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The presence of an integrable singularity in the integration region causes an adaptive routine to concentrate new subintervals around the singularity. As the subintervals decrease in size the successive approximations to the integral converge in a limiting fashion. This approach to the limit can be accelerated using an extrapolation procedure. The QAGS algorithm combines adaptive bisection with the Wynn epsilon-algorithm to speed up the integration of many types of integrable singularities.
This function applies the Gauss-Kronrod 21-point integration rule adaptively until an estimate of the integral of f over (a,b) is achieved within the desired absolute and relative error limits, epsabs and epsrel. The results are extrapolated using the epsilon-algorithm, which accelerates the convergence of the integral in the presence of discontinuities and integrable singularities. The function returns the final approximation from the extrapolation, result, and an estimate of the absolute error, abserr. The subintervals and their results are stored in the memory provided by workspace. The maximum number of subintervals is given by limit, which may not exceed the allocated size of the workspace.