An easy way to customize Viper is to change the values of constants used in
Viper. Here is the list of the constants used in Viper and their default
values. The corresponding :se command is also indicated. (The symbols
nil represent “true” and “false” in Lisp).
Viper supports both the abbreviated Vi variable names and their full names. Variable completion is done on full names only. <TAB> and <SPC> complete variable names. Typing = will complete the name and then will prompt for a value, if applicable. For instance, :se au <SPC> will complete the command to :set autoindent; :se ta <SPC> will complete the command and prompt further like this: :set tabstop = . However, typing :se ts <SPC> will produce a “No match” message because ts is an abbreviation for tabstop and Viper supports completion on full names only. However, you can still hit <RET> or =, which will complete the command like this: :set ts = and Viper will be waiting for you to type a value for the tabstop variable. To get the full list of Vi variables, type :se <SPC> <TAB>.
:se ai (:se autoindent)
:se ai-g (:se autoindent-global)
t, enable auto indentation. by <RET>, o or O command.
viper-auto-indent is a local variable. To change the value globally, use
setq-default. It may be useful for certain major modes to have their
own values of
viper-auto-indent. This can be achieved by using
setq to change the local value of this variable in the hooks to the
appropriate major modes.
:se ai changes the value of
viper-auto-indent in the current
buffer only; :se ai-g does the same globally.
nil, auto-indentation becomes electric, which means that <RET>, O, and o indent cursor according to the current major mode. In the future, this variable may control additional electric features.
This is a local variable:
setq changes the value of this variable
in the current buffer only. Use
setq-default to change the value in
:se ic (:se ignorecase)
nil, search ignores cases. This can also be toggled by quickly hitting / twice.
nil, search will use regular expressions; if
nilthen use vanilla search. This behavior can also be toggled by quickly hitting / trice.
:se ro (:se readonly)
(setq-default buffer-read-only t)in your .emacs file.
:se sm (:se showmatch)
tab-width t (default setting via setq-default)
:se ts=value (:se tabstop=value)
:se ts-g=value (:se tabstop-global=value)
tab-widthis a local variable that controls the width of the tab stops. To change the value globally, use
setq-default; for local settings, use
The command :se ts sets the tab width in the current buffer only; it has no effect on other buffers.
The command :se ts-g sets tab width globally, for all buffers where the tab is not yet set locally, including the new buffers.
Note that typing <TAB> normally
doesn't insert the tab, since this key is usually bound to
a text-formatting function,
indent-for-tab-command (which facilitates
programming and document writing). Instead, the tab is inserted via the
viper-insert-tab, which is bound to S-tab (shift + tab).
On some non-windowing terminals, Shift doesn't modify the <TAB> key, so
S-tab behaves as if it were <TAB>. In such a case, you will have
viper-insert-tab to some other convenient key.
:se sw=value (:se shiftwidth=value)
:se ws (:se wrapscan)
nil, search wraps around the end/beginning of buffer.
nil, use reg-exp replace in query replace.
nil, C-h is bound to
help-command; otherwise, C-h is bound as usual in Vi.
nil, Viper provides a high degree of compatibility with Vi insert mode when you type text in the minibuffer; if
nil, typing in the minibuffer feels like plain Emacs.
nil, you can use <ESC> as Meta in Vi state. Normally, this is not necessary, since graphical displays have separate Meta keys (usually on each side of the space bar). On a dumb terminal, Viper sets this variable to
twice, which is almost like
nil, except that double <ESC> beeps. This, too, lets <ESC> to be used as a Meta.
Setting this variable too high may slow down your typing. Setting it too
low may make it hard to type macros quickly enough.
nil, if you want l,h to cross lines, etc. See Movement and Markers, for more info.
nil, if you want C-h and <DEL> to not stop at the beginning of a line in Insert state, <X> and <x> to delete characters across lines in Vi command state, etc.
t, cursor moves back 1 character when switching from insert state to vi state. If
nil, the cursor stays where it was before the switch.
tmeans: leave it to Viper to decide when a buffer must be brought up in Vi state, Insert state, or Emacs state. This heuristics works well in virtually all cases.
nilmeans you either has to invoke
viper-modemanually for each buffer (or you can add
viper-modeto the appropriate major mode hooks using
This option must be set in your Viper customization file.
viper-glob-mswindows-filesin viper-util.el as examples.
This feature is used to expand wildcards in the Ex command :e.
Note that Viper doesn't support wildcards in the :r and :w
commands, because file completion is a better mechanism.
nil, :n and :b will cycle through files in another window, if one exists.
nilfor user levels 1 and 2 and to
tfor user levels 3 and 4. Users who specify level 5 are allowed to set this variable as they please (the default for this level is
t). If set to
nil, complete Vi compatibility is provided in Insert state. This is really not recommended, as this precludes you from using language-specific features provided by the major modes.
nilfor user level 1 and to
tfor user levels 2–4. At level 5, users are allowed to set this variable as they please (the default for this level is
t). If set to
nil, complete Vi compatibility is provided in Vi command state. Setting this to
nilis really a bad idea, unless you are a novice, as this precludes the use of language-specific features provided by the major modes.
nil, point is not moved when the user repeats the previous command by typing a period. This is very useful for doing repeated changes with the . key.
viper-repeat-from-history, which checks the second key by which it is invoked to see which of the previous commands to invoke. Viper binds f12 1 and f12 2 only, but the user can bind more in his/her Viper customization file. See Vi Macros, for how to do this.
nil, Viper tries to not move point when undoing commands. Instead, it will briefly move the cursor to the place where change has taken place. However, if the undone piece of text is not seen in window, then point will be moved to the place where the change took place. Set it to
tand see if you like it better.
nil, <DEL> key will delete characters while moving the cursor backwards. If
nil, the cursor will move backwards without deleting anything.
viper-replace-overlay-face underlines the replacement on
monochrome displays and also lays a stipple over them. On color displays,
replacement regions are highlighted with color.
If you know something about Emacs faces and don't like how Viper highlights
replacement regions, you can change
specifying a new face. (Emacs faces are described in the Emacs Lisp
reference.) On a color display, the following customization method is
usually most effective:
(set-face-foreground viper-replace-overlay-face "DarkSlateBlue") (set-face-background viper-replace-overlay-face "yellow")
For a complete list of colors available to you, evaluate the expression
(x-defined-colors). (Type it in the buffer *scratch* and then
hit the C-j key.
nil, Viper will always use
viper-replace-region-start-delimiterto delimit replacement regions, even on color displays (where this is unnecessary). By default, this variable is non-
nilonly on TTYs or monochrome displays.
nil, multi-line text replacement regions, such as those produced by commands c55w, 3C, etc., will stay around until the user exits the replacement mode. In this variable is set to
nil, Viper will emulate the standard Vi behavior, which supports only intra-line replacement regions (and multi-line replacement regions are deleted).
In Insert state, this key acts as a temporary escape to Vi state, i.e., it
will set Viper up so that the very next command will be executed as if it
were typed in Vi state.
(setq viper-case-fold-search t)