Vectors and Matrices¶
The functions described in this chapter provide a simple vector and matrix interface to ordinary C arrays. The memory management of these arrays is implemented using a single underlying type, known as a block. By writing your functions in terms of vectors and matrices you can pass a single structure containing both data and dimensions as an argument without needing additional function parameters. The structures are compatible with the vector and matrix formats used by BLAS routines.
Data types¶
All the functions are available for each of the standard datatypes.
The versions for double
have the prefix gsl_block
,
gsl_vector
and gsl_matrix
. Similarly the versions for
singleprecision float
arrays have the prefix
gsl_block_float
, gsl_vector_float
and
gsl_matrix_float
. The full list of available types is given
below,
Prefix 
Type 

gsl_block 
double 
gsl_block_float 
float 
gsl_block_long_double 
long double 
gsl_block_int 
int 
gsl_block_uint 
unsigned int 
gsl_block_long 
long 
gsl_block_ulong 
unsigned long 
gsl_block_short 
short 
gsl_block_ushort 
unsigned short 
gsl_block_char 
char 
gsl_block_uchar 
unsigned char 
gsl_block_complex 
complex double 
gsl_block_complex_float 
complex float 
gsl_block_complex_long_double 
complex long double 
Corresponding types exist for the gsl_vector
and
gsl_matrix
functions.
Blocks¶
For consistency all memory is allocated through a gsl_block
structure. The structure contains two components, the size of an area of
memory and a pointer to the memory. The gsl_block
structure looks
like this,

gsl_block
¶ typedef struct { size_t size; double * data; } gsl_block;
Vectors and matrices are made by slicing an underlying block. A slice is a set of elements formed from an initial offset and a combination of indices and stepsizes. In the case of a matrix the stepsize for the column index represents the rowlength. The stepsize for a vector is known as the stride.
The functions for allocating and deallocating blocks are defined in
gsl_block.h
.
Block allocation¶
The functions for allocating memory to a block follow the style of
malloc
and free
. In addition they also perform their own
error checking. If there is insufficient memory available to allocate a
block then the functions call the GSL error handler (with an error
number of GSL_ENOMEM
) in addition to returning a null
pointer. Thus if you use the library error handler to abort your program
then it isn’t necessary to check every alloc
.

gsl_block *
gsl_block_alloc
(size_t n)¶ This function allocates memory for a block of
n
doubleprecision elements, returning a pointer to the block struct. The block is not initialized and so the values of its elements are undefined. Use the functiongsl_block_calloc()
if you want to ensure that all the elements are initialized to zero.Zerosized requests are valid and return a nonnull result. A null pointer is returned if insufficient memory is available to create the block.

gsl_block *
gsl_block_calloc
(size_t n)¶ This function allocates memory for a block and initializes all the elements of the block to zero.

void
gsl_block_free
(gsl_block * b)¶ This function frees the memory used by a block
b
previously allocated withgsl_block_alloc()
orgsl_block_calloc()
.
Reading and writing blocks¶
The library provides functions for reading and writing blocks to a file as binary data or formatted text.

int
gsl_block_fwrite
(FILE * stream, const gsl_block * b)¶ This function writes the elements of the block
b
to the streamstream
in binary format. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file. Since the data is written in the native binary format it may not be portable between different architectures.

int
gsl_block_fread
(FILE * stream, gsl_block * b)¶ This function reads into the block
b
from the open streamstream
in binary format. The blockb
must be preallocated with the correct length since the function uses the size ofb
to determine how many bytes to read. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file. The data is assumed to have been written in the native binary format on the same architecture.

int
gsl_block_fprintf
(FILE * stream, const gsl_block * b, const char * format)¶ This function writes the elements of the block
b
linebyline to the streamstream
using the format specifierformat
, which should be one of the%g
,%e
or%f
formats for floating point numbers and%d
for integers. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file.

int
gsl_block_fscanf
(FILE * stream, gsl_block * b)¶ This function reads formatted data from the stream
stream
into the blockb
. The blockb
must be preallocated with the correct length since the function uses the size ofb
to determine how many numbers to read. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file.
Example programs for blocks¶
The following program shows how to allocate a block,
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_block.h>
int
main (void)
{
gsl_block * b = gsl_block_alloc (100);
printf ("length of block = %zu\n", b>size);
printf ("block data address = %p\n", b>data);
gsl_block_free (b);
return 0;
}
Here is the output from the program,
length of block = 100
block data address = 0x804b0d8
Vectors¶
Vectors are defined by a gsl_vector
structure which describes a
slice of a block. Different vectors can be created which point to the
same block. A vector slice is a set of equallyspaced elements of an
area of memory.
The gsl_vector
structure contains five components, the
size, the stride, a pointer to the memory where the elements
are stored, data
, a pointer to the block owned by the vector,
block
, if any, and an ownership flag, owner
. The structure
is very simple and looks like this,

gsl_vector
¶ typedef struct { size_t size; size_t stride; double * data; gsl_block * block; int owner; } gsl_vector;
The size
is simply the number of vector elements. The range of
valid indices runs from 0 to size1
. The stride
is the
stepsize from one element to the next in physical memory, measured in
units of the appropriate datatype. The pointer data
gives the
location of the first element of the vector in memory. The pointer
block
stores the location of the memory block in which the vector
elements are located (if any). If the vector owns this block then the
owner
field is set to one and the block will be deallocated when the
vector is freed. If the vector points to a block owned by another
object then the owner
field is zero and any underlying block will not be
deallocated with the vector.
The functions for allocating and accessing vectors are defined in
gsl_vector.h
.
Vector allocation¶
The functions for allocating memory to a vector follow the style of
malloc
and free
. In addition they also perform their own
error checking. If there is insufficient memory available to allocate a
vector then the functions call the GSL error handler (with an error
number of GSL_ENOMEM
) in addition to returning a null
pointer. Thus if you use the library error handler to abort your program
then it isn’t necessary to check every alloc
.

gsl_vector *
gsl_vector_alloc
(size_t n)¶ This function creates a vector of length n, returning a pointer to a newly initialized vector struct. A new block is allocated for the elements of the vector, and stored in the
block
component of the vector struct. The block is “owned” by the vector, and will be deallocated when the vector is deallocated. Zerosized requests are valid and return a nonnull result.

gsl_vector *
gsl_vector_calloc
(size_t n)¶ This function allocates memory for a vector of length
n
and initializes all the elements of the vector to zero.

void
gsl_vector_free
(gsl_vector * v)¶ This function frees a previously allocated vector
v
. If the vector was created usinggsl_vector_alloc()
then the block underlying the vector will also be deallocated. If the vector has been created from another object then the memory is still owned by that object and will not be deallocated.
Accessing vector elements¶
Unlike Fortran compilers, C compilers do not usually provide
support for range checking of vectors and matrices. 1
The functions gsl_vector_get()
and
gsl_vector_set()
can perform portable range checking for you and
report an error if you attempt to access elements outside the allowed
range.
The functions for accessing the elements of a vector or matrix are
defined in gsl_vector.h
and declared extern inline
to
eliminate functioncall overhead. You must compile your program with
the preprocessor macro HAVE_INLINE
defined to use these
functions.

GSL_RANGE_CHECK_OFF
¶ If necessary you can turn off range checking completely without modifying any source files by recompiling your program with the preprocessor definition
GSL_RANGE_CHECK_OFF
. Provided your compiler supports inline functions the effect of turning off range checking is to replace calls togsl_vector_get(v,i)
byv>data[i*v>stride]
and calls togsl_vector_set(v,i,x)
byv>data[i*v>stride]=x
. Thus there should be no performance penalty for using the range checking functions when range checking is turned off.

GSL_C99_INLINE
¶ If you use a C99 compiler which requires inline functions in header files to be declared
inline
instead ofextern inline
, define the macroGSL_C99_INLINE
(see Inline functions). With GCC this is selected automatically when compiling in C99 mode (std=c99
).

gsl_check_range
¶ If inline functions are not used, calls to the functions
gsl_vector_get()
andgsl_vector_set()
will link to the compiled versions of these functions in the library itself. The range checking in these functions is controlled by the global integer variablegsl_check_range
. It is enabled by default—to disable it, setgsl_check_range
to zero. Due to functioncall overhead, there is less benefit in disabling range checking here than for inline functions.

double
gsl_vector_get
(const gsl_vector * v, const size_t i)¶ This function returns the
i
th element of a vectorv
. Ifi
lies outside the allowed range of 0 tosize  1
then the error handler is invoked and 0 is returned. An inline version of this function is used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.

void
gsl_vector_set
(gsl_vector * v, const size_t i, double x)¶ This function sets the value of the
i
th element of a vectorv
tox
. Ifi
lies outside the allowed range of 0 tosize  1
then the error handler is invoked. An inline version of this function is used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.

double *
gsl_vector_ptr
(gsl_vector * v, size_t i)¶ 
const double *
gsl_vector_const_ptr
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t i)¶ These functions return a pointer to the
i
th element of a vectorv
. Ifi
lies outside the allowed range of 0 tosize  1
then the error handler is invoked and a null pointer is returned. Inline versions of these functions are used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.
Initializing vector elements¶

void
gsl_vector_set_all
(gsl_vector * v, double x)¶ This function sets all the elements of the vector
v
to the valuex
.

void
gsl_vector_set_zero
(gsl_vector * v)¶ This function sets all the elements of the vector
v
to zero.

int
gsl_vector_set_basis
(gsl_vector * v, size_t i)¶ This function makes a basis vector by setting all the elements of the vector
v
to zero except for thei
th element which is set to one.
Reading and writing vectors¶
The library provides functions for reading and writing vectors to a file as binary data or formatted text.

int
gsl_vector_fwrite
(FILE * stream, const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function writes the elements of the vector
v
to the streamstream
in binary format. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file. Since the data is written in the native binary format it may not be portable between different architectures.

int
gsl_vector_fread
(FILE * stream, gsl_vector * v)¶ This function reads into the vector
v
from the open streamstream
in binary format. The vectorv
must be preallocated with the correct length since the function uses the size ofv
to determine how many bytes to read. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file. The data is assumed to have been written in the native binary format on the same architecture.

int
gsl_vector_fprintf
(FILE * stream, const gsl_vector * v, const char * format)¶ This function writes the elements of the vector
v
linebyline to the streamstream
using the format specifierformat
, which should be one of the%g
,%e
or%f
formats for floating point numbers and%d
for integers. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file.

int
gsl_vector_fscanf
(FILE * stream, gsl_vector * v)¶ This function reads formatted data from the stream
stream
into the vectorv
. The vectorv
must be preallocated with the correct length since the function uses the size ofv
to determine how many numbers to read. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file.
Vector views¶
In addition to creating vectors from slices of blocks it is also possible to slice vectors and create vector views. For example, a subvector of another vector can be described with a view, or two views can be made which provide access to the even and odd elements of a vector.

gsl_vector_view
¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
¶ A vector view is a temporary object, stored on the stack, which can be used to operate on a subset of vector elements. Vector views can be defined for both constant and nonconstant vectors, using separate types that preserve constness. A vector view has the type
gsl_vector_view
and a constant vector view has the typegsl_vector_const_view
. In both cases the elements of the view can be accessed as agsl_vector
using thevector
component of the view object. A pointer to a vector of typegsl_vector *
orconst gsl_vector *
can be obtained by taking the address of this component with the&
operator.When using this pointer it is important to ensure that the view itself remains in scope—the simplest way to do so is by always writing the pointer as
&view.vector
, and never storing this value in another variable.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_subvector
(gsl_vector * v, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_const_subvector
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of a subvector of another vector
v
. The start of the new vector is offset byoffset
elements from the start of the original vector. The new vector hasn
elements. Mathematically, thei
th element of the new vectorv'
is given by:v'(i) = v>data[(offset + i)*v>stride]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton  1
.The
data
pointer of the returned vector struct is set to null if the combined parameters (offset
,n
) overrun the end of the original vector.The new vector is only a view of the block underlying the original vector,
v
. The block containing the elements ofv
is not owned by the new vector. When the view goes out of scope the original vectorv
and its block will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original vector. Of course, the original vector should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_vector_const_subvector()
is equivalent togsl_vector_subvector()
but can be used for vectors which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_subvector_with_stride
(gsl_vector * v, size_t offset, size_t stride, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_const_subvector_with_stride
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t offset, size_t stride, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of a subvector of another vector
v
with an additional stride argument. The subvector is formed in the same way as forgsl_vector_subvector()
but the new vector hasn
elements with a stepsize ofstride
from one element to the next in the original vector. Mathematically, thei
th element of the new vectorv'
is given by:v'(i) = v>data[(offset + i*stride)*v>stride]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton  1
.Note that subvector views give direct access to the underlying elements of the original vector. For example, the following code will zero the even elements of the vector
v
of lengthn
, while leaving the odd elements untouched:gsl_vector_view v_even = gsl_vector_subvector_with_stride (v, 0, 2, n/2); gsl_vector_set_zero (&v_even.vector);
A vector view can be passed to any subroutine which takes a vector argument just as a directly allocated vector would be, using
&view.vector
. For example, the following code computes the norm of the odd elements ofv
using the BLAS routinednrm2
:gsl_vector_view v_odd = gsl_vector_subvector_with_stride (v, 1, 2, n/2); double r = gsl_blas_dnrm2 (&v_odd.vector);
The function
gsl_vector_const_subvector_with_stride()
is equivalent togsl_vector_subvector_with_stride()
but can be used for vectors which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_complex_real
(gsl_vector_complex * v)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_complex_const_real
(const gsl_vector_complex * v)¶ These functions return a vector view of the real parts of the complex vector
v
.The function
gsl_vector_complex_const_real()
is equivalent togsl_vector_complex_real()
but can be used for vectors which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_complex_imag
(gsl_vector_complex * v)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_complex_const_imag
(const gsl_vector_complex * v)¶ These functions return a vector view of the imaginary parts of the complex vector
v
.The function
gsl_vector_complex_const_imag()
is equivalent togsl_vector_complex_imag()
but can be used for vectors which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_view_array
(double * base, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_const_view_array
(const double * base, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of an array. The start of the new vector is given by
base
and hasn
elements. Mathematically, thei
th element of the new vectorv'
is given by:v'(i) = base[i]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton  1
.The array containing the elements of
v
is not owned by the new vector view. When the view goes out of scope the original array will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original pointerbase
. Of course, the original array should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_vector_const_view_array()
is equivalent togsl_vector_view_array()
but can be used for arrays which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_vector_view_array_with_stride
(double * base, size_t stride, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_vector_const_view_array_with_stride
(const double * base, size_t stride, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of an array
base
with an additional stride argument. The subvector is formed in the same way as forgsl_vector_view_array()
but the new vector hasn
elements with a stepsize ofstride
from one element to the next in the original array. Mathematically, thei
th element of the new vectorv'
is given by:v'(i) = base[i*stride]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton  1
.Note that the view gives direct access to the underlying elements of the original array. A vector view can be passed to any subroutine which takes a vector argument just as a directly allocated vector would be, using
&view.vector
.The function
gsl_vector_const_view_array_with_stride()
is equivalent togsl_vector_view_array_with_stride()
but can be used for arrays which are declaredconst
.
Copying vectors¶
Common operations on vectors such as addition and multiplication are available in the BLAS part of the library (see BLAS Support). However, it is useful to have a small number of utility functions which do not require the full BLAS code. The following functions fall into this category.

int
gsl_vector_memcpy
(gsl_vector * dest, const gsl_vector * src)¶ This function copies the elements of the vector
src
into the vectordest
. The two vectors must have the same length.

int
gsl_vector_swap
(gsl_vector * v, gsl_vector * w)¶ This function exchanges the elements of the vectors
v
andw
by copying. The two vectors must have the same length.
Exchanging elements¶
The following functions can be used to exchange, or permute, the elements of a vector.

int
gsl_vector_swap_elements
(gsl_vector * v, size_t i, size_t j)¶ This function exchanges the
i
th andj
th elements of the vectorv
inplace.

int
gsl_vector_reverse
(gsl_vector * v)¶ This function reverses the order of the elements of the vector
v
.
Vector operations¶

int
gsl_vector_add
(gsl_vector * a, const gsl_vector * b)¶ This function adds the elements of vector
b
to the elements of vectora
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two vectors must have the same length.

int
gsl_vector_sub
(gsl_vector * a, const gsl_vector * b)¶ This function subtracts the elements of vector
b
from the elements of vectora
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two vectors must have the same length.

int
gsl_vector_mul
(gsl_vector * a, const gsl_vector * b)¶ This function multiplies the elements of vector
a
by the elements of vectorb
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two vectors must have the same length.

int
gsl_vector_div
(gsl_vector * a, const gsl_vector * b)¶ This function divides the elements of vector
a
by the elements of vectorb
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two vectors must have the same length.

int
gsl_vector_scale
(gsl_vector * a, const double x)¶ This function multiplies the elements of vector
a
by the constant factorx
. The result is stored ina
.

int
gsl_vector_add_constant
(gsl_vector * a, const double x)¶ This function adds the constant value
x
to the elements of the vectora
. The result is stored ina
.

int
gsl_vector_axpby
(const double alpha, const gsl_vector * x, const double beta, gsl_vector * y)¶ This function performs the operation . The vectors
x
andy
must have the same length.
Finding maximum and minimum elements of vectors¶
The following operations are only defined for real vectors.

double
gsl_vector_max
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function returns the maximum value in the vector
v
.

double
gsl_vector_min
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function returns the minimum value in the vector
v
.

void
gsl_vector_minmax
(const gsl_vector * v, double * min_out, double * max_out)¶ This function returns the minimum and maximum values in the vector
v
, storing them inmin_out
andmax_out
.

size_t
gsl_vector_max_index
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function returns the index of the maximum value in the vector
v
. When there are several equal maximum elements then the lowest index is returned.

size_t
gsl_vector_min_index
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function returns the index of the minimum value in the vector
v
. When there are several equal minimum elements then the lowest index is returned.

void
gsl_vector_minmax_index
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t * imin, size_t * imax)¶ This function returns the indices of the minimum and maximum values in the vector
v
, storing them inimin
andimax
. When there are several equal minimum or maximum elements then the lowest indices are returned.
Vector properties¶
The following functions are defined for real and complex vectors. For complex vectors both the real and imaginary parts must satisfy the conditions.

int
gsl_vector_isnull
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ 
int
gsl_vector_ispos
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ 
int
gsl_vector_isneg
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ 
int
gsl_vector_isnonneg
(const gsl_vector * v)¶ These functions return 1 if all the elements of the vector
v
are zero, strictly positive, strictly negative, or nonnegative respectively, and 0 otherwise.

int
gsl_vector_equal
(const gsl_vector * u, const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function returns 1 if the vectors
u
andv
are equal (by comparison of element values) and 0 otherwise.
Example programs for vectors¶
This program shows how to allocate, initialize and read from a vector
using the functions gsl_vector_alloc()
, gsl_vector_set()
and
gsl_vector_get()
.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_vector.h>
int
main (void)
{
int i;
gsl_vector * v = gsl_vector_alloc (3);
for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
{
gsl_vector_set (v, i, 1.23 + i);
}
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) /* OUT OF RANGE ERROR */
{
printf ("v_%d = %g\n", i, gsl_vector_get (v, i));
}
gsl_vector_free (v);
return 0;
}
Here is the output from the program. The final loop attempts to read
outside the range of the vector v
, and the error is trapped by
the rangechecking code in gsl_vector_get()
.
$ ./a.out
v_0 = 1.23
v_1 = 2.23
v_2 = 3.23
gsl: vector_source.c:12: ERROR: index out of range
Default GSL error handler invoked.
Aborted (core dumped)
The next program shows how to write a vector to a file.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_vector.h>
int
main (void)
{
int i;
gsl_vector * v = gsl_vector_alloc (100);
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
{
gsl_vector_set (v, i, 1.23 + i);
}
{
FILE * f = fopen ("test.dat", "w");
gsl_vector_fprintf (f, v, "%.5g");
fclose (f);
}
gsl_vector_free (v);
return 0;
}
After running this program the file test.dat
should contain the
elements of v
, written using the format specifier
%.5g
. The vector could then be read back in using the function
gsl_vector_fscanf (f, v)
as follows:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_vector.h>
int
main (void)
{
int i;
gsl_vector * v = gsl_vector_alloc (10);
{
FILE * f = fopen ("test.dat", "r");
gsl_vector_fscanf (f, v);
fclose (f);
}
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
printf ("%g\n", gsl_vector_get(v, i));
}
gsl_vector_free (v);
return 0;
}
Matrices¶
Matrices are defined by a gsl_matrix
structure which describes a
generalized slice of a block. Like a vector it represents a set of
elements in an area of memory, but uses two indices instead of one.

gsl_matrix
¶ The
gsl_matrix
structure contains six components, the two dimensions of the matrix, a physical dimension, a pointer to the memory where the elements of the matrix are stored,data
, a pointer to the block owned by the matrixblock
, if any, and an ownership flag,owner
. The physical dimension determines the memory layout and can differ from the matrix dimension to allow the use of submatrices. Thegsl_matrix
structure is very simple and looks like this:typedef struct { size_t size1; size_t size2; size_t tda; double * data; gsl_block * block; int owner; } gsl_matrix;
Matrices are stored in rowmajor order, meaning that each row of
elements forms a contiguous block in memory. This is the standard
“Clanguage ordering” of twodimensional arrays. Note that Fortran
stores arrays in columnmajor order. The number of rows is size1
.
The range of valid row indices runs from 0 to size1  1
. Similarly
size2
is the number of columns. The range of valid column indices
runs from 0 to size2  1
. The physical row dimension tda
, or
trailing dimension, specifies the size of a row of the matrix as
laid out in memory.
For example, in the following matrix size1
is 3, size2
is 4,
and tda
is 8. The physical memory layout of the matrix begins in
the top left handcorner and proceeds from left to right along each row
in turn.
00 01 02 03 XX XX XX XX
10 11 12 13 XX XX XX XX
20 21 22 23 XX XX XX XX
Each unused memory location is represented by “XX
”. The
pointer data
gives the location of the first element of the matrix
in memory. The pointer block
stores the location of the memory
block in which the elements of the matrix are located (if any). If the
matrix owns this block then the owner
field is set to one and the
block will be deallocated when the matrix is freed. If the matrix is
only a slice of a block owned by another object then the owner
field is
zero and any underlying block will not be freed.
The functions for allocating and accessing matrices are defined in
gsl_matrix.h
.
Matrix allocation¶
The functions for allocating memory to a matrix follow the style of
malloc
and free
. They also perform their own error
checking. If there is insufficient memory available to allocate a matrix
then the functions call the GSL error handler (with an error number of
GSL_ENOMEM
) in addition to returning a null pointer. Thus if you
use the library error handler to abort your program then it isn’t
necessary to check every alloc
.

gsl_matrix *
gsl_matrix_alloc
(size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ This function creates a matrix of size
n1
rows byn2
columns, returning a pointer to a newly initialized matrix struct. A new block is allocated for the elements of the matrix, and stored in theblock
component of the matrix struct. The block is “owned” by the matrix, and will be deallocated when the matrix is deallocated. Requesting zero forn1
orn2
is valid and returns a nonnull result.

gsl_matrix *
gsl_matrix_calloc
(size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ This function allocates memory for a matrix of size
n1
rows byn2
columns and initializes all the elements of the matrix to zero.

void
gsl_matrix_free
(gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function frees a previously allocated matrix
m
. If the matrix was created usinggsl_matrix_alloc()
then the block underlying the matrix will also be deallocated. If the matrix has been created from another object then the memory is still owned by that object and will not be deallocated.
Accessing matrix elements¶
The functions for accessing the elements of a matrix use the same range
checking system as vectors. You can turn off range checking by recompiling
your program with the preprocessor definition
GSL_RANGE_CHECK_OFF
.
The elements of the matrix are stored in “Corder”, where the second
index moves continuously through memory. More precisely, the element
accessed by the function gsl_matrix_get(m,i,j)
and
gsl_matrix_set(m,i,j,x)
is:
m>data[i * m>tda + j]
where tda
is the physical rowlength of the matrix.

double
gsl_matrix_get
(const gsl_matrix * m, const size_t i, const size_t j)¶ This function returns the th element of a matrix
m
. Ifi
orj
lie outside the allowed range of 0 ton1  1
and 0 ton2  1
then the error handler is invoked and 0 is returned. An inline version of this function is used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.

void
gsl_matrix_set
(gsl_matrix * m, const size_t i, const size_t j, double x)¶ This function sets the value of the th element of a matrix
m
tox
. Ifi
orj
lies outside the allowed range of 0 ton1  1
and 0 ton2  1
then the error handler is invoked. An inline version of this function is used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.

double *
gsl_matrix_ptr
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t j)¶ 
const double *
gsl_matrix_const_ptr
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t j)¶ These functions return a pointer to the th element of a matrix
m
. Ifi
orj
lie outside the allowed range of 0 ton1  1
and 0 ton2  1
then the error handler is invoked and a null pointer is returned. Inline versions of these functions are used whenHAVE_INLINE
is defined.
Initializing matrix elements¶

void
gsl_matrix_set_all
(gsl_matrix * m, double x)¶ This function sets all the elements of the matrix
m
to the valuex
.

void
gsl_matrix_set_zero
(gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function sets all the elements of the matrix
m
to zero.

void
gsl_matrix_set_identity
(gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function sets the elements of the matrix
m
to the corresponding elements of the identity matrix, , i.e. a unit diagonal with all offdiagonal elements zero. This applies to both square and rectangular matrices.
Reading and writing matrices¶
The library provides functions for reading and writing matrices to a file as binary data or formatted text.

int
gsl_matrix_fwrite
(FILE * stream, const gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function writes the elements of the matrix
m
to the streamstream
in binary format. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file. Since the data is written in the native binary format it may not be portable between different architectures.

int
gsl_matrix_fread
(FILE * stream, gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function reads into the matrix
m
from the open streamstream
in binary format. The matrixm
must be preallocated with the correct dimensions since the function uses the size ofm
to determine how many bytes to read. The return value is 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file. The data is assumed to have been written in the native binary format on the same architecture.

int
gsl_matrix_fprintf
(FILE * stream, const gsl_matrix * m, const char * format)¶ This function writes the elements of the matrix
m
linebyline to the streamstream
using the format specifierformat
, which should be one of the%g
,%e
or%f
formats for floating point numbers and%d
for integers. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem writing to the file.

int
gsl_matrix_fscanf
(FILE * stream, gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function reads formatted data from the stream
stream
into the matrixm
. The matrixm
must be preallocated with the correct dimensions since the function uses the size ofm
to determine how many numbers to read. The function returns 0 for success andGSL_EFAILED
if there was a problem reading from the file.
Matrix views¶

gsl_matrix_view
¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
¶ A matrix view is a temporary object, stored on the stack, which can be used to operate on a subset of matrix elements. Matrix views can be defined for both constant and nonconstant matrices using separate types that preserve constness. A matrix view has the type
gsl_matrix_view
and a constant matrix view has the typegsl_matrix_const_view
. In both cases the elements of the view can by accessed using thematrix
component of the view object. A pointergsl_matrix *
orconst gsl_matrix *
can be obtained by taking the address of thematrix
component with the&
operator. In addition to matrix views it is also possible to create vector views of a matrix, such as row or column views.

gsl_matrix_view
gsl_matrix_submatrix
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t k1, size_t k2, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_submatrix
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t k1, size_t k2, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ These functions return a matrix view of a submatrix of the matrix
m
. The upperleft element of the submatrix is the element (k1
,k2
) of the original matrix. The submatrix hasn1
rows andn2
columns. The physical number of columns in memory given bytda
is unchanged. Mathematically, the th element of the new matrix is given by:m'(i,j) = m>data[(k1*m>tda + k2) + i*m>tda + j]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton1  1
and the indexj
runs from 0 ton2  1
.The
data
pointer of the returned matrix struct is set to null if the combined parameters (i
,j
,n1
,n2
,tda
) overrun the ends of the original matrix.The new matrix view is only a view of the block underlying the existing matrix,
m
. The block containing the elements ofm
is not owned by the new matrix view. When the view goes out of scope the original matrixm
and its block will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original matrix. Of course, the original matrix should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_matrix_const_submatrix()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_submatrix()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_matrix_view
gsl_matrix_view_array
(double * base, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_view_array
(const double * base, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ These functions return a matrix view of the array
base
. The matrix hasn1
rows andn2
columns. The physical number of columns in memory is also given byn2
. Mathematically, the th element of the new matrix is given by:m'(i,j) = base[i*n2 + j]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton1  1
and the indexj
runs from 0 ton2  1
.The new matrix is only a view of the array
base
. When the view goes out of scope the original arraybase
will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original array. Of course, the original array should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_matrix_const_view_array()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_view_array()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_matrix_view
gsl_matrix_view_array_with_tda
(double * base, size_t n1, size_t n2, size_t tda)¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_view_array_with_tda
(const double * base, size_t n1, size_t n2, size_t tda)¶ These functions return a matrix view of the array
base
with a physical number of columnstda
which may differ from the corresponding dimension of the matrix. The matrix hasn1
rows andn2
columns, and the physical number of columns in memory is given bytda
. Mathematically, the th element of the new matrix is given by:m'(i,j) = base[i*tda + j]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton1  1
and the indexj
runs from 0 ton2  1
.The new matrix is only a view of the array
base
. When the view goes out of scope the original arraybase
will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original array. Of course, the original array should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_matrix_const_view_array_with_tda()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_view_array_with_tda()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_matrix_view
gsl_matrix_view_vector
(gsl_vector * v, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_view_vector
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t n1, size_t n2)¶ These functions return a matrix view of the vector
v
. The matrix hasn1
rows andn2
columns. The vector must have unit stride. The physical number of columns in memory is also given byn2
. Mathematically, the th element of the new matrix is given by:m'(i,j) = v>data[i*n2 + j]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton1  1
and the indexj
runs from 0 ton2  1
.The new matrix is only a view of the vector
v
. When the view goes out of scope the original vectorv
will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original vector. Of course, the original vector should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_matrix_const_view_vector()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_view_vector()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_matrix_view
gsl_matrix_view_vector_with_tda
(gsl_vector * v, size_t n1, size_t n2, size_t tda)¶ 
gsl_matrix_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_view_vector_with_tda
(const gsl_vector * v, size_t n1, size_t n2, size_t tda)¶ These functions return a matrix view of the vector
v
with a physical number of columnstda
which may differ from the corresponding matrix dimension. The vector must have unit stride. The matrix hasn1
rows andn2
columns, and the physical number of columns in memory is given bytda
. Mathematically, the th element of the new matrix is given by:m'(i,j) = v>data[i*tda + j]
where the index
i
runs from 0 ton1  1
and the indexj
runs from 0 ton2  1
.The new matrix is only a view of the vector
v
. When the view goes out of scope the original vectorv
will continue to exist. The original memory can only be deallocated by freeing the original vector. Of course, the original vector should not be deallocated while the view is still in use.The function
gsl_matrix_const_view_vector_with_tda()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_view_vector_with_tda()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.
Creating row and column views¶
In general there are two ways to access an object, by reference or by copying. The functions described in this section create vector views which allow access to a row or column of a matrix by reference. Modifying elements of the view is equivalent to modifying the matrix, since both the vector view and the matrix point to the same memory block.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_row
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_row
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t i)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
i
th row of the matrixm
. Thedata
pointer of the new vector is set to null ifi
is out of range.The function
gsl_matrix_const_row()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_row()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_column
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t j)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_column
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t j)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
j
th column of the matrixm
. Thedata
pointer of the new vector is set to null ifj
is out of range.The function
gsl_matrix_const_column()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_column()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_subrow
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_subrow
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
i
th row of the matrixm
beginning atoffset
elements past the first column and containingn
elements. Thedata
pointer of the new vector is set to null ifi
,offset
, orn
are out of range.The function
gsl_matrix_const_subrow()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_subrow()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_subcolumn
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t j, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_subcolumn
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t j, size_t offset, size_t n)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
j
th column of the matrixm
beginning atoffset
elements past the first row and containingn
elements. Thedata
pointer of the new vector is set to null ifj
,offset
, orn
are out of range.The function
gsl_matrix_const_subcolumn()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_subcolumn()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_diagonal
(gsl_matrix * m)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_diagonal
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ These functions return a vector view of the diagonal of the matrix
m
. The matrixm
is not required to be square. For a rectangular matrix the length of the diagonal is the same as the smaller dimension of the matrix.The function
gsl_matrix_const_diagonal()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_diagonal()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_subdiagonal
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t k)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_subdiagonal
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t k)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
k
th subdiagonal of the matrixm
. The matrixm
is not required to be square. The diagonal of the matrix corresponds to .The function
gsl_matrix_const_subdiagonal()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_subdiagonal()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.

gsl_vector_view
gsl_matrix_superdiagonal
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t k)¶ 
gsl_vector_const_view
gsl_matrix_const_superdiagonal
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t k)¶ These functions return a vector view of the
k
th superdiagonal of the matrixm
. The matrixm
is not required to be square. The diagonal of the matrix corresponds to .The function
gsl_matrix_const_superdiagonal()
is equivalent togsl_matrix_superdiagonal()
but can be used for matrices which are declaredconst
.
Copying matrices¶

int
gsl_matrix_memcpy
(gsl_matrix * dest, const gsl_matrix * src)¶ This function copies the elements of the matrix
src
into the matrixdest
. The two matrices must have the same size.

int
gsl_matrix_swap
(gsl_matrix * m1, gsl_matrix * m2)¶ This function exchanges the elements of the matrices
m1
andm2
by copying. The two matrices must have the same size.
Copying rows and columns¶
The functions described in this section copy a row or column of a matrix
into a vector. This allows the elements of the vector and the matrix to
be modified independently. Note that if the matrix and the vector point
to overlapping regions of memory then the result will be undefined. The
same effect can be achieved with more generality using
gsl_vector_memcpy()
with vector views of rows and columns.

int
gsl_matrix_get_row
(gsl_vector * v, const gsl_matrix * m, size_t i)¶ This function copies the elements of the
i
th row of the matrixm
into the vectorv
. The length of the vector must be the same as the length of the row.

int
gsl_matrix_get_col
(gsl_vector * v, const gsl_matrix * m, size_t j)¶ This function copies the elements of the
j
th column of the matrixm
into the vectorv
. The length of the vector must be the same as the length of the column.

int
gsl_matrix_set_row
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function copies the elements of the vector
v
into thei
th row of the matrixm
. The length of the vector must be the same as the length of the row.

int
gsl_matrix_set_col
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t j, const gsl_vector * v)¶ This function copies the elements of the vector
v
into thej
th column of the matrixm
. The length of the vector must be the same as the length of the column.
Exchanging rows and columns¶
The following functions can be used to exchange the rows and columns of a matrix.

int
gsl_matrix_swap_rows
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t j)¶ This function exchanges the
i
th andj
th rows of the matrixm
inplace.

int
gsl_matrix_swap_columns
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t j)¶ This function exchanges the
i
th andj
th columns of the matrixm
inplace.

int
gsl_matrix_swap_rowcol
(gsl_matrix * m, size_t i, size_t j)¶ This function exchanges the
i
th row andj
th column of the matrixm
inplace. The matrix must be square for this operation to be possible.

int
gsl_matrix_transpose_memcpy
(gsl_matrix * dest, const gsl_matrix * src)¶ This function makes the matrix
dest
the transpose of the matrixsrc
by copying the elements ofsrc
intodest
. This function works for all matrices provided that the dimensions of the matrixdest
match the transposed dimensions of the matrixsrc
.

int
gsl_matrix_transpose
(gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function replaces the matrix
m
by its transpose by copying the elements of the matrix inplace. The matrix must be square for this operation to be possible.
Matrix operations¶
The following operations are defined for real and complex matrices.

int
gsl_matrix_add
(gsl_matrix * a, const gsl_matrix * b)¶ This function adds the elements of matrix
b
to the elements of matrixa
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two matrices must have the same dimensions.

int
gsl_matrix_sub
(gsl_matrix * a, const gsl_matrix * b)¶ This function subtracts the elements of matrix
b
from the elements of matrixa
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two matrices must have the same dimensions.

int
gsl_matrix_mul_elements
(gsl_matrix * a, const gsl_matrix * b)¶ This function multiplies the elements of matrix
a
by the elements of matrixb
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two matrices must have the same dimensions.

int
gsl_matrix_div_elements
(gsl_matrix * a, const gsl_matrix * b)¶ This function divides the elements of matrix
a
by the elements of matrixb
. The result is stored ina
andb
remains unchanged. The two matrices must have the same dimensions.

int
gsl_matrix_scale
(gsl_matrix * a, const double x)¶ This function multiplies the elements of matrix
a
by the constant factorx
. The result is stored ina
.

int
gsl_matrix_add_constant
(gsl_matrix * a, const double x)¶ This function adds the constant value
x
to the elements of the matrixa
. The result is stored ina
.
Finding maximum and minimum elements of matrices¶
The following operations are only defined for real matrices.

double
gsl_matrix_max
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function returns the maximum value in the matrix
m
.

double
gsl_matrix_min
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ This function returns the minimum value in the matrix
m
.

void
gsl_matrix_minmax
(const gsl_matrix * m, double * min_out, double * max_out)¶ This function returns the minimum and maximum values in the matrix
m
, storing them inmin_out
andmax_out
.

void
gsl_matrix_max_index
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t * imax, size_t * jmax)¶ This function returns the indices of the maximum value in the matrix
m
, storing them inimax
andjmax
. When there are several equal maximum elements then the first element found is returned, searching in rowmajor order.

void
gsl_matrix_min_index
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t * imin, size_t * jmin)¶ This function returns the indices of the minimum value in the matrix
m
, storing them inimin
andjmin
. When there are several equal minimum elements then the first element found is returned, searching in rowmajor order.

void
gsl_matrix_minmax_index
(const gsl_matrix * m, size_t * imin, size_t * jmin, size_t * imax, size_t * jmax)¶ This function returns the indices of the minimum and maximum values in the matrix
m
, storing them in (imin
,jmin
) and (imax
,jmax
). When there are several equal minimum or maximum elements then the first elements found are returned, searching in rowmajor order.
Matrix properties¶
The following functions are defined for real and complex matrices. For complex matrices both the real and imaginary parts must satisfy the conditions.

int
gsl_matrix_isnull
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ 
int
gsl_matrix_ispos
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ 
int
gsl_matrix_isneg
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ 
int
gsl_matrix_isnonneg
(const gsl_matrix * m)¶ These functions return 1 if all the elements of the matrix
m
are zero, strictly positive, strictly negative, or nonnegative respectively, and 0 otherwise. To test whether a matrix is positivedefinite, use the Cholesky decomposition.

int
gsl_matrix_equal
(const gsl_matrix * a, const gsl_matrix * b)¶ This function returns 1 if the matrices
a
andb
are equal (by comparison of element values) and 0 otherwise.
Example programs for matrices¶
The program below shows how to allocate, initialize and read from a matrix
using the functions gsl_matrix_alloc()
, gsl_matrix_set()
and
gsl_matrix_get()
.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_matrix.h>
int
main (void)
{
int i, j;
gsl_matrix * m = gsl_matrix_alloc (10, 3);
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
for (j = 0; j < 3; j++)
gsl_matrix_set (m, i, j, 0.23 + 100*i + j);
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) /* OUT OF RANGE ERROR */
for (j = 0; j < 3; j++)
printf ("m(%d,%d) = %g\n", i, j,
gsl_matrix_get (m, i, j));
gsl_matrix_free (m);
return 0;
}
Here is the output from the program. The final loop attempts to read
outside the range of the matrix m
, and the error is trapped by
the rangechecking code in gsl_matrix_get()
.
$ ./a.out
m(0,0) = 0.23
m(0,1) = 1.23
m(0,2) = 2.23
m(1,0) = 100.23
m(1,1) = 101.23
m(1,2) = 102.23
...
m(9,2) = 902.23
gsl: matrix_source.c:13: ERROR: first index out of range
Default GSL error handler invoked.
Aborted (core dumped)
The next program shows how to write a matrix to a file.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_matrix.h>
int
main (void)
{
int i, j, k = 0;
gsl_matrix * m = gsl_matrix_alloc (100, 100);
gsl_matrix * a = gsl_matrix_alloc (100, 100);
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
for (j = 0; j < 100; j++)
gsl_matrix_set (m, i, j, 0.23 + i + j);
{
FILE * f = fopen ("test.dat", "wb");
gsl_matrix_fwrite (f, m);
fclose (f);
}
{
FILE * f = fopen ("test.dat", "rb");
gsl_matrix_fread (f, a);
fclose (f);
}
for (i = 0; i < 100; i++)
for (j = 0; j < 100; j++)
{
double mij = gsl_matrix_get (m, i, j);
double aij = gsl_matrix_get (a, i, j);
if (mij != aij) k++;
}
gsl_matrix_free (m);
gsl_matrix_free (a);
printf ("differences = %d (should be zero)\n", k);
return (k > 0);
}
After running this program the file test.dat
should contain the
elements of m
, written in binary format. The matrix which is read
back in using the function gsl_matrix_fread()
should be exactly
equal to the original matrix.
The following program demonstrates the use of vector views. The program computes the column norms of a matrix.
#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_matrix.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_blas.h>
int
main (void)
{
size_t i,j;
gsl_matrix *m = gsl_matrix_alloc (10, 10);
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
for (j = 0; j < 10; j++)
gsl_matrix_set (m, i, j, sin (i) + cos (j));
for (j = 0; j < 10; j++)
{
gsl_vector_view column = gsl_matrix_column (m, j);
double d;
d = gsl_blas_dnrm2 (&column.vector);
printf ("matrix column %zu, norm = %g\n", j, d);
}
gsl_matrix_free (m);
return 0;
}
Here is the output of the program,
matrix column 0, norm = 4.31461
matrix column 1, norm = 3.1205
matrix column 2, norm = 2.19316
matrix column 3, norm = 3.26114
matrix column 4, norm = 2.53416
matrix column 5, norm = 2.57281
matrix column 6, norm = 4.20469
matrix column 7, norm = 3.65202
matrix column 8, norm = 2.08524
matrix column 9, norm = 3.07313
The results can be confirmed using GNU octave:
$ octave
GNU Octave, version 2.0.16.92
octave> m = sin(0:9)' * ones(1,10)
+ ones(10,1) * cos(0:9);
octave> sqrt(sum(m.^2))
ans =
4.3146 3.1205 2.1932 3.2611 2.5342 2.5728
4.2047 3.6520 2.0852 3.0731
References and Further Reading¶
The block, vector and matrix objects in GSL follow the valarray
model of C++. A description of this model can be found in the following
reference,
B. Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language (3rd Ed), Section 22.4 Vector Arithmetic. AddisonWesley 1997, ISBN 0201889544.
Footnotes
 1
Range checking is available in the GNU C Compiler boundschecking extension, but it is not part of the default installation of GCC. Memory accesses can also be checked with Valgrind or the
gcc fmudflap
memory protection option.