We usually give a name to a function when it is first created. This
is called defining a function, and it is done with the
defunis the usual way to define new Lisp functions. It defines the symbol name as a function with argument list args and body forms given by body. Neither name nor args should be quoted.
doc, if present, should be a string specifying the function's documentation string (see Function Documentation). declare, if present, should be a
declareform specifying function metadata (see Declare Form). interactive, if present, should be an
interactiveform specifying how the function is to be called interactively (see Interactive Call).
The return value of
Here are some examples:(defun foo () 5) (foo) ⇒ 5 (defun bar (a &optional b &rest c) (list a b c)) (bar 1 2 3 4 5) ⇒ (1 2 (3 4 5)) (bar 1) ⇒ (1 nil nil) (bar) error--> Wrong number of arguments. (defun capitalize-backwards () "Upcase the last letter of the word at point." (interactive) (backward-word 1) (forward-word 1) (backward-char 1) (capitalize-word 1))
Be careful not to redefine existing functions unintentionally.
defunredefines even primitive functions such as
carwithout any hesitation or notification. Emacs does not prevent you from doing this, because redefining a function is sometimes done deliberately, and there is no way to distinguish deliberate redefinition from unintentional redefinition.
If doc is non-
nil, it becomes the function documentation of name. Otherwise, any documentation provided by definition is used.
The proper place to use
defaliasis where a specific function name is being defined—especially where that name appears explicitly in the source file being loaded. This is because
defaliasrecords which file defined the function, just like
By contrast, in programs that manipulate function definitions for other purposes, it is better to use
fset, which does not keep such records. See Function Cells.
You cannot create a new primitive function with
defalias, but you can use them to change the function definition of
any symbol, even one such as
normal definition is a primitive. However, this is risky: for
instance, it is next to impossible to redefine
breaking Lisp completely. Redefining an obscure function such as
x-popup-menu is less dangerous, but it still may not work as
you expect. If there are calls to the primitive from C code, they
call the primitive's C definition directly, so changing the symbol's
definition will have no effect on them.
defsubst, which defines a function like
and tells the Lisp compiler to perform inline expansion on it.
See Inline Functions.
Alternatively, you can define a function by providing the code which will inline it as a compiler macro. The following macros make this possible.
Define a function name by providing code that does its inlining, as a compiler macro. The function will accept the argument list args and will have the specified body.
Functions defined via
define-inline have several advantages
with respect to macros defined by
mapcar(see Mapping Functions).
cl-defsubst(see Argument Lists).
defmacro, a function inlined with
inherits the scoping rules, either dynamic or lexical, from the call
site. See Variable Scoping.
The following macros should be used in the body of a function defined
Quote expression for
define-inline. This is similar to the backquote (see Backquote), but quotes code and accepts only
This is similar to
let(see Local Variables): it sets up local variables as specified by bindings, and then evaluates body with those bindings in effect. Each element of bindings should be either a symbol or a list of the form
); the result is to evaluate expr and bind var to the result. The tail of bindings can be either
nilor a symbol which should hold a list of arguments, in which case each argument is evaluated, and the symbol is bound to the resulting list.
Here's an example of using
(define-inline myaccessor (obj) (inline-letevals (obj) (inline-quote (if (foo-p ,obj) (aref (cdr ,obj) 3) (aref ,obj 2)))))
This is equivalent to
(defsubst myaccessor (obj) (if (foo-p obj) (aref (cdr obj) 3) (aref obj 2)))