(dired-omit-mode) Toggle between displaying and omitting “uninteresting” files.
* O
(dired-mark-omitted) Mark “uninteresting” files.

In order to make Dired Omit work you first need to load dired-x.el inside dired-load-hook (see Installation) and then evaluate (dired-omit-mode 1) in some way (see Omitting Variables).

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3.1 Omitting Variables

The following variables can be used to customize omitting.

dired-omit-mode
Default: nil

If non-nil, “uninteresting” files are not listed. Uninteresting files are those whose files whose names match regexp dired-omit-files, plus those ending with extensions in dired-omit-extensions. C-x M-o (dired-omit-mode) toggles its value, which is buffer-local. Put

          (dired-omit-mode 1)

inside your dired-mode-hook to have omitting initially turned on in every Dired buffer (see Installation). You can then use C-x M-o to unomit in that buffer.

To enable omitting automatically only in certain directories you can add a directory local setting (see Directory Variables) for Dired mode

          ((dired-mode . ((dired-omit-mode . t))))

to a .dir-locals.el file in that directory. You can use the command add-dir-local-variable to do this.


dired-omit-files
Default: "^#\\|\\.$"

Files whose names match this buffer-local regexp will not be displayed. This only has effect when dired-omit-mode's value is t.

The default value omits the special directories . and .. and autosave files (plus other files ending in .) (see Omitting Examples).


dired-omit-extensions
Default: The elements of completion-ignored-extensions, dired-latex-unclean-extensions, dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions and dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions.

If non-nil, a list of extensions (strings) to omit from Dired listings. Its format is the same as that of completion-ignored-extensions.


dired-omit-localp
Default: no-dir

The localp argument dired-omit-expunge passes to dired-get-filename. If it is no-dir, omitting is much faster, but you can only match against the non-directory part of the file name. Set it to nil if you need to match the whole file name or t to match the file name relative to the buffer's top-level directory.

dired-omit-marker-char
Default: C-o

Temporary marker used by Dired to implement omitting. Should never be used as marker by the user or other packages. There is one exception to this rule: by adding

          (setq dired-mark-keys "\C-o")
          ;; i.e., the value of dired-omit-marker-char
          ;; (which is not defined yet)

to your ~/.emacs, you can bind the C-o key to insert a C-o marker, thus causing these files to be omitted in addition to the usually omitted files. Unfortunately the files you omitted manually this way will show up again after reverting the buffer, unlike the others.

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3.2 Examples of Omitting Various File Types

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3.3 Some Technical Details of Omitting

Loading dired-x.el will install Dired Omit by putting dired-omit-expunge on your dired-after-readin-hook, and will call dired-extra-startup, which in turn calls dired-omit-startup in your dired-mode-hook.

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4 Local Variables for Dired Directories

This Dired-X feature is obsolete as of Emacs 24.1. The standard Emacs directory local variables mechanism (see Directory Variables) replaces it. For an example of the new mechanisms, see Omitting Variables.

When Dired visits a directory, it looks for a file whose name is the value of variable dired-local-variables-file (default: .dired). If such a file is found, Dired will temporarily insert it into the Dired buffer and run hack-local-variables.

For example, if the user puts

     Local Variables:
     dired-actual-switches: "-lat"
     dired-omit-mode: t
     End:

into a file called .dired in a directory then when that directory is viewed it will be

  1. sorted by date
  2. omitted automatically

You can set dired-local-variables-file to nil to suppress this. The value of dired-enable-local-variables controls if and how these local variables are read. This variable exists so that it may override the default value of enable-local-variables.

Please see the GNU Emacs Manual to learn more about local variables. See Local Variables in Files.

The following variables affect Dired Local Variables

dired-local-variables-file
Default: ".dired"

If non-nil, file name for local variables for Dired. If Dired finds a file with that name in the current directory, it will temporarily insert it into the Dired buffer and run hack-local-variables.


dired-enable-local-variables
Default: t

Controls the use of local-variables lists in Dired. This variable temporarily overrides the value of enable-local-variables when the Dired Local Variables are hacked. It takes the same values as that variable. A value of nil means to ignore any Dired Local Variables.

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5 Shell Command Guessing

Based upon the name of a file, Dired tries to guess what shell command you might want to apply to it. For example, if you have point on a file named foo.tar and you press !, Dired will guess you want to ‘tar xvf’ it and suggest that as the default shell command.

The default is mentioned in brackets and you can type M-n to get the default into the minibuffer and then edit it, e.g., to change ‘tar xvf’ to ‘tar tvf’. If there are several commands for a given file, e.g., ‘xtex’ and ‘dvips’ for a .dvi file, you can type M-n several times to see each of the matching commands.

Dired only tries to guess a command for a single file, never for a list of marked files.

dired-guess-shell-alist-default
Predefined rules for shell commands. Set this to nil to turn guessing off. The elements of dired-guess-shell-alist-user (defined by the user) will override these rules.
dired-guess-shell-alist-user
If non-nil, a user-defined alist of file regexps and their suggested commands. These rules take precedence over the predefined rules in the variable dired-guess-shell-alist-default (to which they are prepended) when dired-do-shell-command is run).

Each element of the alist looks like

          (regexp command...)

where each command can either be a string or a Lisp expression that evaluates to a string. If several commands are given, all of them will temporarily be pushed onto the history.

If ‘*’ in the shell command, that means to substitute the file name.

You can set this variable in your ~/.emacs. For example, to add rules for ‘.foo’ and ‘.bar’ file extensions, write

          (setq dired-guess-shell-alist-user
                (list
                 (list "\\.foo$" "foo-command");; fixed rule
                 ;; possibly more rules...
                 (list "\\.bar$";; rule with condition test
                        '(if condition
                             "bar-command-1"
                           "bar-command-2"))))

This will override any predefined rules for the same extensions.

dired-guess-shell-case-fold-search
Default: t

Non-nil means dired-guess-shell-alist-default and dired-guess-shell-alist-user are matched case-insensitively.

dired-guess-shell-gnutar
Default: nil

If non-nil, this is the name of the GNU Tar executable (e.g., ‘tar’ or ‘gnutar’). GNU Tar's ‘z’ switch is used for compressed tar files. If you don't have GNU tar, set this to nil: a pipe using ‘zcat’ is then used.

dired-guess-shell-gzip-quiet
Default: t

A non-nil value means that ‘-q’ is passed to gzip overriding a verbose option in the GZIP environment variable.

dired-guess-shell-znew-switches nil
Default: nil

A string of switches passed to znew. An example is ‘-K’ which will make znew keep a .Z file when it is smaller than the .gz file.

dired-shell-command-history nil
History list for commands that read dired-shell commands.

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6 Virtual Dired

Using Virtual Dired means putting a buffer with Dired-like contents in Dired mode. The files described by the buffer contents need not actually exist. This is useful if you want to peruse an ‘ls -lR’ output file, for example one you got from an FTP server. You can use all motion commands usually available in Dired. You can also use it to save a Dired buffer in a file and resume it in a later session.

Type M-x dired-virtual to put the current buffer into virtual Dired mode. You will be prompted for the top level directory of this buffer, with a default value guessed from the buffer contents. To convert the virtual to a real Dired buffer again, type g (which calls dired-virtual-revert) in the virtual Dired buffer and answer ‘y’. You don't have to do this, though: you can relist single subdirectories using l (dired-do-redisplay) on the subdirectory headerline, leaving the buffer in virtual Dired mode all the time.

The function ‘dired-virtual-mode’ is specially designed to turn on virtual Dired mode from the auto-mode-alist. To edit all *.dired files automatically in virtual Dired mode, put this into your ~/.emacs:

     (setq auto-mode-alist (cons '("[^/]\\.dired$" . dired-virtual-mode)
                                   auto-mode-alist))

The regexp is a bit more complicated than usual to exclude .dired local-variable files.

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7 Advanced Mark Commands

F
(dired-do-find-marked-files) Find all marked files at once displaying them simultaneously. If optional noselect is non-nil then just find the files but do not select. If you want to keep the Dired buffer displayed, type C-x 2 first. If you want just the marked files displayed and nothing else, type C-x 1 first.

The current window is split across all files marked, as evenly as possible. Remaining lines go to the bottom-most window. The number of files that can be displayed this way is restricted by the height of the current window and the variable window-min-height.

dired-mark-extension
Mark all files with a certain extension for use in later commands. A ‘.’ is not automatically prepended to the string entered, you must type it explicitly.

When called from Lisp, extension may also be a list of extensions and an optional argument marker-char specifies the marker used.

dired-flag-extension
Flag all files with a certain extension for deletion. A ‘.’ is not automatically prepended to the string entered.

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7.1 Advanced Cleaning Functions

dired-clean-patch
Flag dispensable files created by the ‘patch’ program for deletion. See variable dired-patch-unclean-extensions.
dired-clean-tex
Flag dispensable files created by TeX, LaTeX, and ‘texinfo’ for deletion. See the following variables (see Advanced Cleaning Variables):
  • dired-tex-unclean-extensions
  • dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions
  • dired-latex-unclean-extensions
  • dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions

dired-very-clean-tex
Flag dispensable files created by TeX, LaTeX, ‘texinfo’, and *.dvi files for deletion.

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7.2 Advanced Cleaning Variables

Variables used by the above cleaning commands (and in the default value for variable dired-omit-extensions, see Omitting Variables)

dired-patch-unclean-extensions
Default: (".rej" ".orig")

List of extensions of dispensable files created by the ‘patch’ program.

dired-tex-unclean-extensions
Default: (".toc" ".log" ".aux")

List of extensions of dispensable files created by TeX.

dired-texinfo-unclean-extensions
Default: (".cp" ".cps" ".fn" ".fns" ".ky" ".kys" ".pg" ".pgs" ".tp" ".tps" ".vr" ".vrs")

List of extensions of dispensable files created by ‘texinfo’.

dired-latex-unclean-extensions
Default: (".idx" ".lof" ".lot" ".glo")

List of extensions of dispensable files created by LaTeX.

dired-bibtex-unclean-extensions
Default: (".blg" ".bbl")

List of extensions of dispensable files created by BibTeX.

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7.3 Special Marking Function

M-(
(dired-mark-sexp) Mark files for which predicate returns non-nil. With a prefix argument, unflag those files instead.

The predicate is a Lisp expression that can refer to the following symbols:

inode
[integer] the inode of the file (only for ‘ls -i’ output)
s
[integer] the size of the file for ‘ls -s’ output (usually in blocks or, with ‘-k’, in KBytes)
mode
[string] file permission bits, e.g., ‘-rw-r--r--
nlink
[integer] number of links to file
uid
[string] owner
gid
[string] group (If the gid is not displayed by ‘ls’, this will still be set (to the same as uid))
size
[integer] file size in bytes
time
[string] the time that ‘ls’ displays, e.g., ‘Feb 12 14:17
name
[string] the name of the file
sym
[string] if file is a symbolic link, the linked-to name, else ""

For example, use

          (equal 0 size)

to mark all zero length files.

To find out all not yet compiled Emacs Lisp files in a directory, Dired all .el files in the lisp directory using the wildcard ‘*.el’. Then use M-( with

          (not (file-exists-p (concat name "c")))

to mark all .el files without a corresponding .elc file.

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8 Multiple Dired Directories and Non-Dired Commands

An Emacs buffer can have but one working directory, stored in the buffer-local variable default-directory. A Dired buffer may have several subdirectories inserted, but it still has only one working directory: that of the top-level Dired directory in that buffer. For some commands it is appropriate that they use the current Dired directory instead of default-directory, e.g., find-file and compile.

The command dired-smart-shell-command, bound to M-! in Dired buffers, is like shell-command, but it runs with default-directory bound to the current Dired directory.

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9 Find File At Point

dired-x provides a method of visiting or editing a file mentioned in the buffer you are viewing (e.g., a mail buffer, a news article, a README file, etc.) or to test if that file exists. You can then modify this in the minibuffer after snatching the file name.

When installed dired-x will substitute dired-x-find-file for find-file (normally bound to C-x C-f) and dired-x-find-file-other-window for find-file-other-window (normally bound to C-x 4 C-f).

In order to use this feature, you will need to set dired-x-hands-off-my-keys to nil inside dired-load-hook (see Optional Installation File At Point).

dired-x-find-file
dired-x-find-file behaves exactly like find-file (normally bound to C-x C-f) unless a prefix argument is passed to the function in which case it will use the file name at point as a guess for the file to visit.

For example, if the buffer you were reading contained the words

          Available via anonymous ftp in
          
             /roebling.poly.edu:/pub/lisp/crypt++.el.gz

then you could move your cursor to the line containing the ftp address and type C-u C-x C-f (the C-u is a universal argument). The minibuffer would read

          Find file: /roebling.poly.edu:/pub/lisp/crypt++.el.gz

with the point after the last /. If you hit <RET>, emacs will visit the file at that address. This also works with files on your own computer.

dired-x-find-file-other-window
dired-x-find-file-other-window behaves exactly like find-file-other-window (normally bound to C-x 4 C-f) unless a prefix argument is used. See dired-x-find-file for more information.
dired-x-hands-off-my-keys
If set to t, then it means that dired-x should not bind dired-x-find-file over find-file on keyboard. Similarly, it should not bind dired-x-find-file-other-window over find-file-other-window. If you change this variable after dired-x.el is loaded then do M-x dired-x-bind-find-file. The default value of this variable is t; by default, the binding is not done. See See Optional Installation File At Point.
dired-x-bind-find-file
A function, which can be called interactively or in your ~/.emacs file, that uses the value of dired-x-hands-off-my-keys to determine if dired-x-find-file should be bound over find-file and dired-x-find-file-other-window bound over find-file-other-window. See See Optional Installation File At Point.

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10 Miscellaneous Commands

Miscellaneous features not fitting anywhere else:

dired-find-subdir
Default: nil

If non-nil, Dired does not make a new buffer for a directory if it can be found (perhaps as subdirectory) in some existing Dired buffer.

If there are several Dired buffers for a directory, the most recently used is chosen.

Dired avoids switching to the current buffer, so that if you have a normal and a wildcard buffer for the same directory, C-x d RET will toggle between those two.

M-G
(dired-goto-subdir) Go to the header line of an inserted directory. This command reads its argument, with completion derived from the names of the inserted subdirectories.
dired-jump
Bound to C-x C-j. Jump back to Dired: If in a file, edit the current directory and move to file's line. If in Dired already, pop up a level and go to old directory's line. In case the proper Dired file line cannot be found, refresh the Dired buffer and try again.
dired-jump-other-window
Bound to C-x 4 C-j. Like dired-jump, but to other window.

These functions can be autoloaded so they work even though dired-x.el has not been loaded yet (see Optional Installation Dired Jump).

If the variable dired-bind-jump is nil, dired-jump will not be bound to C-x C-j and dired-jump-other-window will not be bound to C-x 4 C-j.

dired-vm
Bound to V if dired-bind-vm is t. Run VM on this file (assumed to be a UNIX mail folder).

If you give this command a prefix argument, it will visit the folder read-only.

If the variable dired-vm-read-only-folders is t, dired-vm will visit all folders read-only. If it is neither nil nor t, e.g., the symbol if-file-read-only, only files not writable by you are visited read-only.

If the variable dired-bind-vm is t, dired-vm will be bound to V. Otherwise, dired-bind-rmail will be bound.

dired-rmail
Bound to V if dired-bind-vm is nil. Run Rmail on this file (assumed to be mail folder in Rmail format).
dired-info
Bound to I. Run Info on this file (assumed to be a file in Info format).

If the variable dired-bind-info is nil, dired-info will not be bound to I.

dired-man
Bound to N. Run man on this file (assumed to be a file in nroff format).

If the variable dired-bind-man is nil, dired-man will not be bound to N.

dired-do-relsymlink
Bound to Y. Relative symlink all marked (or next ARG) files into a directory, or make a relative symbolic link to the current file. This creates relative symbolic links like
              foo -> ../bar/foo

not absolute ones like

              foo -> /ugly/path/that/may/change/any/day/bar/foo

dired-do-relsymlink-regexp
Bound to %Y. Relative symlink all marked files containing regexp to newname. See functions dired-do-rename-regexp and dired-do-relsymlink for more info.

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11 Bugs

If you encounter a bug in this package, or wish to suggest an enhancement, then please use M-x report-emacs-bug to report it.

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Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
     Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     http://fsf.org/
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  1. PREAMBLE

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

  2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  3. VERBATIM COPYING

    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

  4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

  5. MODIFICATIONS

    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

  7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

  9. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

  10. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  12. RELICENSING

    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

    An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

    The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  year  your name.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

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