SES: Simple Emacs Spreadsheet
SES is a major mode for GNU Emacs to edit spreadsheet files, which contain a rectangular grid of cells. The cells' values are specified by formulas that can refer to the values of other cells.
To report bugs, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This file documents SES: the Simple Emacs Spreadsheet.
Copyright © 2002–2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being “A GNU Manual,” and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: “You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual.”
|Sales Pitch||Why use SES?|
|The Basics||Basic spreadsheet commands|
|Advanced Features||Want to know more?|
|For Gurus||Want to know even more?|
|Index||Concept, Function and Variable Index|
|GNU Free Documentation License||The license for this documentation.|
1 Sales Pitch
- Create and edit simple spreadsheets with a minimum of fuss.
- Full undo/redo/autosave.
- Immune to viruses in spreadsheet files.
- Cell formulas are straight Emacs Lisp.
- Printer functions for control of cell appearance.
- Intuitive keystroke commands: C-o = insert row, M-o = insert column, etc.
- “Spillover” of lengthy cell values into following blank cells.
- Header line shows column letters or a selected row.
- Completing-read for entering symbols as cell values.
- Cut, copy, and paste can transfer formulas and printer functions.
- Import and export of tab-separated values or tab-separated formulas.
- Plaintext, easily-hacked file format.
2 The Basics
A cell identifier is a symbol with a column letter and a row number. Cell B7 is the 2nd column of the 7th row. For very wide spreadsheets, there are two column letters: cell AB7 is the 28th column of the 7th row. Super wide spreadsheets get AAA1, etc.
- Moves point to cell, specified by identifier (
Point is always at the left edge of a cell, or at the empty endline. When mark is inactive, the current cell is underlined. When mark is active, the range is the highlighted rectangle of cells (SES always uses transient mark mode). Drag the mouse from A1 to A3 to create the range A1-A2. Many SES commands operate only on single cells, not ranges.
- Set mark at point (
- Turn off the mark (
- Highlight current row (
- Highlight current column (
- C-x h
- Highlight all cells (
2.1 Cell formulas
- Self-insert a digit (
- Self-insert a negative number (
- Self-insert a fractional number (
- Self-insert a quoted string. The ending double-quote
is inserted for you (
- Self-insert an expression. The right-parenthesis is inserted for you
ses-read-cell). To access another cell's value, just use its identifier in your expression. Whenever the other cell is changed, this cell's formula will be reevaluated. While typing in the expression, you can use M-<TAB> to complete symbol names.
- ' (apostrophe)
- Enter a symbol (ses-read-symbol). SES remembers all symbols that have been used as formulas, so you can type just the beginning of a symbol and use <SPC>, <TAB>, and ? to complete it.
To enter something else (e.g., a vector), begin with a digit, then erase the digit and type whatever you want.
- Edit the existing formula in the current cell (
- C-c C-c
- Force recalculation of the current cell or range (
- C-c C-l
- Recalculate the entire spreadsheet (
2.2 Resizing the spreadsheet
- Moves point to the next rightward cell, or inserts a new column if
already at last cell on line, or inserts a new row if at endline
- Linefeed inserts below the current row and moves to column A
Resizing the spreadsheet (unless you're just changing a column width) relocates all the cell-references in formulas so they still refer to the same cells. If a formula mentioned B1 and you insert a new first row, the formula will now mention B2.
If you delete a cell that a formula refers to, the cell-symbol is
deleted from the formula, so
(+ A1 B1 C1) after deleting the third
(+ A1 B1). In case this is not what you wanted:
- C-x u
- Undo previous action (
2.3 Printer functions
Printer functions convert binary cell values into the print forms that Emacs will display on the screen.
A printer can be a format string, like ‘"$%.2f"’. The result string is right-aligned within the print cell. To get left-alignment, use parentheses: ‘("$%.2f")’. A printer can also be a one-argument function (a symbol or a lambda), whose result is a string (right-aligned) or list of one string (left-aligned). While typing in a lambda, you can use M-<TAB> to complete the names of symbols.
Each cell has a printer. If
nil, the column-printer for the cell's
column is used. If that is also
nil, the default-printer for the
spreadsheet is used.
- Enter a printer for current cell or range (
- Enter a printer for the current column (
- C-c C-p
- Enter the default printer for the spreadsheet
-printer commands have their own minibuffer
history, which is preloaded with the set of all printers used in this
spreadsheet, plus the standard printers.
The standard printers are suitable only for cells, not columns or
default, because they format the value using the column-printer (or
nil) and then center the result:
- Just centering.
- Centering with spill-over to following blank cells.
- Centering using dashes (-) instead of spaces.
- Centering with dashes and spill-over.
- Centering with tildes (~) and spill-over.
2.4 Clearing cells
- Clear cell and move left (
- Clear cell and move right (
2.5 Copy, cut, and paste
- Copy the highlighted cells to kill ring and primary clipboard
- Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and primary clipboard
- Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and secondary clipboard
- The cut functions do not actually delete rows or columns—they copy
and then clear (
- Paste from kill ring (
yank). The paste functions behave differently depending on the format of the text being inserted:
- When pasting cells that were cut from a SES buffer, the print text is ignored and only the attached formula and printer are inserted; cell references in the formula are relocated unless you use C-u.
- The pasted text overwrites a rectangle of cells whose top left corner is the current cell. If part of the rectangle is beyond the edges of the spreadsheet, you must confirm the increase in spreadsheet size.
- Non-SES text is usually inserted as a replacement formula for the current cell. If the formula would be a symbol, it's treated as a string unless you use C-u. Pasted formulas with syntax errors are always treated as strings.
- Paste from primary clipboard or kill ring (
- Set point and paste from primary clipboard (
- Set point and paste from secondary clipboard (
- Immediately after a paste, you can replace the text with a preceding
element from the kill ring (
ses-yank-pop). Unlike the standard Emacs yank-pop, the SES version uses
undoto delete the old yank. This doesn't make any difference?
2.6 Customizing SES
By default, a newly-created spreadsheet has 1 row and 1 column. The column width is 7 and the default printer is ‘"%.7g"’. Each of these can be customized. Look in group “ses”.
After entering a cell value, point normally moves right to the next
cell. You can customize
ses-after-entry-functions to move left or
up or down. For diagonal movement, select two functions from the
ses-mode-hook is a normal mode hook (list of functions to
execute when starting SES mode for a buffer).
safe-functions is a list of possibly-unsafe
functions to be treated as safe when analyzing formulas and printers.
See Virus protection. Before customizing
think about how much you trust the person who's suggesting this
change. The value
t turns off all anti-virus protection. A
list-of-functions value might enable a “gee whiz” spreadsheet, but it
also creates trapdoors in your anti-virus armor. In order for virus
protection to work, you must always press n when presented with
a virus warning, unless you understand what the questionable code is
trying to do. Do not listen to those who tell you to customize
enable-local-eval—this variable is for people who don't wear
3 Advanced Features
- C-c M-C-h
ses-set-header-row). The header line at the top of the SES window normally shows the column letter for each column. You can set it to show a copy of some row, such as a row of column titles, so that row will always be visible. Default is to set the current row as the header; use C-u to prompt for header row. Set the header to row 0 to show column letters again.
- [header-line mouse-3]
- Pops up a menu to set the current row as the header, or revert to column letters.
3.1 The print area
A SES file consists of a print area and a data area. Normally the buffer is narrowed to show only the print area. The print area is read-only except for special SES commands; it contains cell values formatted by printer functions. The data area records the formula and printer functions, etc.
- C-x n w
- Show print and data areas (
- C-c C-n
- Show only print area (
- Recreate print area by reevaluating printer functions for all cells
3.2 Ranges in formulas
(+ A1 A2 A3)
is the sum of three specific cells. If you insert a new second row, the formula becomes
(+ A1 A3 A4)
and the new row is not included in the sum.
(ses-range from to
) evaluates to a list of
the values in a rectangle of cells. If your formula is
(apply '+ (ses-range A1 A3))
and you insert a new second row, it becomes
(apply '+ (ses-range A1 A4))
and the new row is included in the sum.
While entering or editing a formula in the minibuffer, you can select a range in the spreadsheet (using mouse or keyboard), then paste a representation of that range into your formula. Suppose you select A1-C1:
- Inserts "A1 B1 C1"
- C-c C-r
- Keyboard version (
- Inserts "(ses-range A1 C1)" (
- C-c C-s
- Keyboard version (
If you delete the from or to cell for a range, the nearest still-existing cell is used instead. If you delete the entire range, the formula relocator will delete the ses-range from the formula.
If you insert a new row just beyond the end of a one-column range, or a new column just beyond a one-row range, the new cell is included in the range. New cells inserted just before a range are not included.
3.3 Sorting by column
- C-c M-C-s
- Sort the cells of a range using one of the columns
ses-sort-column). The rows (or partial rows if the range doesn't include all columns) are rearranged so the chosen column will be in order.
- [header-line mouse-2]
- The easiest way to sort is to click mouse-2 on the chosen column's header row
The sort comparison uses
string<, which works well for
right-justified numbers and left-justified strings.
With prefix arg, sort is in descending order.
Rows are moved one at a time, with relocation of formulas. This works well if formulas refer to other cells in their row, not so well for formulas that refer to other rows in the range or to cells outside the range.
3.4 Standard formula functions
- Returns a list from which all blank cells (value is either
nilor '*skip*) have been deleted.
- Sum of non-blank arguments.
- Average of non-blank elements in list. Here the list is passed
as a single argument, since you'll probably use it with
3.5 More on cell printing
- nil prints the same as "", but allows previous cell to spill over.
- '*skip* replaces nil when the previous cell actually does spill over; nothing is printed for it.
- '*error* indicates that the formula signaled an error instead of producing a value: the print cell is filled with hash marks (#).
If the result from the printer function is too wide for the cell and
the following cell is
nil, the result will spill over into the
following cell. Very wide results can spill over several cells. If
the result is too wide for the available space (up to the end of the
row or the next non-
nil cell), the result is truncated if the cell's
value is a string, or replaced with hash marks otherwise.
SES could get confused by printer results that contain newlines or tabs, so these are replaced with question marks.
- Confine a cell to its own column (
ses-truncate-cell). This allows you to move point to a rightward cell that would otherwise be covered by a spill-over. If you don't change the rightward cell, the confined cell will spill over again the next time it is reprinted.
- When applied to a single cell, this command displays in the echo area
any formula error or printer error that occurred during
ses-recalculate-cell). You can use this to undo the effect of t.
When a printer function signals an error, the fallback printer ‘"%s"’ is substituted. This is useful when your column printer is numeric-only and you use a string as a cell value. Note that the standard default printer is “%.7g” which is numeric-only, so cells that are empty of contain strings will use the fallback printer. c on such cells will display “Format specifier doesn't match argument type”.
3.6 Import and export
- x t
- Export a range of cells as tab-separated values (
- x T
- Export a range of cells as tab-separated formulas (
The exported text goes to the kill ring; you can paste it into another buffer. Columns are separated by tabs, rows by newlines.
To import text, use any of the yank commands where the text to paste contains tabs and/or newlines. Imported formulas are not relocated.
3.7 Virus protection
Whenever a formula or printer is read from a file or is pasted into
the spreadsheet, it receives a “needs safety check” marking. Later,
when the formula or printer is evaluated for the first time, it is
checked for safety using the
unsafep predicate; if found to be
“possibly unsafe”, the questionable formula or printer is displayed
and you must press Y to approve it or N to use a substitute. The
substitute always signals an error.
Formulas or printers that you type in are checked immediately for safety. If found to be possibly unsafe and you press N to disapprove, the action is canceled and the old formula or printer will remain.
Besides viruses (which try to copy themselves to other files),
unsafep can also detect all other kinds of Trojan horses, such as
spreadsheets that delete files, send email, flood Web sites, alter
your Emacs settings, etc.
Generally, spreadsheet formulas and printers are simple things that don't need to do any fancy computing, so all potentially-dangerous parts of the Emacs Lisp environment can be excluded without cramping your style as a formula-writer. See the documentation in unsafep.el for more info on how Lisp forms are classified as safe or unsafe.
3.8 Spreadsheets with details and summary
A common organization for spreadsheets is to have a bunch of “detail”
rows, each perhaps describing a transaction, and then a set of
“summary” rows that each show reduced data for some subset of the
details. SES supports this organization via the
(ses-selectfromrange test torange
- Returns a subset of torange. For each member in fromrange that is equal to test, the corresponding member of torange is included in the result.
Example of use:
(ses-average (ses-select (ses-range A1 A5) 'Smith (ses-range B1 B5)))
This computes the average of the B column values for those rows whose A column value is the symbol 'Smith.
Arguably one could specify only fromrange plus to-row-offset and to-column-offset. The torange is stated explicitly to ensure that the formula will be recalculated if any cell in either range is changed.
File etc/ses-example.el in the Emacs distribution is an example of a details-and-summary spreadsheet.
4 For Gurus
4.1 Deferred updates
To save time by avoiding redundant computations, cells that need recalculation due to changes in other cells are added to a set. At the end of the command, each cell in the set is recalculated once. This can create a new set of cells that need recalculation. The process is repeated until either the set is empty or it stops changing (due to circular references among the cells). In extreme cases, you might see progress messages of the form “Recalculating... (nnn cells left)”. If you interrupt the calculation using C-g, the spreadsheet will be left in an inconsistent state, so use C-_ or C-c C-l to fix it.
To save even more time by avoiding redundant writes, cells that have changes are added to a set instead of being written immediately to the data area. Each cell in the set is written once, at the end of the command. If you change vast quantities of cells, you might see a progress message of the form “Writing... (nnn cells left)”. These deferred cell-writes cannot be interrupted by C-g, so you'll just have to wait.
run-with-idle-timer to move the cell underline when
Emacs will be scrolling the buffer after the end of a command, and
also to narrow and underline after C-x C-v. This is visible as
a momentary glitch after C-x C-v and certain scrolling commands. You
can type ahead without worrying about the glitch.
4.2 Nonrelocatable references
You can use
to make an absolute reference. The formula relocator skips over quoted things, so this will not be relocated when pasted or when rows/columns are inserted/deleted. However, B3 will not be recorded as a dependency of this cell, so this cell will not be updated automatically when B3 is changed.
col are dynamically bound while a
cell formula is being evaluated. You can use
(ses-cell-value row 0)
to get the value from the leftmost column in the current row. This kind of dependency is also not recorded.
4.3 The data area
Begins with an 014 character, followed by sets of cell-definition macros for each row, followed by column-widths, column-printers, default-printer, and header-row. Then there's the global parameters (file-format ID, numrows, numcols) and the local variables (specifying SES mode for the buffer, etc.).
When a SES file is loaded, first the numrows and numcols values are
loaded, then the entire data area is
evaled, and finally the local
variables are processed.
You can edit the data area, but don't insert or delete any newlines except in the local-variables part, since SES locates things by counting newlines. Use C-x C-e at the end of a line to install your edits into the spreadsheet data structures (this does not update the print area, use, e.g., C-c C-l for that).
The data area is maintained as an image of spreadsheet data structures that area stored in buffer-local variables. If the data area gets messed up, you can try reconstructing the data area from the data structures:
- C-c M-C-l
4.4 Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets
You can override the variable
ses--symbolic-formulas to be a list of
symbols (as parenthesized strings) to show as completions for the '
command. This initial completions list is used instead of the actual
set of symbols-as-formulas in the spreadsheet.
For an example of this, see file etc/ses-example.ses.
If (for some reason) you want your formulas or printers to save data into variables, you must declare these variables as buffer-locals in order to avoid a virus warning.
You can define functions by making them values for the fake local
eval. Such functions can then be used in your
formulas and printers, but usually each
eval is presented to
the user during file loading as a potential virus. This can get
You can define functions in your .emacs file. Other people can still read the print area of your spreadsheet, but they won't be able to recalculate or reprint anything that depends on your functions. To avoid virus warnings, each function used in a formula needs
(put 'your-function-name 'safe-function t)
4.5 Uses of defadvice in SES
- Defines a new undo element format (fun . args), which
means “undo by applying fun to args”. For spreadsheet
buffers, it allows undos in the data area even though that's outside
- When copying from the print area of a spreadsheet, treat the region as
a rectangle and attach each cell's formula and printer as 'ses
- When yanking into the print area of a spreadsheet, first try to yank as cells (if the yank text has 'ses properties), then as tab-separated formulas, then (if all else fails) as a single formula for the current cell.
- *error*: Standard formula functions
- *skip*: Standard formula functions
- advanced features: For Gurus
- advanced features: Advanced Features
- basic commands: The Basics
- buffer-local variables: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets
- cell printing, more: More on cell printing
- clearing commands: Clearing cells
- copy: Copy/cut/paste
- copy-region-as-kill: Uses of defadvice in SES
- customizing: Customizing SES
- cut: Copy/cut/paste
- data area: The data area
- defadvice: Uses of defadvice in SES
- deferred updates: Deferred updates
- details and summary: Spreadsheets with details and summary
enable-local-eval: Customizing SES
- export, and import: Import and export
- features: Sales Pitch
- formulas: Formulas
- formulas, entering: Formulas
from: Ranges in formulas
- import and export: Import and export
keyboard-quit: The Basics
- nonrelocatable references: Nonrelocatable references
- paste: Copy/cut/paste
- print area: The print area
- printer functions: Printer functions
- ranges: Ranges in formulas
- references, nonrelocatable: Nonrelocatable references
- resizing spreadsheets: Resizing
run-with-idle-timer: Deferred updates
safe-functions: Customizing SES
ses+: Standard formula functions
ses-average: Standard formula functions
ses-center: Printer functions
ses-center-span: Printer functions
ses-clear-cell-backward: Clearing cells
ses-clear-cell-forward: Clearing cells
ses-dashfill: Printer functions
ses-dashfill-span: Printer functions
ses-delete-blanks: Standard formula functions
ses-export-tsf: Import and export
ses-export-tsv: Import and export
ses-insert-range: Ranges in formulas
ses-insert-range-click: Ranges in formulas
ses-insert-ses-range: Ranges in formulas
ses-insert-ses-range-click: Ranges in formulas
ses-jump: The Basics
ses-mark-column: The Basics
ses-mark-row: The Basics
ses-mark-whole-buffer: The Basics
ses-mode-hook: Customizing SES
ses-read-cell-printer: Printer functions
ses-read-column-printer: Printer functions
ses-read-default-printer: Printer functions
ses-read-header-row: Advanced Features
ses-recalculate-cell: More on cell printing
ses-reconstruct-all: The data area
ses-renarrow-buffer: The print area
ses-reprint-all: The print area
ses-sort-column: Sorting by column
ses-sort-column-click: Sorting by column
ses-tildefill-span: Printer functions
ses-truncate-cell: More on cell printing
set-mark-command: The Basics
- sorting: Sorting by column
- standard formula functions: Standard formula functions
- summary, and details: Spreadsheets with details and summary
to: Ranges in formulas
- undo-more: Uses of defadvice in SES
- updates, deferred: Deferred updates
- variables, buffer-local: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets
- virus protection: Virus protection
widen: The print area
- yank: Uses of defadvice in SES
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Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
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If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
- Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
- List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
- State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
- Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
- Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
- Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
- Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
- Include an unaltered copy of this License.
- Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
- Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
- For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
- Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
- Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
- Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
- Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
- COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”
- COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
- AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
- FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
“Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
“CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
“Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is “eligible for relicensing” if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.