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Appendix E Calc Summary

This section includes a complete list of Calc keystroke commands. Each line lists the stack entries used by the command (top-of-stack last), the keystrokes themselves, the prompts asked by the command, and the result of the command (also with top-of-stack last). The result is expressed using the equivalent algebraic function. Commands which put no results on the stack show the full M-x command name in that position. Numbers preceding the result or command name refer to notes at the end.

Algebraic functions and M-x commands that don't have corresponding keystrokes are not listed in this summary. See Command Index. See Function Index.

            C-x * a                   33  calc-embedded-activate
            C-x * b                       calc-big-or-small
            C-x * c                       calc
            C-x * d                       calc-embedded-duplicate
            C-x * e                   34  calc-embedded
            C-x * f  formula              calc-embedded-new-formula
            C-x * g                   35  calc-grab-region
            C-x * i                       calc-info
            C-x * j                       calc-embedded-select
            C-x * k                       calc-keypad
            C-x * l                       calc-load-everything
            C-x * m                       read-kbd-macro
            C-x * n                    4  calc-embedded-next
            C-x * o                       calc-other-window
            C-x * p                    4  calc-embedded-previous
            C-x * q  formula              quick-calc
            C-x * r                   36  calc-grab-rectangle
            C-x * s                       calc-info-summary
            C-x * t                       calc-tutorial
            C-x * u                       calc-embedded-update-formula
            C-x * w                       calc-embedded-word
            C-x * x                       calc-quit
            C-x * y              1,28,49  calc-copy-to-buffer
            C-x * z                       calc-user-invocation
            C-x * :                   36  calc-grab-sum-down
            C-x * _                   36  calc-grab-sum-across
            C-x * `  editing          30  calc-embedded-edit
            C-x * 0  (zero)               calc-reset

             0-9   number               number
             .     number               0.number
             _     number               -number
             e     number               1e number
             #     number               current-radix#number
             P     (in number)          +/-
             M     (in number)          mod
             @ ' "   (in number)        HMS form
             h m s   (in number)        HMS form

             '     formula       37,46  formula
             $     formula       37,46  $formula
             "     string        37,46  string

    a b      +                       2  add(a,b)  a+b
    a b      -                       2  sub(a,b)  a−b
    a b      *                       2  mul(a,b)  a b, a*b
    a b      /                       2  div(a,b)  a/b
    a b      ^                       2  pow(a,b)  a^b
    a b    I ^                       2  nroot(a,b)  a^(1/b)
    a b      %                       2  mod(a,b)  a%b
    a b      \                       2  idiv(a,b)  a\b
    a b      :                       2  fdiv(a,b)
    a b      |                       2  vconcat(a,b)  a|b
    a b    I |                          vconcat(b,a)  b|a
    a b    H |                       2  append(a,b)
    a b  I H |                          append(b,a)
      a      &                       1  inv(a)  1/a
      a      !                       1  fact(a)  a!
      a      =                       1  evalv(a)
      a      M-%                        percent(a)  a%

  ... a      RET                     1  ... a a
  ... a      SPC                     1  ... a a
... a b      TAB                     3  ... b a
. a b c      M-TAB                   3  ... b c a
... a b      LFD                     1  ... a b a
  ... a      DEL                     1  ...
... a b      M-DEL                   1  ... b
             M-RET                   4  calc-last-args
      a      `     editing        1,30  calc-edit

  ... a      C-d                     1  ...
             C-k                    27  calc-kill
             C-w                    27  calc-kill-region
             C-y                        calc-yank
             C-_                     4  calc-undo
             M-k                    27  calc-copy-as-kill
             M-w                    27  calc-copy-region-as-kill

             [                          [...
[.. a b      ]                          [a,b]
             (                          (...
(.. a b      )                          (a,b)
             ,                          vector or rect complex
             ;                          matrix or polar complex
             ..                         interval

             ~                          calc-num-prefix
             <                       4  calc-scroll-left
             >                       4  calc-scroll-right
             {                       4  calc-scroll-down
             }                       4  calc-scroll-up
             ?                          calc-help

      a      n                       1  neg(a)  −a
             o                       4  calc-realign
             p     precision        31  calc-precision
             q                          calc-quit
             w                          calc-why
             x     command              M-x calc-command
      a      y                 1,28,49  calc-copy-to-buffer

      a      A                       1  abs(a)
    a b      B                       2  log(a,b)
    a b    I B                       2  alog(a,b)  b^a
      a      C                       1  cos(a)
      a    I C                       1  arccos(a)
      a    H C                       1  cosh(a)
      a  I H C                       1  arccosh(a)
             D                       4  calc-redo
      a      E                       1  exp(a)
      a    H E                       1  exp10(a)  10.^a
      a      F                    1,11  floor(a,d)
      a    I F                    1,11  ceil(a,d)
      a    H F                    1,11  ffloor(a,d)
      a  I H F                    1,11  fceil(a,d)
      a      G                       1  arg(a)
             H     command          32  Hyperbolic
             I     command          32  Inverse
      a      J                       1  conj(a)
             K     command          32  Keep-args
      a      L                       1  ln(a)
      a    H L                       1  log10(a)
             M                          calc-more-recursion-depth
           I M                          calc-less-recursion-depth
      a      N                       5  evalvn(a)
             O     command          32  Option
             P                          pi
           I P                          gamma
           H P                          e
         I H P                          phi
      a      Q                       1  sqrt(a)
      a    I Q                       1  sqr(a)  a^2
      a      R                    1,11  round(a,d)
      a    I R                    1,11  trunc(a,d)
      a    H R                    1,11  fround(a,d)
      a  I H R                    1,11  ftrunc(a,d)
      a      S                       1  sin(a)
      a    I S                       1  arcsin(a)
      a    H S                       1  sinh(a)
      a  I H S                       1  arcsinh(a)
      a      T                       1  tan(a)
      a    I T                       1  arctan(a)
      a    H T                       1  tanh(a)
      a  I H T                       1  arctanh(a)
             U                       4  calc-undo
             X                       4  calc-call-last-kbd-macro

    a b      a =                     2  eq(a,b)  a=b
    a b      a #                     2  neq(a,b)  a!=b
    a b      a <                     2  lt(a,b)  a<b
    a b      a >                     2  gt(a,b)  a>b
    a b      a [                     2  leq(a,b)  a<=b
    a b      a ]                     2  geq(a,b)  a>=b
    a b      a {                     2  in(a,b)
    a b      a &                  2,45  land(a,b)  a&&b
    a b      a |                  2,45  lor(a,b)  a||b
      a      a !                  1,45  lnot(a)  !a
  a b c      a :                    45  if(a,b,c)  a?b:c
      a      a .                     1  rmeq(a)
      a      a "                   7,8  calc-expand-formula

      a      a +   i, l, h        6,38  sum(a,i,l,h)
      a      a -   i, l, h        6,38  asum(a,i,l,h)
      a      a *   i, l, h        6,38  prod(a,i,l,h)
    a b      a _                     2  subscr(a,b)  a_b

    a b      a \                     2  pdiv(a,b)
    a b      a %                     2  prem(a,b)
    a b      a /                     2  pdivrem(a,b)  [q,r]
    a b    H a /                     2  pdivide(a,b)  q+r/b

      a      a a                     1  apart(a)
      a      a b   old, new         38  subst(a,old,new)
      a      a c   v                38  collect(a,v)
      a      a d   v              4,38  deriv(a,v)
      a    H a d   v              4,38  tderiv(a,v)
      a      a e                        esimplify(a)
      a      a f                     1  factor(a)
      a    H a f                     1  factors(a)
    a b      a g                     2  pgcd(a,b)
      a      a i   v                38  integ(a,v)
      a      a m   pats             38  match(a,pats)
      a    I a m   pats             38  matchnot(a,pats)
 data x      a p                    28  polint(data,x)
 data x    H a p                    28  ratint(data,x)
      a      a n                     1  nrat(a)
      a      a r   rules        4,8,38  rewrite(a,rules,n)
      a      a s                        simplify(a)
      a      a t   v, n          31,39  taylor(a,v,n)
      a      a v                   7,8  calc-alg-evaluate
      a      a x                   4,8  expand(a)

   data      a F   model, vars      48  fit(m,iv,pv,data)
   data    I a F   model, vars      48  xfit(m,iv,pv,data)
   data    H a F   model, vars      48  efit(m,iv,pv,data)
      a      a I   v, l, h          38  ninteg(a,v,l,h)
    a b      a M   op               22  mapeq(op,a,b)
    a b    I a M   op               22  mapeqr(op,a,b)
    a b    H a M   op               22  mapeqp(op,a,b)
    a g      a N   v                38  minimize(a,v,g)
    a g    H a N   v                38  wminimize(a,v,g)
      a      a P   v                38  roots(a,v)
    a g      a R   v                38  root(a,v,g)
    a g    H a R   v                38  wroot(a,v,g)
      a      a S   v                38  solve(a,v)
      a    I a S   v                38  finv(a,v)
      a    H a S   v                38  fsolve(a,v)
      a  I H a S   v                38  ffinv(a,v)
      a      a T   i, l, h        6,38  table(a,i,l,h)
    a g      a X   v                38  maximize(a,v,g)
    a g    H a X   v                38  wmaximize(a,v,g)

    a b      b a                     9  and(a,b,w)
      a      b c                     9  clip(a,w)
    a b      b d                     9  diff(a,b,w)
      a      b l                    10  lsh(a,n,w)
    a n    H b l                     9  lsh(a,n,w)
      a      b n                     9  not(a,w)
    a b      b o                     9  or(a,b,w)
      v      b p                     1  vpack(v)
      a      b r                    10  rsh(a,n,w)
    a n    H b r                     9  rsh(a,n,w)
      a      b t                    10  rot(a,n,w)
    a n    H b t                     9  rot(a,n,w)
      a      b u                     1  vunpack(a)
             b w   w              9,50  calc-word-size
    a b      b x                     9  xor(a,b,w)

c s l p      b D                        ddb(c,s,l,p)
  r n p      b F                        fv(r,n,p)
  r n p    I b F                        fvb(r,n,p)
  r n p    H b F                        fvl(r,n,p)
      v      b I                    19  irr(v)
      v    I b I                    19  irrb(v)
      a      b L                    10  ash(a,n,w)
    a n    H b L                     9  ash(a,n,w)
  r n a      b M                        pmt(r,n,a)
  r n a    I b M                        pmtb(r,n,a)
  r n a    H b M                        pmtl(r,n,a)
    r v      b N                    19  npv(r,v)
    r v    I b N                    19  npvb(r,v)
  r n p      b P                        pv(r,n,p)
  r n p    I b P                        pvb(r,n,p)
  r n p    H b P                        pvl(r,n,p)
      a      b R                    10  rash(a,n,w)
    a n    H b R                     9  rash(a,n,w)
  c s l      b S                        sln(c,s,l)
  n p a      b T                        rate(n,p,a)
  n p a    I b T                        rateb(n,p,a)
  n p a    H b T                        ratel(n,p,a)
c s l p      b Y                        syd(c,s,l,p)

  r p a      b #                        nper(r,p,a)
  r p a    I b #                        nperb(r,p,a)
  r p a    H b #                        nperl(r,p,a)
    a b      b %                        relch(a,b)

      a      c c                     5  pclean(a,p)
      a      c 0-9                      pclean(a,p)
      a    H c c                     5  clean(a,p)
      a    H c 0-9                      clean(a,p)
      a      c d                     1  deg(a)
      a      c f                     1  pfloat(a)
      a    H c f                     1  float(a)
      a      c h                     1  hms(a)
      a      c p                        polar(a)
      a    I c p                        rect(a)
      a      c r                     1  rad(a)

      a      c F                     5  pfrac(a,p)
      a    H c F                     5  frac(a,p)

      a      c %                        percent(a*100)

             d .   char             50  calc-point-char
             d ,   char             50  calc-group-char
             d <                 13,50  calc-left-justify
             d =                 13,50  calc-center-justify
             d >                 13,50  calc-right-justify
             d {   label            50  calc-left-label
             d }   label            50  calc-right-label
             d [                     4  calc-truncate-up
             d ]                     4  calc-truncate-down
             d "                 12,50  calc-display-strings
             d SPC                      calc-refresh
             d RET                   1  calc-refresh-top

             d 0                    50  calc-decimal-radix
             d 2                    50  calc-binary-radix
             d 6                    50  calc-hex-radix
             d 8                    50  calc-octal-radix

             d b              12,13,50  calc-line-breaking
             d c                    50  calc-complex-notation
             d d   format           50  calc-date-notation
             d e                  5,50  calc-eng-notation
             d f   num           31,50  calc-fix-notation
             d g              12,13,50  calc-group-digits
             d h   format           50  calc-hms-notation
             d i                    50  calc-i-notation
             d j                    50  calc-j-notation
             d l                 12,50  calc-line-numbering
             d n                  5,50  calc-normal-notation
             d o   format           50  calc-over-notation
             d p                 12,50  calc-show-plain
             d r   radix         31,50  calc-radix
             d s                  5,50  calc-sci-notation
             d t                    27  calc-truncate-stack
             d w                 12,13  calc-auto-why
             d z                 12,50  calc-leading-zeros

             d B                    50  calc-big-language
             d C                    50  calc-c-language
             d E                    50  calc-eqn-language
             d F                    50  calc-fortran-language
             d M                    50  calc-mathematica-language
             d N                    50  calc-normal-language
             d O                    50  calc-flat-language
             d P                    50  calc-pascal-language
             d T                    50  calc-tex-language
             d L                    50  calc-latex-language
             d U                    50  calc-unformatted-language
             d W                    50  calc-maple-language

      a      f [                     4  decr(a,n)
      a      f ]                     4  incr(a,n)

    a b      f b                     2  beta(a,b)
      a      f e                     1  erf(a)
      a    I f e                     1  erfc(a)
      a      f g                     1  gamma(a)
    a b      f h                     2  hypot(a,b)
      a      f i                     1  im(a)
    n a      f j                     2  besJ(n,a)
    a b      f n                     2  min(a,b)
      a      f r                     1  re(a)
      a      f s                     1  sign(a)
    a b      f x                     2  max(a,b)
    n a      f y                     2  besY(n,a)

      a      f A                     1  abssqr(a)
  x a b      f B                        betaI(x,a,b)
  x a b    H f B                        betaB(x,a,b)
      a      f E                     1  expm1(a)
    a x      f G                     2  gammaP(a,x)
    a x    I f G                     2  gammaQ(a,x)
    a x    H f G                     2  gammag(a,x)
    a x  I H f G                     2  gammaG(a,x)
    a b      f I                     2  ilog(a,b)
    a b    I f I                     2  alog(a,b)  b^a
      a      f L                     1  lnp1(a)
      a      f M                     1  mant(a)
      a      f Q                     1  isqrt(a)
      a    I f Q                     1  sqr(a)  a^2
    a n      f S                     2  scf(a,n)
    y x      f T                        arctan2(y,x)
      a      f X                     1  xpon(a)

    x y      g a                 28,40  calc-graph-add
             g b                    12  calc-graph-border
             g c                        calc-graph-clear
             g d                    41  calc-graph-delete
    x y      g f                 28,40  calc-graph-fast
             g g                    12  calc-graph-grid
             g h   title                calc-graph-header
             g j                     4  calc-graph-juggle
             g k                    12  calc-graph-key
             g l                    12  calc-graph-log-x
             g n   name                 calc-graph-name
             g p                    42  calc-graph-plot
             g q                        calc-graph-quit
             g r   range                calc-graph-range-x
             g s                 12,13  calc-graph-line-style
             g t   title                calc-graph-title-x
             g v                        calc-graph-view-commands
             g x   display              calc-graph-display
             g z                    12  calc-graph-zero-x

  x y z      g A                 28,40  calc-graph-add-3d
             g C   command              calc-graph-command
             g D   device        43,44  calc-graph-device
  x y z      g F                 28,40  calc-graph-fast-3d
             g H                    12  calc-graph-hide
             g K                        calc-graph-kill
             g L                    12  calc-graph-log-y
             g N   number        43,51  calc-graph-num-points
             g O   filename      43,44  calc-graph-output
             g P                    42  calc-graph-print
             g R   range                calc-graph-range-y
             g S                 12,13  calc-graph-point-style
             g T   title                calc-graph-title-y
             g V                        calc-graph-view-trail
             g X   format               calc-graph-geometry
             g Z                    12  calc-graph-zero-y

             g C-l                  12  calc-graph-log-z
             g C-r range                calc-graph-range-z
             g C-t title                calc-graph-title-z

             h b                        calc-describe-bindings
             h c   key                  calc-describe-key-briefly
             h f   function             calc-describe-function
             h h                        calc-full-help
             h i                        calc-info
             h k   key                  calc-describe-key
             h n                        calc-view-news
             h s                        calc-info-summary
             h t                        calc-tutorial
             h v   var                  calc-describe-variable

             j 1-9                      calc-select-part
             j RET                  27  calc-copy-selection
             j DEL                  27  calc-del-selection
             j '   formula          27  calc-enter-selection
             j `   editing       27,30  calc-edit-selection
             j "                  7,27  calc-sel-expand-formula

             j +   formula          27  calc-sel-add-both-sides
             j -   formula          27  calc-sel-sub-both-sides
             j *   formula          27  calc-sel-mul-both-sides
             j /   formula          27  calc-sel-div-both-sides
             j &                    27  calc-sel-invert

             j a                    27  calc-select-additional
             j b                    12  calc-break-selections
             j c                        calc-clear-selections
             j d                 12,50  calc-show-selections
             j e                    12  calc-enable-selections
             j l                  4,27  calc-select-less
             j m                  4,27  calc-select-more
             j n                     4  calc-select-next
             j o                  4,27  calc-select-once
             j p                     4  calc-select-previous
             j r   rules        4,8,27  calc-rewrite-selection
             j s                  4,27  calc-select-here
             j u                    27  calc-unselect
             j v                  7,27  calc-sel-evaluate

             j C                    27  calc-sel-commute
             j D                  4,27  calc-sel-distribute
             j E                    27  calc-sel-jump-equals
             j I                    27  calc-sel-isolate
           H j I                    27  calc-sel-isolate (full)
             j L                  4,27  calc-commute-left
             j M                    27  calc-sel-merge
             j N                    27  calc-sel-negate
             j O                  4,27  calc-select-once-maybe
             j R                  4,27  calc-commute-right
             j S                  4,27  calc-select-here-maybe
             j U                    27  calc-sel-unpack

             k a                        calc-random-again
      n      k b                     1  bern(n)
    n x    H k b                     2  bern(n,x)
    n m      k c                     2  choose(n,m)
    n m    H k c                     2  perm(n,m)
      n      k d                     1  dfact(n)  n!!
      n      k e                     1  euler(n)
    n x    H k e                     2  euler(n,x)
      n      k f                     4  prfac(n)
    n m      k g                     2  gcd(n,m)
    m n      k h                    14  shuffle(n,m)
    n m      k l                     2  lcm(n,m)
      n      k m                     1  moebius(n)
      n      k n                     4  nextprime(n)
      n    I k n                     4  prevprime(n)
      n      k p                  4,28  calc-prime-test
      m      k r                    14  random(m)
    n m      k s                     2  stir1(n,m)
    n m    H k s                     2  stir2(n,m)
      n      k t                     1  totient(n)

  n p x      k B                        utpb(x,n,p)
  n p x    I k B                        ltpb(x,n,p)
    v x      k C                        utpc(x,v)
    v x    I k C                        ltpc(x,v)
    n m      k E                        egcd(n,m)
v1 v2 x      k F                        utpf(x,v1,v2)
v1 v2 x    I k F                        ltpf(x,v1,v2)
  m s x      k N                        utpn(x,m,s)
  m s x    I k N                        ltpn(x,m,s)
    m x      k P                        utpp(x,m)
    m x    I k P                        ltpp(x,m)
    v x      k T                        utpt(x,v)
    v x    I k T                        ltpt(x,v)

    a b      l +                        lupadd(a,b)
    a b    H l +                        lufadd(a,b)
    a b      l -                        lupsub(a,b)
    a b    H l -                        lufsub(a,b)
    a b      l *                        lupmul(a,b)
    a b    H l *                        lufmul(a,b)
    a b      l /                        lupdiv(a,b)
    a b    H l /                        lufdiv(a,b)
      a      l d                        dbpower(a)
    a b    O l d                        dbpower(a,b)
      a    H l d                        dbfield(a)
    a b  O H l d                        dbfield(a,b)
      a      l n                        nppower(a)
    a b    O l n                        nppower(a,b)
      a    H l n                        npfield(a)
    a b  O H l n                        npfield(a,b)
      a      l q                        lupquant(a)
    a b    O l q                        lupquant(a,b)
      a    H l q                        lufquant(a)
    a b  O H l q                        lufquant(a,b)
      a      l s                        spn(a)
      a      l m                        midi(a)
      a      l f                        freq(a)

             m a                 12,13  calc-algebraic-mode
             m d                        calc-degrees-mode
             m e                        calc-embedded-preserve-modes
             m f                    12  calc-frac-mode
             m g                    52  calc-get-modes
             m h                        calc-hms-mode
             m i                 12,13  calc-infinite-mode
             m m                        calc-save-modes
             m p                    12  calc-polar-mode
             m r                        calc-radians-mode
             m s                    12  calc-symbolic-mode
             m t                    12  calc-total-algebraic-mode
             m v                 12,13  calc-matrix-mode
             m w                    13  calc-working
             m x                        calc-always-load-extensions

             m A                    12  calc-alg-simplify-mode
             m B                    12  calc-bin-simplify-mode
             m C                    12  calc-auto-recompute
             m D                        calc-default-simplify-mode
             m E                    12  calc-ext-simplify-mode
             m F   filename         13  calc-settings-file-name
             m N                    12  calc-num-simplify-mode
             m O                    12  calc-no-simplify-mode
             m R                 12,13  calc-mode-record-mode
             m S                    12  calc-shift-prefix
             m U                    12  calc-units-simplify-mode

             r s   register         27  calc-copy-to-register
             r i   register             calc-insert-register

             s c   var1, var2       29  calc-copy-variable
             s d   var, decl            calc-declare-variable
             s e   var, editing  29,30  calc-edit-variable
             s i   buffer               calc-insert-variables
             s k   const, var       29  calc-copy-special-constant
    a b      s l   var              29  a  (letting var=b)
  a ...      s m   op, var       22,29  calc-store-map
             s n   var           29,47  calc-store-neg  (v/-1)
             s p   var              29  calc-permanent-variable
             s r   var              29  v  (recalled value)
             r 0-9                      calc-recall-quick
      a      s s   var           28,29  calc-store
      a      s 0-9                      calc-store-quick
      a      s t   var              29  calc-store-into
      a      t 0-9                      calc-store-into-quick
             s u   var              29  calc-unstore
      a      s x   var              29  calc-store-exchange

             s A   editing          30  calc-edit-AlgSimpRules
             s D   editing          30  calc-edit-Decls
             s E   editing          30  calc-edit-EvalRules
             s F   editing          30  calc-edit-FitRules
             s G   editing          30  calc-edit-GenCount
             s H   editing          30  calc-edit-Holidays
             s I   editing          30  calc-edit-IntegLimit
             s L   editing          30  calc-edit-LineStyles
             s P   editing          30  calc-edit-PointStyles
             s R   editing          30  calc-edit-PlotRejects
             s T   editing          30  calc-edit-TimeZone
             s U   editing          30  calc-edit-Units
             s X   editing          30  calc-edit-ExtSimpRules

      a      s +   var           29,47  calc-store-plus  (v+a)
      a      s -   var           29,47  calc-store-minus  (v-a)
      a      s *   var           29,47  calc-store-times  (v*a)
      a      s /   var           29,47  calc-store-div  (v/a)
      a      s ^   var           29,47  calc-store-power  (v^a)
      a      s |   var           29,47  calc-store-concat  (v|a)
             s &   var           29,47  calc-store-inv  (v^-1)
             s [   var           29,47  calc-store-decr  (v-1)
             s ]   var           29,47  calc-store-incr  (v-(-1))
    a b      s :                     2  assign(a,b)  a := b
      a      s =                     1  evalto(a,b)  a =>

             t [                     4  calc-trail-first
             t ]                     4  calc-trail-last
             t <                     4  calc-trail-scroll-left
             t >                     4  calc-trail-scroll-right
             t .                    12  calc-full-trail-vectors

             t b                     4  calc-trail-backward
             t d                 12,50  calc-trail-display
             t f                     4  calc-trail-forward
             t h                        calc-trail-here
             t i                        calc-trail-in
             t k                     4  calc-trail-kill
             t m   string               calc-trail-marker
             t n                     4  calc-trail-next
             t o                        calc-trail-out
             t p                     4  calc-trail-previous
             t r   string               calc-trail-isearch-backward
             t s   string               calc-trail-isearch-forward
             t y                     4  calc-trail-yank

      d      t C   oz, nz               tzconv(d,oz,nz)
d oz nz      t C   $                    tzconv(d,oz,nz)
      d      t D                    15  date(d)
      d      t I                     4  incmonth(d,n)
      d      t J                    16  julian(d,z)
      d      t M                    17  newmonth(d,n)
             t N                    16  now(z)
      d      t P   1                31  year(d)
      d      t P   2                31  month(d)
      d      t P   3                31  day(d)
      d      t P   4                31  hour(d)
      d      t P   5                31  minute(d)
      d      t P   6                31  second(d)
      d      t P   7                31  weekday(d)
      d      t P   8                31  yearday(d)
      d      t P   9                31  time(d)
      d      t U                    16  unixtime(d,z)
      d      t W                    17  newweek(d,w)
      d      t Y                    17  newyear(d,n)

    a b      t +                     2  badd(a,b)
    a b      t -                     2  bsub(a,b)

             u a                    12  calc-autorange-units
      a      u b                        calc-base-units
      a      u c   units            18  calc-convert-units
   defn      u d   unit, descr          calc-define-unit
             u e                        calc-explain-units
             u g   unit                 calc-get-unit-definition
             u p                        calc-permanent-units
      a      u r                        calc-remove-units
      a      u s                        usimplify(a)
      a      u t   units            18  calc-convert-temperature
             u u   unit                 calc-undefine-unit
             u v                        calc-enter-units-table
      a      u x                        calc-extract-units
      a      u 0-9                      calc-quick-units

  v1 v2      u C                    20  vcov(v1,v2)
  v1 v2    I u C                    20  vpcov(v1,v2)
  v1 v2    H u C                    20  vcorr(v1,v2)
      v      u G                    19  vgmean(v)
    a b    H u G                     2  agmean(a,b)
      v      u M                    19  vmean(v)
      v    I u M                    19  vmeane(v)
      v    H u M                    19  vmedian(v)
      v  I H u M                    19  vhmean(v)
      v      u N                    19  vmin(v)
      v      u S                    19  vsdev(v)
      v    I u S                    19  vpsdev(v)
      v    H u S                    19  vvar(v)
      v  I H u S                    19  vpvar(v)
             u V                        calc-view-units-table
      v      u X                    19  vmax(v)

      v      u +                    19  vsum(v)
      v      u *                    19  vprod(v)
      v      u #                    19  vcount(v)

             V (                    50  calc-vector-parens
             V {                    50  calc-vector-braces
             V [                    50  calc-vector-brackets
             V ]   ROCP             50  calc-matrix-brackets
             V ,                    50  calc-vector-commas
             V <                    50  calc-matrix-left-justify
             V =                    50  calc-matrix-center-justify
             V >                    50  calc-matrix-right-justify
             V /                 12,50  calc-break-vectors
             V .                 12,50  calc-full-vectors

    s t      V ^                     2  vint(s,t)
    s t      V -                     2  vdiff(s,t)
      s      V ~                     1  vcompl(s)
      s      V #                     1  vcard(s)
      s      V :                     1  vspan(s)
      s      V +                     1  rdup(s)

      m      V &                     1  inv(m)  1/m

      v      v a   n                    arrange(v,n)
      a      v b   n                    cvec(a,n)
      v      v c   n >0          21,31  mcol(v,n)
      v      v c   n <0             31  mrcol(v,-n)
      m      v c   0                31  getdiag(m)
      v      v d                    25  diag(v,n)
    v m      v e                     2  vexp(v,m)
  v m f    H v e                     2  vexp(v,m,f)
    v a      v f                    26  find(v,a,n)
      v      v h                     1  head(v)
      v    I v h                     1  tail(v)
      v    H v h                     1  rhead(v)
      v  I H v h                     1  rtail(v)
             v i   n                31  idn(1,n)
             v i   0                31  idn(1)
    h t      v k                     2  cons(h,t)
    h t    H v k                     2  rcons(h,t)
      v      v l                     1  vlen(v)
      v    H v l                     1  mdims(v)
    v m      v m                     2  vmask(v,m)
      v      v n                     1  rnorm(v)
  a b c      v p                    24  calc-pack
      v      v r   n >0          21,31  mrow(v,n)
      v      v r   n <0             31  mrrow(v,-n)
      m      v r   0                31  getdiag(m)
  v i j      v s                        subvec(v,i,j)
  v i j    I v s                        rsubvec(v,i,j)
      m      v t                     1  trn(m)
      v      v u                    24  calc-unpack
      v      v v                     1  rev(v)
             v x   n                31  index(n)
  n s i  C-u v x                        index(n,s,i)

      v      V A   op               22  apply(op,v)
  v1 v2      V C                     2  cross(v1,v2)
      m      V D                     1  det(m)
      s      V E                     1  venum(s)
      s      V F                     1  vfloor(s)
      v      V G                        grade(v)
      v    I V G                        rgrade(v)
      v      V H   n                31  histogram(v,n)
    v w    H V H   n                31  histogram(v,w,n)
  v1 v2      V I   mop aop          22  inner(mop,aop,v1,v2)
      m      V J                     1  ctrn(m)
  m1 m2      V K                        kron(m1,m2)
      m      V L                     1  lud(m)
      v      V M   op            22,23  map(op,v)
      v      V N                     1  cnorm(v)
  v1 v2      V O   op               22  outer(op,v1,v2)
      v      V R   op            22,23  reduce(op,v)
      v    I V R   op            22,23  rreduce(op,v)
    a n    H V R   op               22  nest(op,a,n)
      a  I H V R   op               22  fixp(op,a)
      v      V S                        sort(v)
      v    I V S                        rsort(v)
      m      V T                     1  tr(m)
      v      V U   op               22  accum(op,v)
      v    I V U   op               22  raccum(op,v)
    a n    H V U   op               22  anest(op,a,n)
      a  I H V U   op               22  afixp(op,a)
    s t      V V                     2  vunion(s,t)
    s t      V X                     2  vxor(s,t)

             Y                          user commands

             z                          user commands

      c      Z [                    45  calc-kbd-if
      c      Z |                    45  calc-kbd-else-if
             Z :                        calc-kbd-else
             Z ]                        calc-kbd-end-if

             Z {                     4  calc-kbd-loop
      c      Z /                    45  calc-kbd-break
             Z }                        calc-kbd-end-loop
      n      Z <                        calc-kbd-repeat
             Z >                        calc-kbd-end-repeat
    n m      Z (                        calc-kbd-for
      s      Z )                        calc-kbd-end-for

             Z C-g                      cancel if/loop command

             Z `                        calc-kbd-push
             Z '                        calc-kbd-pop
             Z #                        calc-kbd-query

   comp      Z C   func, args       50  calc-user-define-composition
             Z D   key, command         calc-user-define
             Z E   key, editing     30  calc-user-define-edit
   defn      Z F   k, c, f, a, n    28  calc-user-define-formula
             Z G   key                  calc-get-user-defn
             Z I                        calc-user-define-invocation
             Z K   key, command         calc-user-define-kbd-macro
             Z P   key                  calc-user-define-permanent
             Z S                    30  calc-edit-user-syntax
             Z T                    12  calc-timing
             Z U   key                  calc-user-undefine

NOTES

  1. Positive prefix arguments apply to ‘n’ stack entries. Negative prefix arguments apply to the ‘-n’th stack entry. A prefix of zero applies to the entire stack. (For <LFD> and M-<DEL>, the meaning of the sign is reversed.)
  2. Positive prefix arguments apply to ‘n’ stack entries. Negative prefix arguments apply to the top stack entry and the next ‘-n’ stack entries.
  3. Positive prefix arguments rotate top ‘n’ stack entries by one. Negative prefix arguments rotate the entire stack by ‘-n’. A prefix of zero reverses the entire stack.
  4. Prefix argument specifies a repeat count or distance.
  5. Positive prefix arguments specify a precision ‘p’. Negative prefix arguments reduce the current precision by ‘-p’.
  6. A prefix argument is interpreted as an additional step-size parameter. A plain C-u prefix means to prompt for the step size.
  7. A prefix argument specifies simplification level and depth. 1=Basic simplifications, 2=Algebraic simplifications, 3=Extended simplifications
  8. A negative prefix operates only on the top level of the input formula.
  9. Positive prefix arguments specify a word size of ‘w’ bits, unsigned. Negative prefix arguments specify a word size of ‘w’ bits, signed.
  10. Prefix arguments specify the shift amount ‘n’. The ‘w’ argument cannot be specified in the keyboard version of this command.
  11. From the keyboard, ‘d’ is omitted and defaults to zero.
  12. Mode is toggled; a positive prefix always sets the mode, and a negative prefix always clears the mode.
  13. Some prefix argument values provide special variations of the mode.
  14. A prefix argument, if any, is used for ‘m’ instead of taking ‘m’ from the stack. ‘M’ may take any of these values:
    Integer
    Random integer in the interval ‘[0 .. m)’.
    Float
    Random floating-point number in the interval ‘[0 .. m)’.
    0.0
    Gaussian with mean 1 and standard deviation 0.
    Error form
    Gaussian with specified mean and standard deviation.
    Interval
    Random integer or floating-point number in that interval.
    Vector
    Random element from the vector.
  15. A prefix argument from 1 to 6 specifies number of date components to remove from the stack. See Date Conversions.
  16. A prefix argument specifies a time zone; C-u says to take the time zone number or name from the top of the stack. See Time Zones.
  17. A prefix argument specifies a day number (0–6, 0–31, or 0–366).
  18. If the input has no units, you will be prompted for both the old and the new units.
  19. With a prefix argument, collect that many stack entries to form the input data set. Each entry may be a single value or a vector of values.
  20. With a prefix argument of 1, take a single Nx2 matrix from the stack instead of two separate data vectors.
  21. The row or column number ‘n’ may be given as a numeric prefix argument instead. A plain C-u prefix says to take ‘n’ from the top of the stack. If ‘n’ is a vector or interval, a subvector/submatrix of the input is created.
  22. The ‘op’ prompt can be answered with the key sequence for the desired function, or with x or z followed by a function name, or with $ to take a formula from the top of the stack, or with ' and a typed formula. In the last two cases, the formula may be a nameless function like ‘<#1+#2>’ or ‘<x, y : x+y>’, or it may include $, $$, etc. (where $ will correspond to the last argument of the created function), or otherwise you will be prompted for an argument list. The number of vectors popped from the stack by V M depends on the number of arguments of the function.
  23. One of the mapping direction keys _ (horizontal, i.e., map by rows or reduce across), : (vertical, i.e., map by columns or reduce down), or = (map or reduce by rows) may be used before entering ‘op’; these modify the function name by adding the letter r for “rows,” c for “columns,” a for “across,” or d for “down.”
  24. The prefix argument specifies a packing mode. A nonnegative mode is the number of items (for v p) or the number of levels (for v u). A negative mode is as described below. With no prefix argument, the mode is taken from the top of the stack and may be an integer or a vector of integers.
    -1
    (2) Rectangular complex number.
    -2
    (2) Polar complex number.
    -3
    (3) HMS form.
    -4
    (2) Error form.
    -5
    (2) Modulo form.
    -6
    (2) Closed interval.
    -7
    (2) Closed .. open interval.
    -8
    (2) Open .. closed interval.
    -9
    (2) Open interval.
    -10
    (2) Fraction.
    -11
    (2) Float with integer mantissa.
    -12
    (2) Float with mantissa in ‘[1 .. 10)’.
    -13
    (1) Date form (using date numbers).
    -14
    (3) Date form (using year, month, day).
    -15
    (6) Date form (using year, month, day, hour, minute, second).
  25. A prefix argument specifies the size ‘n’ of the matrix. With no prefix argument, ‘n’ is omitted and the size is inferred from the input vector.
  26. The prefix argument specifies the starting position ‘n’ (default 1).
  27. Cursor position within stack buffer affects this command.
  28. Arguments are not actually removed from the stack by this command.
  29. Variable name may be a single digit or a full name.
  30. Editing occurs in a separate buffer. Press C-c C-c (or <LFD>, or in some cases <RET>) to finish the edit, or kill the buffer with C-x k to cancel the edit. The <LFD> key prevents evaluation of the result of the edit.
  31. The number prompted for can also be provided as a prefix argument.
  32. Press this key a second time to cancel the prefix.
  33. With a negative prefix, deactivate all formulas. With a positive prefix, deactivate and then reactivate from scratch.
  34. Default is to scan for nearest formula delimiter symbols. With a prefix of zero, formula is delimited by mark and point. With a non-zero prefix, formula is delimited by scanning forward or backward by that many lines.
  35. Parse the region between point and mark as a vector. A nonzero prefix parses n lines before or after point as a vector. A zero prefix parses the current line as a vector. A C-u prefix parses the region between point and mark as a single formula.
  36. Parse the rectangle defined by point and mark as a matrix. A positive prefix n divides the rectangle into columns of width n. A zero or C-u prefix parses each line as one formula. A negative prefix suppresses special treatment of bracketed portions of a line.
  37. A numeric prefix causes the current language mode to be ignored.
  38. Responding to a prompt with a blank line answers that and all later prompts by popping additional stack entries.
  39. Answer for ‘v’ may also be of the form ‘v = v_0’ or ‘v - v_0’.
  40. With a positive prefix argument, stack contains many ‘y’'s and one common ‘x’. With a zero prefix, stack contains a vector of ‘y’s and a common ‘x’. With a negative prefix, stack contains many ‘[x,y]’ vectors. (For 3D plots, substitute ‘z’ for ‘y’ and ‘x,y’ for ‘x’.)
  41. With any prefix argument, all curves in the graph are deleted.
  42. With a positive prefix, refines an existing plot with more data points. With a negative prefix, forces recomputation of the plot data.
  43. With any prefix argument, set the default value instead of the value for this graph.
  44. With a negative prefix argument, set the value for the printer.
  45. Condition is considered “true” if it is a nonzero real or complex number, or a formula whose value is known to be nonzero; it is “false” otherwise.
  46. Several formulas separated by commas are pushed as multiple stack entries. Trailing ), ], }, >, and " delimiters may be omitted. The notation $$$ refers to the value in stack level three, and causes the formula to replace the top three stack levels. The notation $3 refers to stack level three without causing that value to be removed from the stack. Use <LFD> in place of <RET> to prevent evaluation; use M-= in place of <RET> to evaluate variables.
  47. The variable is replaced by the formula shown on the right. The Inverse flag reverses the order of the operands, e.g., I s - x assigns x := a-x’.
  48. Press ? repeatedly to see how to choose a model. Answer the variables prompt with ‘iv’ or ‘iv;pv’ to specify independent and parameter variables. A positive prefix argument takes n+1 vectors from the stack; a zero prefix takes a matrix and a vector from the stack.
  49. With a plain C-u prefix, replace the current region of the destination buffer with the yanked text instead of inserting.
  50. All stack entries are reformatted; the H prefix inhibits this. The I prefix sets the mode temporarily, redraws the top stack entry, then restores the original setting of the mode.
  51. A negative prefix sets the default 3D resolution instead of the default 2D resolution.
  52. This grabs a vector of the form [prec, wsize, ssize, radix, flfmt, ang, frac, symb, polar, matrix, simp, inf]. A prefix argument from 1 to 12 grabs the nth mode value only.