Historically, `awk` has converted any non-numeric looking string
to the numeric value zero, when required. Furthermore, the original
definition of the language and the original POSIX standards specified that
`awk` only understands decimal numbers (base 10), and not octal
(base 8) or hexadecimal numbers (base 16).

Changes in the language of the
2001 and 2004 POSIX standards can be interpreted to imply that `awk`
should support additional features. These features are:

- Interpretation of floating point data values specified in hexadecimal
notation (‘
`0xDEADBEEF`’). (Note: data values,*not*source code constants.) - Support for the special IEEE 754 floating point values “Not A Number”
(NaN), positive Infinity (“inf”) and negative Infinity (“−inf”).
In particular, the format for these values is as specified by the ISO 1999
C standard, which ignores case and can allow machine-dependent additional
characters after the ‘
`nan`’ and allow either ‘`inf`’ or ‘`infinity`’.

The first problem is that both of these are clear changes to historical practice:

- The
`gawk`maintainer feels that supporting hexadecimal floating point values, in particular, is ugly, and was never intended by the original designers to be part of the language. - Allowing completely alphabetic strings to have valid numeric values is also a very severe departure from historical practice.

The second problem is that the `gawk`

maintainer feels that this
interpretation of the standard, which requires a certain amount of
“language lawyering” to arrive at in the first place, was not even
intended by the standard developers. In other words, “we see how you
got where you are, but we don't think that that's where you want to be.”

Recognizing the above issues, but attempting to provide compatibility
with the earlier versions of the standard,
the 2008 POSIX standard added explicit wording to allow, but not require,
that `awk` support hexadecimal floating point values and
special values for “Not A Number” and infinity.

Although the `gawk` maintainer continues to feel that
providing those features is inadvisable,
nevertheless, on systems that support IEEE floating point, it seems
reasonable to provide *some* way to support NaN and Infinity values.
The solution implemented in `gawk` is as follows:

- With the
`--posix`command-line option,`gawk`becomes “hands off.” String values are passed directly to the system library's`strtod()`

function, and if it successfully returns a numeric value, that is what's used.^{1}By definition, the results are not portable across different systems. They are also a little surprising:$

`echo nanny | gawk --posix '{ print $1 + 0 }'`-| nan $`echo 0xDeadBeef | gawk --posix '{ print $1 + 0 }'`-| 3735928559 - Without
`--posix`,`gawk`interprets the four strings ‘`+inf`’, ‘`-inf`’, ‘`+nan`’, and ‘`-nan`’ specially, producing the corresponding special numeric values. The leading sign acts a signal to`gawk`(and the user) that the value is really numeric. Hexadecimal floating point is not supported (unless you also use`--non-decimal-data`, which is*not*recommended). For example:$

`echo nanny | gawk '{ print $1 + 0 }'`-| 0 $`echo +nan | gawk '{ print $1 + 0 }'`-| nan $`echo 0xDeadBeef | gawk '{ print $1 + 0 }'`-| 0`gawk`does ignore case in the four special values. Thus ‘`+nan`’ and ‘`+NaN`’ are the same.