The reference for the IEEE standard is,
A more pedagogical introduction to the standard can be found in the following paper,
Corrigendum: ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 23, No. 3 (September 1991), page 413. and see also the sections by B. A. Wichmann and Charles B. Dunham in Surveyor's Forum: “What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic”. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 24, No. 3 (September 1992), page 319.
A detailed textbook on IEEE arithmetic and its practical use is available from SIAM Press,