The d C (
calc-c-language) command selects the conventions
of the C language for display and entry of formulas. This differs from
the normal language mode in a variety of (mostly minor) ways. In
particular, C language operators and operator precedences are used in
place of Calc’s usual ones. For example, ‘a^b’ means ‘xor(a,b)’
in C mode; a value raised to a power is written as a function call,
In C mode, vectors and matrices use curly braces instead of brackets.
Octal and hexadecimal values are written with leading ‘0’ or ‘0x’
rather than using the ‘#’ symbol. Array subscripting is
subscr calls, so that ‘a[i]’ in C
mode is the same as ‘a_i’ in Normal mode. Assignments
turn into the
assign function, which Calc normally displays
using the ‘:=’ symbol.
e would be displayed ‘pi’
and ‘e’ in Normal mode, but in C mode they are displayed as
‘M_PI’ and ‘M_E’, corresponding to the names of constants
typically provided in the <math.h> header. Functions whose
names are different in C are translated automatically for entry and
display purposes. For example, entering ‘asin(x)’ will push the
formula ‘arcsin(x)’ onto the stack; this formula will be displayed
as ‘asin(x)’ as long as C mode is in effect.
The d P (
calc-pascal-language) command selects Pascal
conventions. Like C mode, Pascal mode interprets array brackets and uses
a different table of operators. Hexadecimal numbers are entered and
displayed with a preceding dollar sign. (Thus the regular meaning of
$2 during algebraic entry does not work in Pascal mode, though
$ (and $$, etc.) not followed by digits works the same as
always.) No special provisions are made for other non-decimal numbers,
vectors, and so on, since there is no universally accepted standard way
of handling these in Pascal.
The d F (
calc-fortran-language) command selects FORTRAN
conventions. Various function names are transformed into FORTRAN
equivalents. Vectors are written as ‘/1, 2, 3/’, and may be
entered this way or using square brackets. Since FORTRAN uses round
parentheses for both function calls and array subscripts, Calc displays
both in the same way; ‘a(i)’ is interpreted as a function call
upon reading, and subscripts must be entered as ‘subscr(a, i)’.
If the variable
a has been declared to have type
matrix, however, then ‘a(i)’ will be
parsed as a subscript. (See Declarations.) Usually it doesn’t
matter, though; if you enter the subscript expression ‘a(i)’ and
Calc interprets it as a function call, you’ll never know the difference
unless you switch to another language mode or replace
a with an
actual vector (or unless
a happens to be the name of a built-in
Underscores are allowed in variable and function names in all of these language modes. The underscore here is equivalent to the ‘#’ in Normal mode, or to hyphens in the underlying Emacs Lisp variable names.
FORTRAN and Pascal modes normally do not adjust the case of letters in formulas. Most built-in Calc names use lower-case letters. If you use a positive numeric prefix argument with d P or d F, these modes will use upper-case letters exclusively for display, and will convert to lower-case on input. With a negative prefix, these modes convert to lower-case for display and input.