poly function takes a polynomial and a variable as
arguments, and returns a vector of polynomial coefficients (constant
coefficient first). For example, ‘poly(x^3 + 2 x, x)’ returns
‘[0, 2, 0, 1]’. If the input is not a polynomial in ‘x’,
the call to
poly is left in symbolic form. If the input does
not involve the variable ‘x’, the input is returned in a list
of length one, representing a polynomial with only a constant
coefficient. The call ‘poly(x, x)’ returns the vector ‘[0, 1]’.
The last element of the returned vector is guaranteed to be nonzero;
note that ‘poly(0, x)’ returns the empty vector ‘’.
Note also that ‘x’ may actually be any formula; for example,
‘poly(sin(x)^2 - sin(x) + 3, sin(x))’ returns ‘[3, -1, 1]’.
To get the ‘x^k’ coefficient of polynomial ‘p’, use ‘poly(p, x)_(k+1)’. To get the degree of polynomial ‘p’, use ‘vlen(poly(p, x)) - 1’. For example, ‘poly((x+1)^4, x)’ returns ‘[1, 4, 6, 4, 1]’, so ‘poly((x+1)^4, x)_(2+1)’ gives the ‘x^2’ coefficient of this polynomial, 6.
One important feature of the solver is its ability to recognize
formulas which are “essentially” polynomials. This ability is
made available to the user through the
gpoly function, which
is used just like
poly: ‘gpoly(expr, var)’.
If expr is a polynomial in some term which includes var, then
this function will return a vector ‘[x, c, a]’
where x is the term that depends on var, c is a
vector of polynomial coefficients (like the one returned by
and a is a multiplier which is usually 1. Basically,
‘expr = a*(c_1 + c_2 x +
c_3 x^2 + ...)’. The last element of c is
guaranteed to be non-zero, and c will not equal ‘’
(i.e., the trivial decomposition expr = x is not
considered a polynomial). One side effect is that ‘gpoly(x, x)’
and ‘gpoly(6, x)’, both of which might be expected to recognize
their arguments as polynomials, will not because the decomposition
is considered trivial.
For example, ‘gpoly((x-2)^2, x)’ returns ‘[x, [4, -4, 1], 1]’, since the expanded form of this polynomial is ‘4 - 4 x + x^2’.
The term x may itself be a polynomial in var. This is done to reduce the size of the c vector. For example, ‘gpoly(x^4 + x^2 - 1, x)’ returns ‘[x^2, [-1, 1, 1], 1]’, since a quadratic polynomial in ‘x^2’ is easier to solve than a quartic polynomial in ‘x’.
A few more examples of the kinds of polynomials
sin(x) - 1 [sin(x), [-1, 1], 1] x + 1/x - 1 [x, [1, -1, 1], 1/x] x + 1/x [x^2, [1, 1], 1/x] x^3 + 2 x [x^2, [2, 1], x] x + x^2:3 + sqrt(x) [x^1:6, [1, 1, 0, 1], x^1:2] x^(2a) + 2 x^a + 5 [x^a, [5, 2, 1], 1] (exp(-x) + exp(x)) / 2 [e^(2 x), [0.5, 0.5], e^-x]
gpoly functions accept a third integer argument
which specifies the largest degree of polynomial that is acceptable.
If this is ‘n’, then only c vectors of length ‘n+1’
or less will be returned. Otherwise, the
call will remain in symbolic form. For example, the equation solver
can handle quartics and smaller polynomials, so it calls
‘gpoly(expr, var, 4)’ to discover whether expr
can be treated by its linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic formulas.
pdeg function computes the degree of a polynomial;
‘pdeg(p,x)’ is the highest power of
x that appears in
p. This is the same as ‘vlen(poly(p,x))-1’, but is
much more efficient. If
p is constant with respect to
then ‘pdeg(p,x) = 0’. If
p is not a polynomial in
(e.g., ‘pdeg(2 cos(x), x)’, the function remains unevaluated.
It is possible to omit the second argument
x, in which case
‘pdeg(p)’ returns the highest total degree of any term of the
polynomial, counting all variables that appear in
pdeg(c) = pdeg(c,x) = 0 for any nonzero constant
the degree of the constant zero is considered to be
plead function finds the leading term of a polynomial.
Thus ‘plead(p,x)’ is equivalent to ‘poly(p,x)_vlen(poly(p,x))’,
though again more efficient. In particular, ‘plead((2x+1)^10, x)’
returns 1024 without expanding out the list of coefficients. The
plead(p,x) will be zero only if ‘p = 0’.
pcont function finds the content of a polynomial. This
is the greatest common divisor of all the coefficients of the polynomial.
With two arguments,
pcont(p,x) effectively uses ‘poly(p,x)’
to get a list of coefficients, then uses
pgcd (the polynomial
GCD function) to combine these into an answer. For example,
‘pcont(4 x y^2 + 6 x^2 y, x)’ is ‘2 y’. The content is
basically the “biggest” polynomial that can be divided into
exactly. The sign of the content is the same as the sign of the leading
With only one argument, ‘pcont(p)’ computes the numerical
content of the polynomial, i.e., the
gcd of the numerical
coefficients of all the terms in the formula. Note that
is defined on rational numbers as well as integers; it computes
gcd of the numerators and the
lcm of the
denominators. Thus ‘pcont(4:3 x y^2 + 6 x^2 y)’ returns 2:3.
Dividing the polynomial by this number will clear all the
denominators, as well as dividing by any common content in the
numerators. The numerical content of a polynomial is negative only
if all the coefficients in the polynomial are negative.
pprim function finds the primitive part of a
polynomial, which is simply the polynomial divided (using
if necessary) by its content. If the input polynomial has rational
coefficients, the result will have integer coefficients in simplest