A file can specify local variable values; Emacs uses these to create buffer-local bindings for those variables in the buffer visiting that file. See Local Variables in Files in The GNU Emacs Manual, for basic information about file-local variables. This section describes the functions and variables that affect how file-local variables are processed.
If a file-local variable could specify an arbitrary function or Lisp expression that would be called later, visiting a file could take over your Emacs. Emacs protects against this by automatically setting only those file-local variables whose specified values are known to be safe. Other file-local variables are set only if the user agrees.
For additional safety,
read-circle is temporarily bound to
nil when Emacs reads file-local variables (see Input Functions). This prevents the Lisp reader from recognizing circular
and shared Lisp structures (see Read Syntax for Circular Objects).
This variable controls whether to process file-local variables. The possible values are:
t (the default)
Set the safe variables, and query (once) about any unsafe variables.
Set only the safe variables and do not query.
Set all the variables and do not query.
Don’t set any variables.
Query (once) about all the variables.
This is a list of regular expressions. If a file has a name matching an element of this list, then it is not scanned for any form of file-local variable. For examples of why you might want to use this, see How Emacs Chooses a Major Mode.
Some local variable settings will, by default, be heeded even if
nil. By default, this is only
the case for the
lexical-binding local variable setting, but
this can be controlled by using this variable, which is a list of
This function parses, and binds or evaluates as appropriate, any local
variables specified by the contents of the current buffer. The variable
enable-local-variables has its effect here. However, this
function does not look for the ‘mode:’ local variable in the
set-auto-mode does that, also taking
enable-local-variables into account (see How Emacs Chooses a Major Mode).
This function works by walking the alist stored in
file-local-variables-alist and applying each local variable in
turn. It calls
hack-local-variables-hook before and after applying the
variables, respectively. It only calls the before-hook if the alist
nil; it always calls the other hook. This
function ignores a ‘mode’ element if it specifies the same major
mode as the buffer already has.
If the optional argument handle-mode is
t, then all this
function does is return a symbol specifying the major mode, if the
‘-*-’ line or the local variables list specifies one, and
nil otherwise. It does not set the mode or any other
file-local variable. If handle-mode has any value other than
t, any settings of ‘mode’ in the
‘-*-’ line or the local variables list are ignored, and the
other settings are applied. If handle-mode is
the file local variables are set.
This buffer-local variable holds the alist of file-local variable
settings. Each element of the alist is of the form
(var . value), where var is a symbol of
the local variable and value is its value. When Emacs visits a
file, it first collects all the file-local variables into this alist,
and then the
hack-local-variables function applies them one by
Emacs calls this hook immediately before applying file-local variables
Emacs calls this hook immediately after it finishes applying
file-local variables stored in
You can specify safe values for a variable with a
safe-local-variable property. The property has to be a
function of one argument; any value is safe if the function returns
nil given that value. Many commonly-encountered file
safe-local-variable properties; these include
For boolean-valued variables that are safe, use
booleanp as the
If you want to define
safe-local-variable properties for
variables defined in C source code, add the names and the properties
of those variables to the list in the “Safe local variables” section
When defining a user option using
defcustom, you can set its
safe-local-variable property by adding the arguments
:safe function to
defcustom (see Defining Customization Variables). However, a safety predicate defined using
will only be known once the package that contains the
is loaded, which is often too late. As an alternative, you can use
the autoload cookie (see Autoload) to assign the option its safety
predicate, like this:
;;;###autoload (put 'var 'safe-local-variable 'pred)
The safe value definitions specified with
autoload are copied
into the package’s autoloads file (loaddefs.el for most
packages bundled with Emacs), and are known to Emacs since the
beginning of a session.
This variable provides another way to mark some variable values as
safe. It is a list of cons cells
(var . val),
where var is a variable name and val is a value which is
safe for that variable.
When Emacs asks the user whether or not to obey a set of file-local
variable specifications, the user can choose to mark them as safe.
Doing so adds those variable/value pairs to
safe-local-variable-values, and saves it to the user’s custom
If there are some values of particular local variables that you always
want to ignore completely, you can use this variable. Its value has
the same form as
safe-local-variable-values; a file-local
variable setting to the value that appears in the list will always be
ignored when processing the local variables specified by the file. As
with that variable, when Emacs queries the user about whether to obey
file-local variables, the user can choose to ignore their particular
values permanently, and that will alter this variable and save it to
the user’s custom file. Variable-value pairs that appear in this
variable take precedence over the same pairs in
This function returns non-
nil if it is safe to give sym
the value val, based on the above criteria.
Some variables are considered risky. If a variable is risky,
it is never entered automatically into
safe-local-variable-values; Emacs always queries before setting
a risky variable, unless the user explicitly allows a value by
Any variable whose name has a non-
risky-local-variable property is considered risky. When you
define a user option using
defcustom, you can set its
risky-local-variable property by adding the arguments
:risky value to
defcustom (see Defining Customization Variables). In addition, any variable whose name ends in any of
‘-command’, ‘-frame-alist’, ‘-function’,
‘-functions’, ‘-hook’, ‘-hooks’, ‘-form’,
‘-forms’, ‘-map’, ‘-map-alist’, ‘-mode-alist’,
‘-program’, or ‘-predicate’ is automatically considered
risky. The variables ‘font-lock-keywords’,
‘font-lock-keywords’ followed by a digit, and
‘font-lock-syntactic-keywords’ are also considered risky.
This function returns non-
nil if sym is a risky variable,
based on the above criteria.
This variable holds a list of variables that should not be given local values by files. Any value specified for one of these variables is completely ignored.
The ‘Eval:’ “variable” is also a potential loophole, so Emacs normally asks for confirmation before handling it.
This variable controls processing of ‘Eval:’ in ‘-*-’ lines
or local variables
lists in files being visited. A value of
t means process them
nil means ignore them; anything else means ask
the user what to do for each file. The default value is
This variable holds a list of expressions that are safe to evaluate when found in the ‘Eval:’ “variable” in a file local variables list.
If the expression is a function call and the function has a
safe-local-eval-function property, the property value
determines whether the expression is safe to evaluate. The property
value can be a predicate to call to test the expression, a list of
such predicates (it’s safe if any predicate succeeds), or
(always safe provided the arguments are constant).
Text properties are also potential loopholes, since their values could include functions to call. So Emacs discards all text properties from string values specified for file-local variables.