(web server) is a generic web server interface, along with a main
loop implementation for web servers controlled by Guile.
(use-modules (web server))
The lowest layer is the
<server-impl> object, which defines a set
of hooks to open a server, read a request from a client, write a
response to a client, and close a server. These hooks –
close, respectively – are bound
together in a
<server-impl> object. Procedures in this module take a
<server-impl> object, if needed.
<server-impl> may also be looked up by name. If you pass the
http symbol to
run-server, Guile looks for a variable
http in the
(web server http) module, which should
be bound to a
<server-impl> object. Such a binding is made by
instantiation of the
define-server-impl syntax. In this way the
run-server loop can automatically load other backends if available.
The life cycle of a server goes as follows:
openhook is called, to open the server.
opentakes zero or more arguments, depending on the backend, and returns an opaque server socket object, or signals an error.
readhook is called, to read a request from a new client. The
readhook takes one argument, the server socket. It should return three values: an opaque client socket, the request, and the request body. The request should be a
(web request). The body should be a string or a bytevector, or
#fif there is no body.
If the read failed, the
read hook may return #f for the client
socket, request, and body.
(web response), and the response body as bytevector, or
#fif not present.
The respose and response body are run through
documented below. This allows the handler writer to take some
convenient shortcuts: for example, instead of a
handler can simply return an alist of headers, in which case a default
response object is constructed with those headers. Instead of a
bytevector for the body, the handler can return a string, which will be
serialized into an appropriate encoding; or it can return a procedure,
which will be called on a port to write out the data. See the
sanitize-response documentation, for more.
writehook is called with three arguments: the client socket, the response, and the body. The
writehook returns no values.
closehook is called on the server socket.
A user may define a server implementation with the following form:
<server-impl> object with the hooks open,
read, write, and close, and bind it to the symbol
name in the current module.
Look up a server implementation. If impl is a server
implementation already, it is returned directly. If it is a symbol, the
binding named impl in the
(web server impl) module is
looked up. Otherwise an error is signaled.
Currently a server implementation is a somewhat opaque type, useful only
for passing to other procedures in this module, like
(web server) module defines a number of routines that use
<server-impl> objects to implement parts of a web server. Given
that we don’t expose the accessors for the various fields of a
<server-impl>, indeed these routines are the only procedures with
any access to the impl objects.
Open a server for the given implementation. Return one value, the new
server object. The implementation’s
open procedure is applied to
open-params, which should be a list.
Read a new client from server, by applying the implementation’s
read procedure to the server. If successful, return three
values: an object corresponding to the client, a request object, and the
request body. If any exception occurs, return
#f for all three
Handle a given request, returning the response and body.
The response and response body are produced by calling the given handler with request and body as arguments.
The elements of state are also passed to handler as arguments, and may be returned as additional values. The new state, collected from the handler’s return values, is then returned as a list. The idea is that a server loop receives a handler from the user, along with whatever state values the user is interested in, allowing the user’s handler to explicitly manage its state.
“Sanitize” the given response and body, making them appropriate for the given request.
As a convenience to web handler authors, response may be given as
an alist of headers, in which case it is used to construct a default
response. Ensures that the response version corresponds to the request
version. If body is a string, encodes the string to a bytevector,
in an encoding appropriate for response. Adds a
content-type header, as necessary.
If body is a procedure, it is called with a port as an argument, and the output collected as a bytevector. In the future we might try to instead use a compressing, chunk-encoded port, and call this procedure later, in the write-client procedure. Authors are advised not to rely on the procedure being called at any particular time.
Write an HTTP response and body to client. If the server and client support persistent connections, it is the implementation’s responsibility to keep track of the client thereafter, presumably by attaching it to the server argument somehow.
Release resources allocated by a previous invocation of
Given the procedures above, it is a small matter to make a web server:
Read one request from server, call handler on the request and body, and write the response to the client. Return the new state produced by the handler procedure.
Run Guile’s built-in web server.
handler should be a procedure that takes two or more arguments, the HTTP request and request body, and returns two or more values, the response and response body.
For examples, skip ahead to the next section, Web Examples.
The response and body will be run through
before sending back to the client.
Additional arguments to handler are taken from arg .... These arguments comprise a state. Additional return values are accumulated into a new state, which will be used for subsequent requests. In this way a handler can explicitly manage its state.
The default web server implementation is
http, which binds to a
socket, listening for request on that port.
The default HTTP implementation. We document it as a function with
keyword arguments, because that is precisely the way that it is – all
of the open-params to
run-server get passed to the
implementation’s open function.
;; The defaults: localhost:8080 (run-server handler) ;; Same thing (run-server handler 'http '()) ;; On a different port (run-server handler 'http '(#:port 8081)) ;; IPv6 (run-server handler 'http '(#:family AF_INET6 #:port 8081)) ;; Custom socket (run-server handler 'http `(#:socket ,(sudo-make-me-a-socket)))