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4.1 Defining Packages

The high-level interface to package definitions is implemented in the (guix packages) and (guix build-system) modules. As an example, the package definition, or recipe, for the GNU Hello package looks like this:

(define-module (gnu packages hello)
  #:use-module (guix packages)
  #:use-module (guix download)
  #:use-module (guix build-system gnu)
  #:use-module (guix licenses))

(define-public hello
  (package
    (name "hello")
    (version "2.8")
    (source (origin
             (method url-fetch)
             (uri (string-append "mirror://gnu/hello/hello-" version
                                 ".tar.gz"))
             (sha256
              (base32 "0wqd8sjmxfskrflaxywc7gqw7sfawrfvdxd9skxawzfgyy0pzdz6"))))
    (build-system gnu-build-system)
    (arguments `(#:configure-flags '("--enable-silent-rules")))
    (inputs `(("gawk" ,gawk)))
    (synopsis "Hello, GNU world: An example GNU package")
    (description "Guess what GNU Hello prints!")
    (home-page "http://www.gnu.org/software/hello/")
    (license gpl3+)))

Without being a Scheme expert, the reader may have guessed the meaning of the various fields here. This expression binds variable hello to a <package> object, which is essentially a record (see Scheme records in GNU Guile Reference Manual). This package object can be inspected using procedures found in the (guix packages) module; for instance, (package-name hello) returns—surprise!—"hello".

With luck, you may be able to import part or all of the definition of the package you are interested in from another repository, using the guix import command (see Invoking guix import).

In the example above, hello is defined into a module of its own, (gnu packages hello). Technically, this is not strictly necessary, but it is convenient to do so: all the packages defined in modules under (gnu packages …) are automatically known to the command-line tools (see Package Modules).

There are a few points worth noting in the above package definition:

Once a package definition is in place, the package may actually be built using the guix build command-line tool (see Invoking guix build). See Packaging Guidelines, for more information on how to test package definitions, and Invoking guix lint, for information on how to check a definition for style conformance.

Eventually, updating the package definition to a new upstream version can be partly automated by the guix refresh command (see Invoking guix refresh).

Behind the scenes, a derivation corresponding to the <package> object is first computed by the package-derivation procedure. That derivation is stored in a .drv file under /gnu/store. The build actions it prescribes may then be realized by using the build-derivations procedure (see The Store).

Scheme Procedure: package-derivation store package [system]

Return the <derivation> object of package for system (see Derivations).

package must be a valid <package> object, and system must be a string denoting the target system type—e.g., "x86_64-linux" for an x86_64 Linux-based GNU system. store must be a connection to the daemon, which operates on the store (see The Store).

Similarly, it is possible to compute a derivation that cross-builds a package for some other system:

Scheme Procedure: package-cross-derivation store package target [system]

Return the <derivation> object of package cross-built from system to target.

target must be a valid GNU triplet denoting the target hardware and operating system, such as "mips64el-linux-gnu" (see GNU configuration triplets in GNU Configure and Build System).


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