To invoke Dired, type C-x d (
dired). This reads a
directory’s name using the minibuffer, and opens a Dired buffer
listing the files in that directory. You can also supply a wildcard
file name pattern as the minibuffer argument, in which case the Dired
buffer lists all files matching that pattern. A wildcard may appear
in the directory part as well.
C-x d ~/foo/*.el RET C-x d ~/foo/*/*.el RET
The former lists all the files with extension ‘.el’ in directory ‘foo’. The latter lists the files with extension ‘.el’ in all the subdirectories of ‘foo’.
On Posix systems, when the system shell supports globstar, a recursive globbing feature, and that support is enabled, you can use recursive globbing in Dired:
C-x d ~/foo/**/*.el RET
This command produces a directory listing with all the files with extension ‘.el’, descending recursively in all the subdirectories of ‘foo’. Note that there are small differences in the implementation of globstar between different shells. Check your shell manual to know the expected behavior.
If the shell supports globstar, but that support is disabled by
default, you can still let Dired use this feature by customizing
dired-maybe-use-globstar to a non-
nil value; then Dired
will enable globstar for those shells for which it knows how (see
dired-enable-globstar-in-shell for the list of those shells).
The usual history and completion commands can be used in the minibuffer; in particular, M-n puts the name of the visited file (if any) in the minibuffer (see Minibuffer History).
You can also invoke Dired by giving C-x C-f (
a directory’s name.
You can ask Emacs to invoke Dired on the default-directory
(see default-directory) of any buffer, by typing
C-x C-j (
dired-jump). If the buffer visits a file, this
command will move point to that file’s line in the Dired buffer it
shows; otherwise, point will end up on the first file in the directory
listing. As an exception, if you type C-x C-j in a Dired
buffer, Emacs displays the directory listing of the parent directory
and places point on the line that corresponds to the directory where
dired-jump. Typing C-x 4 C-j
dired-jump-other-window has the same effect, but displays the
Dired buffer in a new window.
dired-listing-switches specifies the options to
ls for listing the directory; this string
must contain ‘-l’. If you use a prefix argument with the
dired command, you can specify the
ls switches with the
minibuffer before you enter the directory specification. No matter
how they are specified, the
ls switches can include short
options (that is, single characters) requiring no arguments, and long
options (starting with ‘--’) whose arguments are specified with
Dired does not handle files that have names with embedded newline
characters well. If you have many such files, you may consider adding
dired-listing-switches. This will quote all
special characters and allow Dired to handle them better. (You can
also use the C-u C-x d command to add ‘-b’ temporarily.)
Dired displays in the mode line an indication of what were the
switches used to invoke
ls. By default, Dired will try to
determine whether the switches indicate sorting by name or date, and
will say so in the mode line. If the
as-is, the switches will be shown verbatim. If
this variable’s value is an integer, the switch display will be
truncated to that length. This variable can also be a function, which
will be called with
dired-actual-switches as the only
parameter, and should return a string to display in the mode line.
ls program supports the ‘--dired’ option,
Dired automatically passes it that option; this causes
emit special escape sequences for certain unusual file names, without
which Dired will not be able to parse those names. The first time you
run Dired in an Emacs session, it checks whether
the ‘--dired’ option by calling it once with that option. If the
exit code is 0, Dired will subsequently use the ‘--dired’ option;
otherwise it will not. You can inhibit this check by customizing the
dired-use-ls-dired. The value
default) means to perform the check; any other non-
means to use the ‘--dired’ option; and
nil means not to
use the ‘--dired’ option.
On MS-Windows and MS-DOS systems, and also on some remote systems,
ls. See Emulation of
ls on MS-Windows, for options and
peculiarities of this emulation.
To display the Dired buffer in another window, use C-x 4 d
dired-other-window). C-x 5 d
dired-other-frame) displays the Dired buffer in a separate
Typing q (
quit-window) buries the Dired buffer, and
deletes its window if the window was created just for that buffer.