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`%[``format`]`?``argument`

special texts`%[`

references the approximate time of `format`]([*][`mode`]`ISO-6709:1983-co-ordinate`[,[+|-]`mmmm`|`hh`:[`mm`]]**moonrise** by default,

`%[`

references the approximate time of `format`])[*][`mode`]`ISO-6709:1983-co-ordinate`[,[+|-]`mmmm`|`hh`:[`mm`]]**moonset** by default,

`%[`

references the approximate period of `format`][[*][`mode`]`ISO-6709:1983-co-ordinate`[,[+|-]`mmmm`|`hh`:[`mm`]]**visibility** of the Moon
(lunar day length) by default,

`%[`

references the approximate period of `format`]][*][`mode`]`ISO-6709:1983-co-ordinate`[,[+|-]`mmmm`|`hh`:[`mm`]]**non-visibility** of the Moon
(lunar night length) by default.

All these special texts can be used for at pleasure any geographic point location, i.e. it is possible to determine different astronomical values for any location on the globe, and that for at pleasure any clocktime with a resolution of a single minute within the period of the years AD 1 until AD 9999, that is respected by Gcal.

The selection which value has to be calculated by these special texts is done
by specifying the `mode` part of the preceding argument. Actually, exactly
61 different modes can be used that are represented by the
‘`0`’…‘`9`’, ‘`a`’…‘`z`’
and ‘`A`’…‘`Y`’ characters, and which create different kind of
results that are depending on the special text used. First of all, here is a
table in which all usable modes are described and explained sufficiently. You
can also see from this table, which Moon oriented special text or texts are
corresponding to which mode, i.e. cause the determination of an astronomical
value as it is described in the table:

Mode | Special text | Description |

`0`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate midnight time of the Moon.
The astronomical midnight time of the Moon is at that clocktime, when the
Moon holds an azimuth (horizontal angular distance between the vertical
circle, that passes the Moon, and the North point) of either precisely
0 degrees of precisely 180 degrees, which depends on the season and
the geographical location.
At that clocktime, the Moon is close its lowest culmination point,
i.e. close the lowest point below or above the horizontal plane the
Moon transits during this day.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month (or
lunation) —i.e. the mean time between two consecutive conjunctions
(or New Moon phases)— at which no lunar midnight happens, because the Moon
revolves the Earth within 24 hours and 50 minutes on the average — which
also means, that the Moon rises on the average 50 minutes later each day. |

`1`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate noon time of the Moon.
The astronomical noon time of the Moon is at that clocktime, when
the Moon holds an azimuth of either precisely 180 degrees of precisely
0 degrees, which depends on the season and the geographical location.
At that clocktime, the Moon is close its highest culmination point,
i.e. close the highest point above or below the horizontal plane the
Moon transits during this day.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which
no lunar noon happens. |

`2`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate time when the center of the Moon
passes a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes
above a mathematical-geocentric horizon before lunar noon time;
thus rising.
A mathematical horizon is a purely geometrically-built horizon which
disregards the phenomenon of refraction as it arises in reality by the
influence of the Earth’s atmosphere. A geocentrical horizon is the
horizontal plane that passes through the Earth’s center, orthogonal
to the observer’s local vertical. In the further context, the shorter
term mathematical horizon is used which actually means the
mathematical-geocentric horizon.
The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the
value of the Moon’s parallax as it appear at that clocktime.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month
at which no such moonrise happens. |

`2`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate time when the center of the Moon passes a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon after lunar noon time; thus setting. The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the value of the Moon’s parallax as it appear at that clocktime. Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which no such moonset happens. |

`2`
| `[` | Calculates the approximate period while the center of the Moon is above a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon; thus is visible. |

`2`
| `]` | Calculates the approximate period while the center of the Moon is below a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon; thus is non-visible. |

`3`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate time when the upper limb of the Moon passes a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon before lunar noon time; thus rising. The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective values of the Moon’s semidiameter and Moon’s parallax as they appear at that clocktime. If the reference altitude that is referring to the Moon’s upper limb is converted to a reference altitude that is referring to the Moon’s center, this results in a value which is between about 39 and 44 arcminutes above the geocentric horizon. Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which no such moonrise happens. |

`3`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate time when the upper limb of the Moon passes a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon after lunar noon time; thus setting. The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective values of the Moon’s semidiameter and Moon’s parallax as they appear at that clocktime. Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which no such moonset happens. |

`3`
| `[` | Calculates the approximate period while the upper limb of the Moon is above a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon; thus is visible. |

`3`
| `]` | Calculates the approximate period while the upper limb of the Moon is below a reference altitude which is between about 54 and 61 arcminutes above a mathematical horizon; thus is non-visible. |

`4`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate time when the center of the Moon
passes a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes
above the geocentric horizon before lunar noon time; thus rising.
The phenomenon of refraction is already respected in this as it arises in
reality by the influence of the Earth’s atmosphere, and that with the standard
value of 34 arcminutes, which can indirectly be changed by using the
--atmosphere option.
Fixed dates option --atmosphere=,
how to change the base data of the atmosphere, so that the atmospheric
conditions as defined by it are used to calculate the amount of refraction.
The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective
values of the Moon’s parallax and (standard) refraction as they appear
at that clocktime.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which
no such moonrise happens.air-pressure[,temperature] |

`4`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate time when the center of the Moon
passes a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes
above the geocentric horizon after lunar noon time; thus setting.
The phenomenon of refraction is already respected in this as it arises in
reality by the influence of the Earth’s atmosphere, and that with the standard
value of 34 arcminutes, which can indirectly be changed by using the
--atmosphere option.
The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective
values of the Moon’s parallax and (standard) refraction as they appear
at that clocktime.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which
no such moonset happens. |

`4`
| `[` | Calculates the approximate period while the center of the Moon is above a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes above the geocentric horizon; thus is visible. |

`4`
| `]` | Calculates the approximate period while the center of the Moon is below a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes above the geocentric horizon; thus is non-visible. |

`5`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate time when the upper limb of the Moon
passes a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes
above the geocentric horizon before lunar noon time; thus rising.
This kind of rise time calculation is done according to the standard
calculation method as it is commonly used internationally.
The phenomenon of refraction is already respected in this as it arises in
reality by the influence of the Earth’s atmosphere, and that with the standard
value of 34 arcminutes, which can indirectly be changed by using the
--atmosphere option.
Fixed dates option --atmosphere=,
how to change the base data of the atmosphere, so that the atmospheric
conditions as defined by it are used to calculate the amount of refraction.
The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective
values of the Moon’s semidiameter, Moon’s parallax and (standard) refraction
as they appear at that clocktime.
If the reference altitude that is referring to the Moon’s upper limb is
converted to a reference altitude that is referring to the Moon’s center,
this results in a value which is between about 5 and 10 arcminutes above
the geocentric horizon.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which
no such moonrise happens.air-pressure[,temperature] |

`5`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate time at which the upper limb of the Moon
passes a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes
above the geocentric horizon after lunar noon time; thus setting.
This kind of set time calculation is done according to the standard
calculation method as it is commonly used internationally.
The phenomenon of refraction is already respected in this as it arises in
reality by the influence of the Earth’s atmosphere, and that with the standard
value of 34 arcminutes, which can indirectly be changed by using the
--atmosphere option.
The above mentioned reference altitude is computed from the respective
values of the Moon’s semidiameter, Moon’s parallax and (standard) refraction
as they appear at that clocktime.
Nevertheless, there is exactly one day during a synodic month at which
no such moonset happens. |

`5`
| `[` | Calculates the approximate period while the upper limb of the Moon is above a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes above the geocentric horizon; thus is visible. This kind of visibility period calculation is done according to the standard calculation method as it is commonly used internationally. |

`5`
| `]` | Calculates the approximate period while the upper limb of the Moon is below a reference altitude which is between about 20 and 27 arcminutes above the geocentric horizon; thus is non-visible. This kind of non-visibility period calculation is done according to the standard calculation method as it is commonly used internationally. |

`6`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent
horizontal parallax of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time.
The Moon’s parallax states the diameter of the Earth as it is seen from
the surface of the Moon.
Observations of celestial objects that are done from the surface of the
Earth yield in topocentrically based data. The locations of the celestial
bodies are often at another place if the data is topocentrically determined
instead of determine it geocentrically, i.e. at the fictitious
center of the Earth.
This is mainly caused by the refraction, which raises a celestial body to
another location as it is been in reality. Because the terrestrial globe
flattens towards the pole caps and therefore cannot be taken as an ideally
shaped sphere, the individual Earth radius between the observer’s location
and the center of the Earth also affects the computation of
topocentrically based data. |

`7`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent semidiameter of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`8`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent brightness
of the Moon in magnitude units
as it happen at civil midnight time.
The magnitude (Latin term magnitudo, abbreviated m) is used
to define the brightness of a star, and is a non-metrical value. The
difference between two consecutive magnitudes is 1 to 2.512. Therefore,
a star with the brightness of 1m is 2.512 times brighter than
a star of 2m. A negative magnitude denotes a very bright star,
for example almost -27m for the Sun, whereas the hardly visible
planet Pluto has a magnitude of a bit more than +14m. The Full
Moon has a visual brightness of about -12m.55. |

`9`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent phase angle of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0 as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`a`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon, thus the vertical angular distance between the Moon’s center
and the horizon, in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time.
Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is below the
horizon at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean that the
momentary center of the Moon is above the horizon. |

`b`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`c`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent declination
of the Moon, thus the vertical angular distance between the Moon’s center
and the celestial equator, in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time.
Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is below the
celestial equator at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean that
the momentary center of the Moon is above the celestial equator. |

`d`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent ecliptic longitude
of the Moon, thus the horizontal angular distance between the Moon’s center and
the vernal equinox point on the ecliptic (the zodiacal line or Sun’s
orbit),
in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`e`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent ecliptic latitude
of the Moon, thus the vertical angular distance between the Moon’s center
and the ecliptic (zodiacal line/Sun’s orbit),
in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time.
Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is North
of the ecliptic at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean
that the momentary center of the Moon is South of the ecliptic. |

`f`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent right ascension
of the Moon, thus the horizontal angular distance between the Moon’s center
and the hour circle that passes through the vernal equinox point on the
ecliptic, as time value in hours and minutes
as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`g`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent distance
of the Moon from the Earth in mean Earth equator radii
as it happen at civil midnight time.
The mean radius of Earth at the equator is about 6,378.137 kilometer. |

`h`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elongation
of the Moon, thus the horizontal angular distance between the Moon’s center
and the Sun’s center,
in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`i`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate refraction of the Earth’s atmosphere in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`j`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent horizontal parallax of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`k`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent semidiameter of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`l`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent brightness of the Moon in magnitude units as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`m`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent phase angle of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0 as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`n`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is below the horizon at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean that the momentary center of the Moon is above the horizon. |

`o`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`p`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent declination of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is below the celestial equator at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean that the momentary center of the Moon is above the celestial equator. |

`q`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent ecliptic longitude of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`r`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent ecliptic latitude of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. Results with a negative sign signify that the Moon’s center is North of the ecliptic at the moment, and results with a positive sign mean that the momentary center of the Moon is South of the ecliptic. |

`s`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent right ascension of the Moon as time value in hours and minutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`t`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent distance of the Moon from the Earth in mean Earth equator radii as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`u`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elongation of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`v`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate delta-t in seconds
as it happen at civil midnight time.
Delta-t is the difference between the Terrestrial Dynamical time
(abbreviated by TDT), that was formerly known as Ephemeris
time (abbreviated by ET), and the Universal time (UT).
Thus, ‘delta-t ≡ TDT - UT’. |

`w`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate, apparent location oriented
sidereal time (local sidereal time (LAST),
also known as local star time) in hours and minutes
as it happen at civil midnight time.
A star day is the period between two consecutive upper culminations
of the vernal equinox point on the ecliptic in the meridian of the observer’s
location. Therefore, the local star time is the momentary period,
which is past between the last upper culmination of the vernal equinox
point in the meridian of the observer’s location (the momentary hour angle
of the vernal equinox point), thus the right ascension of the stars in the
observer’s meridian at the moment. |

`x`
| `(` , `)` | Outputs the base time as time value in hours and minutes,
for which the dynamical, i.e. depending on the respective clocktime,
astronomical data and times of the Moon are calculated.
Without a given --time-offset= option,
the astronomical data and times of the Moon are always calculated
for 0 o’clock Universal time (UTC/GMT).
See Calendar option argument--time-offset=,
for further details.argument |

`y`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate Julian date in days as it happen at civil midnight time. See Julian day number, for further information about the Julian date. |

`z`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate Julian Ephemeris date,
thus a Julian date that is corrected by delta-t, in days
as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`A`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. Results with a negative sign signify that the momentary center of the Moon is at an elevation that is below the momentary elevation of the Sun’s center; thus the Moon is lower than the Sun. Results with a positive sign signify that the momentary center of the Moon is at an elevation that is above the momentary elevation of the Sun’s center; thus the Moon is higher than the Sun. |

`B`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. The result specifies the horizontal angular distance, by which the momentary center of the Moon is distant from the momentary Sun’s center, and that measured at the vertical circles that pass the Moon and the North point and the Sun and the North point. Results with a negative sign signify that the Sun is to the right (clockwise) of the Moon if one looks to the Moon — or alternatively expressed, that the Moon is to the left (anti-clockwise) of the Sun. Results with a positive sign signify that the Sun is to the left (anti-clockwise) of the Moon if one looks to the Moon — or alternatively expressed, that the Moon is to the right (clockwise) of the Sun. |

`C`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`D`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at civil midnight time. |

`E`
| `(` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon. See Standard rise time of the Moon, for further details. |

`E`
| `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard set time of the Moon. See Standard set time of the Moon, for further details. |

`F`
| `(` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon. See Standard rise time of the Moon, for further details. |

`F`
| `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard set time of the Moon. See Standard set time of the Moon, for further details. |

`G`
| `(` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon. See Standard rise time of the Moon, for further details. |

`G`
| `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard set time of the Moon. See Standard set time of the Moon, for further details. |

`H`
| `(` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon. See Standard rise time of the Moon, for further details. |

`H`
| `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, in degrees and arcminutes as it happen at standard set time of the Moon. See Standard set time of the Moon, for further details. |

`I`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate astronomical midnight times of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, as time value in hours and minutes as it happen at astronomical midnight time of the Moon. Results with a negative sign signify that the astronomical midnight time of the Moon is earlier than the astronomical midnight time of the Sun; thus the lunar midnight is before the solar midnight. Results with a positive sign signify that the astronomical midnight time of the Moon is later than the astronomical midnight time of the Sun; thus the lunar midnight is after the solar midnight. See Astronomical midnight time of the Moon, and Astronomical midnight time of the Sun, for further details. |

`J`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate astronomical noon times of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, as time value in hours and minutes as it happen at astronomical noon time of the Moon. Results with a negative sign signify that the astronomical noon time of the Moon is earlier than the astronomical noon time of the Sun; thus the lunar noon is before the solar noon. Results with a positive sign signify that the astronomical noon time of the Moon is later than the astronomical noon time of the Sun; thus the lunar noon is after the solar noon. See Astronomical noon time of the Moon, and Astronomical noon time of the Sun, for further details. |

`K`
| `(` | Calculates the difference of the approximate standard rise times of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, as time value in hours and minutes as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon. Results with a negative sign signify that the standard rise time of the Moon is earlier than the standard rise time of the Sun; thus the moonrise is before the sunrise. Results with a positive sign signify that the standard rise time of the Moon is later than the standard rise time of the Sun; thus the moonrise is after the sunrise. See Standard rise time of the Moon, and Standard rise time of the Sun, for further details. |

`K`
| `)` | Calculates the difference of the approximate standard set times of Moon and Sun (delta), at which the Moon is used as the reference point, as time value in hours and minutes as it happen at standard set time of the Moon. Results with a negative sign signify that the standard set time of the Moon is earlier than the standard set time of the Sun; thus the moonset is before the sunset. Results with a positive sign signify that the standard set time of the Moon is later than the standard set time of the Sun; thus the moonset is after the sunset. See Standard set time of the Moon, and Standard set time of the Sun, for further details. |

`L`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at astronomical midnight time of the Moon
(topocentric midnight height).
See Astronomical midnight time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`M`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at astronomical midnight time of the Moon
(topocentric midnight phase angle).
See Astronomical midnight time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`N`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at astronomical noon time of the Moon
(topocentric noon height).
See Astronomical noon time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`O`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at astronomical noon time of the Moon
(topocentric noon phase angle).
See Astronomical noon time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`P`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(topocentric rise height).
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`P`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(topocentric set height).
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`Q`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(topocentric rise azimuth). The horizontal angular distance
between the topocentric rise azimuth and the East direction is also
known as the topocentric rise width of the Moon.
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`Q`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent azimuth
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(topocentric set azimuth). The horizontal angular distance
between the topocentric set azimuth and the West direction is also
known as the topocentric set width of the Moon.
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`R`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(topocentric rise phase angle).
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`R`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate topocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(topocentric set phase angle).
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`S`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at astronomical midnight time of the Moon
(geocentric midnight height).
See Astronomical midnight time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`T`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at astronomical midnight time of the Moon
(geocentric midnight phase angle).
See Astronomical midnight time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`U`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at astronomical noon time of the Moon
(geocentric noon height).
See Astronomical noon time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`V`
| `(` , `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at astronomical noon time of the Moon
(geocentric noon phase angle).
See Astronomical noon time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`W`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(geocentric rise height).
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`W`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent elevation
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(geocentric set height).
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`X`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(geocentric rise azimuth). The horizontal angular distance
between the geocentric rise azimuth and the East direction is also
known as the geocentric rise width of the Moon.
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`X`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent azimuth
of the Moon in degrees and arcminutes
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(geocentric set azimuth). The horizontal angular distance
between the geocentric set azimuth and the West direction is also
known as the geocentric set width of the Moon.
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`Y`
| `(` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at standard rise time of the Moon
(geocentric rise phase angle).
See Standard rise time of the Moon,
for further details. |

`Y`
| `)` | Calculates the approximate geocentric, apparent phase angle
of the Moon in range 0.0…1.0
as it happen at standard set time of the Moon
(geocentric set phase angle).
See Standard set time of the Moon,
for further details. |

If no `mode` is given, Gcal automatically uses that mode, which is
enabled by the mode character ‘`5`’. If a mode character is given
that is not according to one of the ‘`0`’…‘`9`’,
‘`a`’…‘`z`’ and ‘`A`’…‘`Y`’ characters,
Gcal also automatically uses that mode, which is enabled by the mode
character ‘`5`’.

Depending on the selected mode, Gcal represents the Moon oriented special texts using the same types and styles as they are used by the Sun oriented special texts, these are analogously valid! See Representation of the Sun oriented special texts, for the detailed description of the different types of representation used by the Sun oriented special texts, which are likewise valid for the Moon oriented special texts.

The `argument` the Moon oriented special texts must have is exactly
equivalent the argument the Sun oriented special texts must have!
See Arguments of the Sun oriented special texts,
for the detailed description of the components of the `argument`
which also has to be given to the Moon oriented special texts.

The following table informs you about which type of representation is caused
by a mode. The previously defined numbering scheme, as it has been used
for the introduction of the types of representation, is used as key value
in the column that holds the type of representation. The table also
contains a column that shows whether a mode enables dynamical values,
i.e. values that are depending on the respective clocktime (if you use the
`--time-offset= argument` option, you can change the respective
clocktime that is used for calculating such values). In a next table column,
it is listed whether the given co-ordinate of the location influences the
determination of a value, and the last column of the table gives you the
information whether a given timezone value affects the values
determination:

And now some examples to these special texts:

The text ‘

Moonrise at %(+5158+00738,120 in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moonrise at 12:21 in MS, BRD’, in case the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Moonset at %)*5+5158+00738,120 in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moonset at 01:53am in MS, BRD’, in case the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Moon visible %[5+5158+00738,120 in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moon visible 13h32' in MS, BRD’, in case the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Moon non-visible %]*+5158+00738,120 in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moon non-visible 10.469 in MS, BRD’, in case the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Moon azimuth 0 o'clock=%(*a+5158+00738,120 in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moon azimuth 0 o'clock=267d37' in MS, BRD’, in case the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Moonphase %(x+00+000 =%(*m+5158+00738,120 % in MS, BRD’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Moonphase +16h00'=45.248% in MS, BRD’, in case you call Gcal with the--time-offset=16:option and the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

The text ‘

Julian date at %(x+00+000 =%(y+00+000’ will be expanded to

→ ‘Julian date at +10h15'=2450965.927’, in case you call Gcal with the--time-offset=10:15option and the actual system date is the 1st June 1998.

Here is a list that reports about the used reference systems in a short manner, describes other aspects that are unmentioned now, and informs about the lacks and limitations that are existing for the Moon oriented special texts:

- All astronomical calculations are based on methods that use —astronomically seen— low-precision elements, which of course is shown in the precision of the results that are caused by them. Nevertheless in most cases, these results can be treated as more as sufficiently precise if one measures their practical use.
- All azimuth and elevation values are always referring to the center of the respective astronomical object, except the case, it is stated otherwise.
- The base point of azimuth values, right ascension values and other ecliptic co-ordinate values is always measured clockwise relative to the geographical, true North (not the magnetic North as shown by a compass), where angular values for the North direction are both denoted as 0 degree and 360 degree.
- All topocentrically based azimuth and elevation values are always corrected by the amount of atmospheric refraction. Such a kind of correction is always done if the center of the respective astronomical object is above 2 degrees below the horizon.
- Generally, the rise and set times of the Moon cannot be precisely predicted, because depending on unpredictable atmospheric conditions, i.e. the local weather conditions as they appear during these times change the amount of atmospheric refraction at the horizon, so that the precalculated rise and set times may throughout be in error by a minute or more.
- The accuracy of rise and set computations decreases again at high latitudes, i.e. within in the lunar Arctic Circle. There, small variations in atmospheric refraction can change the time of moonrise or moonset by many minutes, since the Moon intersects the horizon at a very shallow angle. For the same reason, at high latitudes, the effects of observer height and local topography are magnified and can substantially change the times of the phenomena actually observed, or even whether the phenomena are observed to occur at all.
- It is possible that calculations, which are done for locations within the
lunar Arctic Circle, sometimes result in the wrongly **.** text instead
of the more precisely ++:++ or –:– texts that are used for marking
special events. Unfortunately, therefore, then the reason why the Moon does
not rise or set is no longer clearly evident, respectively, it is possible
to get the false suggestion that the reason for non-rising or non-setting
of the Moon is caused by just the one day within a synodic month, at which
the Moon does not rise or set anyhow. Unfortunately, it is just only obvious
**that**the Moon does not rise or set during this day.

**Please also note the following references:**

- See Fixed dates option
`--precise`, how to obtain a more precise representation of the values which are cause by these special texts. - And note
Calendar option
`--time-offset=`, how to change the clocktime, for which the dynamical, i.e. depending on the respective clocktime, Moon oriented special texts are calculated.`argument` - Likewise, see
Fixed dates option
`--cycle-end=`, how the dynamical, i.e. depending on the respective clocktime, Moon oriented special texts are calculated for a series of clocktimes for the current day.`argument` - Furthermore, see
Fixed dates option
`--adjust-value=`, how to change the reference altitude that is used to calculate the rise and set times.`argument` - And last, note
Fixed dates option
`--atmosphere=`, how to change the base data of the atmosphere that affects the calculation of the Moon oriented special texts.`air-pressure`[,`temperature`]

All Moon oriented special texts **must** always be trailed by a
*whitespace* character which is removed in output!