The QR decomposition can be extended to the rank deficient case by introducing a column permutation P,
A P = Q R
The first r columns of Q form an orthonormal basis for the range of A for a matrix with column rank r. This decomposition can also be used to convert the linear system A x = b into the triangular system R y = Q^T b, x = P y, which can be solved by back-substitution and permutation. We denote the QR decomposition with column pivoting by QRP^T since A = Q R P^T.
This function factorizes the M-by-N matrix A into the QRP^T decomposition A = Q R P^T. On output the diagonal and upper triangular part of the input matrix contain the matrix R. The permutation matrix P is stored in the permutation p. The sign of the permutation is given by signum. It has the value (-1)^n, where n is the number of interchanges in the permutation. The vector tau and the columns of the lower triangular part of the matrix A contain the Householder coefficients and vectors which encode the orthogonal matrix Q. The vector tau must be of length k=\min(M,N). The matrix Q is related to these components by, Q = Q_k ... Q_2 Q_1 where Q_i = I - \tau_i v_i v_i^T and v_i is the Householder vector v_i = (0,...,1,A(i+1,i),A(i+2,i),...,A(m,i)). This is the same storage scheme as used by lapack. The vector norm is a workspace of length N used for column pivoting.
The algorithm used to perform the decomposition is Householder QR with column pivoting (Golub & Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Algorithm 5.4.1).
This function factorizes the matrix A into the decomposition A = Q R P^T without modifying A itself and storing the output in the separate matrices q and r.
This function solves the square system A x = b using the QRP^T decomposition of A held in (QR, tau, p) which must have been computed previously by
This function solves the square system A x = b in-place using the QRP^T decomposition of A held in (QR,tau,p). On input x should contain the right-hand side b, which is replaced by the solution on output.
This function solves the square system R P^T x = Q^T b for x. It can be used when the QR decomposition of a matrix is available in unpacked form as (Q, R).
This function performs a rank-1 update w v^T of the QRP^T decomposition (Q, R, p). The update is given by Q'R' = Q (R + w v^T P) where the output matrices Q' and R' are also orthogonal and right triangular. Note that w is destroyed by the update. The permutation p is not changed.
This function solves the triangular system R P^T x = b for the N-by-N matrix R contained in QR.
This function solves the triangular system R P^T x = b in-place for the N-by-N matrix R contained in QR. On input x should contain the right-hand side b, which is replaced by the solution on output.