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The Advantages of Narrowing

With narrowing, the rest of a buffer is made invisible, as if it weren't there. This is an advantage if, for example, you want to replace a word in one part of a buffer but not in another: you narrow to the part you want and the replacement is carried out only in that section, not in the rest of the buffer. Searches will only work within a narrowed region, not outside of one, so if you are fixing a part of a document, you can keep yourself from accidentally finding parts you do not need to fix by narrowing just to the region you want. (The key binding for narrow-to-region is C-x n n.)

However, narrowing does make the rest of the buffer invisible, which can scare people who inadvertently invoke narrowing and think they have deleted a part of their file. Moreover, the undo command (which is usually bound to C-x u) does not turn off narrowing (nor should it), so people can become quite desperate if they do not know that they can return the rest of a buffer to visibility with the widen command. (The key binding for widen is C-x n w.)

Narrowing is just as useful to the Lisp interpreter as to a human. Often, an Emacs Lisp function is designed to work on just part of a buffer; or conversely, an Emacs Lisp function needs to work on all of a buffer that has been narrowed. The what-line function, for example, removes the narrowing from a buffer, if it has any narrowing and when it has finished its job, restores the narrowing to what it was. On the other hand, the count-lines function uses narrowing to restrict itself to just that portion of the buffer in which it is interested and then restores the previous situation.