The case of a graphic character is indicated by its character code; for example, ASCII distinguishes between the characters ‘a’ and ‘A’. But ASCII has no way to represent whether a control character is upper case or lower case. Emacs uses the 2**25 bit to indicate that the shift key was used in typing a control character. This distinction is possible only when you use X terminals or other special terminals; ordinary text terminals do not report the distinction. The Lisp syntax for the shift bit is ‘\S-’; thus, ‘?\C-\S-o’ or ‘?\C-\S-O’ represents the shifted-control-o character.
The X Window System defines three other modifier bits that can be set in a character: hyper, super and alt. The syntaxes for these bits are ‘\H-’, ‘\s-’ and ‘\A-’. (Case is significant in these prefixes.) Thus, ‘?\H-\M-\A-x’ represents Alt-Hyper-Meta-x. (Note that ‘\s’ with no following ‘-’ represents the space character.) Numerically, the bit values are 2**22 for alt, 2**23 for super and 2**24 for hyper.