Most loops are governed by one or more
for clause simultaneously describes variables to be
bound, how those variables are to be stepped during the loop,
and usually an end condition based on those variables.
as is a synonym for the word
word is followed by a variable name, then a word like
across that describes the kind of iteration desired.
In Common Lisp, the phrase
being the sometimes precedes
the type of iteration; in this package both
the are optional. The word
each is a synonym
the, and the word that follows it may be singular
or plural: ‘for x being the elements of y’ or
‘for x being each element of y’. Which form you use
is purely a matter of style.
The variable is bound around the loop as if by
(setq i 'happy) (cl-loop for i from 1 to 10 do (do-something-with i)) i ⇒ happy
forclause creates a counting loop. Each of the three sub-terms is optional, though there must be at least one term so that the clause is marked as a counting clause.
The three expressions are the starting value, the ending value, and
the step value, respectively, of the variable. The loop counts
upwards by default (expr3 must be positive), from expr1
to expr2 inclusively. If you omit the
from term, the
loop counts from zero; if you omit the
to term, the loop
counts forever without stopping (unless stopped by some other
loop clause, of course); if you omit the
by term, the loop
counts in steps of one.
You can replace the word
downfrom to indicate the direction of the loop. Likewise,
you can replace
For example, ‘for x from 5 downto 1’ executes five times
x taking on the integers from 5 down to 1 in turn.
Also, you can replace
which are like
downto respectively except
that they are exclusive rather than inclusive limits:
(cl-loop for x to 10 collect x) ⇒ (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) (cl-loop for x below 10 collect x) ⇒ (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)
by value is always positive, even for downward-counting
loops. Some sort of
from value is required for downward
loops; ‘for x downto 5’ is not a valid loop clause all by
byterm, then function is used to traverse the list instead of
cdr; it must be a function taking one argument. For example:
(cl-loop for x in '(1 2 3 4 5 6) collect (* x x)) ⇒ (1 4 9 16 25 36) (cl-loop for x in '(1 2 3 4 5 6) by 'cddr collect (* x x)) ⇒ (1 9 25)
(cl-loop for x on '(1 2 3 4) collect x) ⇒ ((1 2 3 4) (2 3 4) (3 4) (4))
inclause, but var becomes a
setf-able “reference” onto the elements of the list rather than just a temporary variable. For example,
(cl-loop for x in-ref my-list do (cl-incf x))
increments every element of
my-list in place. This clause
is an extension to standard Common Lisp.
(cl-loop for x across "aeiou" do (use-vowel (char-to-string x)))
setf-able reference onto the elements; see
being the elements ofsequence
across. The clause may be followed by the additional term ‘using (index var2)’ to cause var2 to be bound to the successive indices (starting at 0) of the elements.
This clause type is taken from older versions of the
and is not present in modern Common Lisp. The ‘using (sequence ...)’
term of the older macros is not supported.
being the elements of-refsequence
setf-able reference onto the elements; see
being the symbols [ofobarray
As an example,
(cl-loop for sym being the symbols when (fboundp sym) when (string-match "^map" (symbol-name sym)) collect sym)
returns a list of all the functions whose names begin with ‘map’.
The Common Lisp words
are also recognized but are equivalent to
symbols in Emacs Lisp.
Due to a minor implementation restriction, it will not work to have
more than one
for clause iterating over symbols, hash tables,
keymaps, overlays, or intervals in a given
it would rarely if ever be useful to do so. It is valid to mix
one of these types of clauses with other clauses like
for ... to
being the hash-keys ofhash-table
being the hash-values ofhash-table
(cl-loop for k being the hash-keys of h using (hash-values v) do (message "key %S -> value %S" k v))
being the key-codes ofkeymap
being the key-bindings ofkeymap
usingclause can access both the codes and the bindings together.
(cl-loop for c being the key-codes of (current-local-map) using (key-bindings b) do (message "key %S -> binding %S" c b))
being the key-seqs ofkeymap
being the overlays [ofbuffer
extentsis synonymous with
overlays). If the
ofterm is omitted, the current buffer is used. This clause also accepts optional ‘from pos’ and ‘to pos’ terms, limiting the clause to overlays which overlap the specified region.
being the intervals [ofbuffer
propertyterms, where the latter term restricts the search to just the specified property. The
ofterm may specify either a buffer or a string.
being the frames
screensis a synonym for
frames. The frames are visited in
next-frameorder starting from
being the windows [offrame
next-windoworder starting from
frame-selected-windowif you specify frame). This clause treats the minibuffer window in the same way as
next-windowdoes. For greater flexibility, consider using
being the buffers
(cl-loop for x on my-list by 'cddr do ...) (cl-loop for x = my-list then (cddr x) while x do ...)
Note that this type of
for clause does not imply any sort
of terminating condition; the above example combines it with a
while clause to tell when to end the loop.
If you omit the
then term, expr1 is used both for
the initial setting and for successive settings:
(cl-loop for x = (random) when (> x 0) return x)
This loop keeps taking random numbers from the
function until it gets a positive one, which it then returns.
If you include several
for clauses in a row, they are
treated sequentially (as if by
You can instead use the word
and to link the clauses,
in which case they are processed in parallel (as if by
(cl-loop for x below 5 for y = nil then x collect (list x y)) ⇒ ((0 nil) (1 1) (2 2) (3 3) (4 4)) (cl-loop for x below 5 and y = nil then x collect (list x y)) ⇒ ((0 nil) (1 0) (2 1) (3 2) (4 3))
In the first loop,
y is set based on the value of
that was just set by the previous clause; in the second loop,
y are set simultaneously so
y is set
based on the value of
x left over from the previous time
through the loop.
Another feature of the
cl-loop macro is destructuring,
similar in concept to the destructuring provided by
(see Argument Lists).
The var part of any
for clause can be given as a list
of variables instead of a single variable. The values produced
during loop execution must be lists; the values in the lists are
stored in the corresponding variables.
(cl-loop for (x y) in '((2 3) (4 5) (6 7)) collect (+ x y)) ⇒ (5 9 13)
In loop destructuring, if there are more values than variables
the trailing values are ignored, and if there are more variables
than values the trailing variables get the value
nil is used as a variable name, the corresponding
values are ignored. Destructuring may be nested, and dotted
lists of variables like
(x . y) are allowed, so for example
to process an alist
(cl-loop for (key . value) in '((a . 1) (b . 2)) collect value) ⇒ (1 2)