When using the low level procedures to do your dynamic linking, you have complete control over which library is loaded when and what gets done with it.
Find the shared library denoted by library (a string) and link it into the running Guile application. When everything works out, return a Scheme object suitable for representing the linked object file. Otherwise an error is thrown. How object files are searched is system dependent.
Normally, library is just the name of some shared library file that will be searched for in the places where shared libraries usually reside, such as in /usr/lib and /usr/local/lib.
#tif obj is a dynamic library handle, or
Unlink the indicated object file from the application. The argument dobj must have been obtained by a call to
dynamic-unlinkhas been called on dobj, its content is no longer accessible.
Search the dynamic object dobj for the C function indicated by the string name and return some Scheme handle that can later be used with
dynamic-callto actually call the function.
Regardless whether your C compiler prepends an underscore ‘_’ to the global names in a program, you should not include this underscore in function. Guile knows whether the underscore is needed or not and will add it when necessary.
Call the C function indicated by func and dobj. The function is passed no arguments and its return value is ignored. When function is something returned by
dynamic-func, call that function and ignore dobj. When func is a string , look it up in dynobj; this is equivalent to(dynamic-call (dynamic-func func dobj) #f)
Interrupts are deferred while the C function is executing (with
Call the C function indicated by func and dobj, just like
dynamic-call, but pass it some arguments and return its return value. The C function is expected to take two arguments and return an
int, just like
main:int c_func (int argc, char **argv);
The parameter args must be a list of strings and is converted into an array of
char *. The array is passed in argv and its size in argc. The return value is converted to a Scheme number and returned from the call to
When dynamic linking is disabled or not supported on your system, the above functions throw errors, but they are still available.
Here is a small example that works on GNU/Linux:
(define libc-obj (dynamic-link "libc.so")) libc-obj ⇒ #<dynamic-object "libc.so"> (dynamic-args-call 'rand libc-obj '()) ⇒ 269167349 (dynamic-unlink libc-obj) libc-obj ⇒ #<dynamic-object "libc.so" (unlinked)>
As you can see, after calling
dynamic-unlink on a dynamically
linked library, it is marked as ‘(unlinked)’ and you are no longer
able to use it with
dynamic-call, etc. Whether the library is
really removed from you program is system-dependent and will generally
not happen when some other parts of your program still use it. In the
libc is almost certainly not removed from your
program because it is badly needed by almost everything.
The functions to call a function from a dynamically linked library,
dynamic-args-call, are not very powerful.
They are mostly intended to be used for calling specially written
initialization functions that will then add new primitives to Guile.
For example, we do not expect that you will dynamically link
dynamic-link and then construct a beautiful
graphical user interface just by using
dynamic-args-call. Instead, the usual way would be to write a
special Guile<->X11 glue library that has intimate knowledge about both
Guile and X11 and does whatever is necessary to make them inter-operate
smoothly. This glue library could then be dynamically linked into a
vanilla Guile interpreter and activated by calling its initialization
function. That function would add all the new types and primitives to
the Guile interpreter that it has to offer.
From this setup the next logical step is to integrate these glue libraries into the module system of Guile so that you can load new primitives into a running system just as you can load new Scheme code.
There is, however, another possibility to get a more thorough access to
the functions contained in a dynamically linked library. Anthony Green
has written libffi, a library that implements a foreign
function interface for a number of different platforms. With it, you
can extend the Spartan functionality of
dynamic-args-call considerably. There is glue code available in
the Guile contrib archive to make libffi accessible from Guile.