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27.7 Examples

The following program demonstrates the use of the interpolation and spline functions. It computes a cubic spline interpolation of the 10-point dataset (x_i, y_i) where x_i = i + \sin(i)/2 and y_i = i + \cos(i^2) for i = 0 \dots 9.

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_errno.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_spline.h>

int
main (void)
{
  int i;
  double xi, yi, x[10], y[10];

  printf ("#m=0,S=2\n");

  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
    {
      x[i] = i + 0.5 * sin (i);
      y[i] = i + cos (i * i);
      printf ("%g %g\n", x[i], y[i]);
    }

  printf ("#m=1,S=0\n");

  {
    gsl_interp_accel *acc 
      = gsl_interp_accel_alloc ();
    gsl_spline *spline 
      = gsl_spline_alloc (gsl_interp_cspline, 10);

    gsl_spline_init (spline, x, y, 10);

    for (xi = x[0]; xi < x[9]; xi += 0.01)
      {
        yi = gsl_spline_eval (spline, xi, acc);
        printf ("%g %g\n", xi, yi);
      }
    gsl_spline_free (spline);
    gsl_interp_accel_free (acc);
  }
  return 0;
}

The output is designed to be used with the GNU plotutils graph program,

$ ./a.out > interp.dat
$ graph -T ps < interp.dat > interp.ps

The result shows a smooth interpolation of the original points. The interpolation method can be changed simply by varying the first argument of gsl_spline_alloc.

The next program demonstrates a periodic cubic spline with 4 data points. Note that the first and last points must be supplied with the same y-value for a periodic spline.

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_errno.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_spline.h>

int
main (void)
{
  int N = 4;
  double x[4] = {0.00, 0.10,  0.27,  0.30};
  double y[4] = {0.15, 0.70, -0.10,  0.15}; 
             /* Note: y[0] == y[3] for periodic data */

  gsl_interp_accel *acc = gsl_interp_accel_alloc ();
  const gsl_interp_type *t = gsl_interp_cspline_periodic; 
  gsl_spline *spline = gsl_spline_alloc (t, N);

  int i; double xi, yi;

  printf ("#m=0,S=5\n");
  for (i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
      printf ("%g %g\n", x[i], y[i]);
    }

  printf ("#m=1,S=0\n");
  gsl_spline_init (spline, x, y, N);

  for (i = 0; i <= 100; i++)
    {
      xi = (1 - i / 100.0) * x[0] + (i / 100.0) * x[N-1];
      yi = gsl_spline_eval (spline, xi, acc);
      printf ("%g %g\n", xi, yi);
    }
  
  gsl_spline_free (spline);
  gsl_interp_accel_free (acc);
  return 0;
}

The output can be plotted with GNU graph.

$ ./a.out > interp.dat
$ graph -T ps < interp.dat > interp.ps

The result shows a periodic interpolation of the original points. The slope of the fitted curve is the same at the beginning and end of the data, and the second derivative is also.


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