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The reference for the IEEE standard is,

- ANSI/IEEE Std 754-1985, IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic.

A more pedagogical introduction to the standard can be found in the following paper,

- David Goldberg: What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About
Floating-Point Arithmetic. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 23, No. 1
(March 1991), pages 5–48.
Corrigendum: ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 1991), page 413. and see also the sections by B. A. Wichmann and Charles B. Dunham in Surveyor’s Forum: “What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic”. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 24, No. 3 (September 1992), page 319.

A detailed textbook on IEEE arithmetic and its practical use is available from SIAM Press,

- Michael L. Overton, Numerical Computing with IEEE Floating Point Arithmetic, SIAM Press, ISBN 0898715717.