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1.5 A More Complex Example

Now that we’ve mastered some simple tasks, let’s look at what typical awk programs do. This example shows how awk can be used to summarize, select, and rearrange the output of another utility. It uses features that haven’t been covered yet, so don’t worry if you don’t understand all the details:

LC_ALL=C ls -l | awk '$6 == "Nov" { sum += $5 }
                      END { print sum }'

This command prints the total number of bytes in all the files in the current directory that were last modified in November (of any year). The ‘ls -l part of this example is a system command that gives you a listing of the files in a directory, including each file’s size and the date the file was last modified. Its output looks like this:

-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user   1933 Nov  7 13:05 Makefile
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user  10809 Nov  7 13:03 awk.h
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user    983 Apr 13 12:14 awk.tab.h
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user  31869 Jun 15 12:20 awkgram.y
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user  22414 Nov  7 13:03 awk1.c
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user  37455 Nov  7 13:03 awk2.c
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user  27511 Dec  9 13:07 awk3.c
-rw-r--r--  1 arnold   user   7989 Nov  7 13:03 awk4.c

The first field contains read-write permissions, the second field contains the number of links to the file, and the third field identifies the owner of the file. The fourth field identifies the group of the file. The fifth field contains the size of the file in bytes. The sixth, seventh, and eighth fields contain the month, day, and time, respectively, that the file was last modified. Finally, the ninth field contains the file name.11

The ‘$6 == "Nov"’ in our awk program is an expression that tests whether the sixth field of the output from ‘ls -l matches the string ‘Nov’. Each time a line has the string ‘Nov’ for its sixth field, the action ‘sum += $5’ is performed. This adds the fifth field (the file’s size) to the variable sum. As a result, when awk has finished reading all the input lines, sum is the total of the sizes of the files whose lines matched the pattern. (This works because awk variables are automatically initialized to zero.)

After the last line of output from ls has been processed, the END rule executes and prints the value of sum. In this example, the value of sum is 80600.

These more advanced awk techniques are covered in later sections (see Action Overview). Before you can move on to more advanced awk programming, you have to know how awk interprets your input and displays your output. By manipulating fields and using print statements, you can produce some very useful and impressive-looking reports.


Footnotes

(11)

The ‘LC_ALL=C’ is needed to produce this traditional-style output from ls.


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