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The vector data type is flexible and general. A vector is simply a list of zero or more data objects. When these objects are numbers, the whole is a vector in the mathematical sense. When these objects are themselves vectors of equal (nonzero) length, the whole is a matrix. A vector which is not a matrix is referred to here as a plain vector.

A vector is displayed as a list of values separated by commas and enclosed
in square brackets: ‘`[1, 2, 3]`’. Thus the following is a 2 row by
3 column matrix: ‘`[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]`’. Vectors, like complex
numbers, are entered as incomplete objects. See Incomplete Objects.
During algebraic entry, vectors are entered all at once in the usual
brackets-and-commas form. Matrices may be entered algebraically as nested
vectors, or using the shortcut notation ‘`[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]`’,
with rows separated by semicolons. The commas may usually be omitted
when entering vectors: ‘`[1 2 3]`’. Curly braces may be used in
place of brackets: ‘`{1, 2, 3}`’, but the commas are required in
this case.

Traditional vector and matrix arithmetic is also supported; see Basic Arithmetic and see Matrix Functions. Many other operations are applied to vectors element-wise. For example, the complex conjugate of a vector is a vector of the complex conjugates of its elements.

Algebraic functions for building vectors include ‘`vec(a, b, c)`’
to build ‘`[a, b, c]`’, ‘`cvec(a, n, m)`’ to build an
`n`x`m`
matrix of ‘`a`’s, and ‘`index(n)`’ to build a vector of integers
from 1 to ‘`n`’.