This page is initially taken from http://perso.ens-lyon.fr/alexandre.buisse/hurd.html with the following signature:
04-02-2005 Alexandre Buisse
Send any comments or ameliorations to Nattfodd@gmailNOSPAM.com
This is a howto on how to get a working image of Hurd/L4 with qemu, on ia32 arch.
You will need the following :
- automake 1.7 (or greater)
- autoconf 2.53 (or greater)
- the CVS version of hurd-l4, which you can retrieve from the savannah server:
cvs -z3 -d:pserver:email@example.com:/sources/hurd co hurd-l4
- two flavours of Pistachio, the L4 kernel, which can be found at http://www.l4ka.org/projects/pistachio/download.php. Take the demodisk for ia32 (
pistachio-ia32-0.4-demodisk.bin.bz2), we'll checkout the CVS later (the 0.4 tarball isn't recent enough).
We will begin with the hurd itself (these steps are taken from the
$ cd hurd-l4 $ autoreconf -f -i -s
You shouldn't have any warnings with this autoreconf. If that is not the case, it probably hasn't used the good version of automake or autoconf. For instance, on Gentoo Linux, you must set WANT_AUTOCONF to 2.5 and WANT_AUTOMAKE to 1.7.
$ ./configure --enable-maintainer-mode --prefix=/l4 $ make $ make install $ mkdir /l4/boot $ install -s laden/laden /l4/boot $ install -s wortel/wortel /l4/boot $ install -s physmem/physmem /l4/boot $ install -s task/task /l4/boot $ install -s deva/deva /l4/boot $ install -s ruth/ruth /l4/boot
Now we'll prepare the Pistachio kernel :
$ cd .. $ cvs -d:pserver:guest:firstname.lastname@example.org:/public-cvs login $ cvs -z3 -d:pserver:email@example.com:/public-cvs co pistachio $ cd pistachio
We must apply some patchs for it to work properly with The Hurd. They are located in
$ patch -p1 < ../hurd-l4/README
We will first compile sigma0 (and some other tools) :
$ cd user $ autoreconf -f -i -s $ mkdir BUILDDIR $ cd BUILDDIR
We need to change the linkbase of sigma0 :
$ ../configure --with-s0-linkbase=0x40000 --prefix=/l4 $ make $ make install
And now the kernel itself :
$ cd ../../kernel
You can use any builddir as long as the directory doesn't yet exist.
$ make BUILDDIR=/tmp/pistachio-build $ cd /tmp/pistachio-build $ vi Makeconf.local
You should modify the first three lines to :
ARCH=ia32 CPU=i586 PLATFORM=pc99
$ make menuconfig
Set the options as they fit you but for qemu to work, you must have the following hardware :
IA32 Basic Architecture Pentium1 Processor Type
You can now:
You should obtain a file named ia32-kernel into your build directory.
$ cp ia32-kernel /l4/boot $ cp /l4/libexec/l4/sigma0 /l4/boot
We now have to modify a little bit the demodisk to use the kernel and servers we just obtained :
$ mkdir qemu $ mkdir qemu/image $ cd qemu $ cp ~/pistachio-ia32-0.4-demodisk.bin.bz2 . $ bunzip2 pistachio-ia32-0.4-demodisk.bin.bz2 $ mount -o loop pistachio-ia32-0.4-demodisk.bin image $ cd image/boot $ cp /l4/boot/* . $ cd grub $ vi menu.lst
Your should edit
menu.lst to make it look like :
title GNU Hurd on L4 kernel /boot/laden -D -o serial,uart1,speed=9600 module /boot/ia32-kernel module /boot/sigma0 module /boot/wortel -D -o serial,uart1,speed=9600 module /boot/physmem module /boot/task module /boot/deva module /boot/task module /boot/ruth
The two -D are intended for debug, you can delete them if you want. It is possible that filenames are limited to 8 characters, check your image/boot directory for ia32-kernel. If it has been renamed into ia32-ker, modify the according line in menu.lst
When you start qemu, you will have two windows : the shell from which you launched it and a VGA window. You can interact with L4 in both windows (switching with the
config/console command in the debugger). You can choose to have wortel and laden output to the serial device (the shell), which is default behaviour, or to VGA (change
-o serial,urt1,speed=9600 by
-o vga in your menu.lst).
The image is now ready :
$ cd ../../../ $ umount image
We can launch qemu:
$ qemu -dummy-net -serial stdio -fda pistachio-ia32-0.4-demodisk.bin -boot a
Congratulations, you just booted Hurd/L4 ! To start the Kernel Debugger, press
ESC. To switch the KDB mode from character (I find it unusable) to command line, type
> c /conf> m
Everything went fine, and Hurd/L4 should have shown you a nice boot on our floppy image. Our next step will be to make banner run and show us its nice ASCII Art on this brand new OS.
However, there is one problem : banner linked with the libc weights about 6MB, and we only have a 1.44MB floppy. We will then begin with making an image of a whole hard disk instead of a simple floppy.
We still will work with qemu, of course, but we'll also use Bochs to install Grub on the image (I have not yet tried with qemu).
To begin with, some mathematics. We'll make a 30MB image but you can adapt this value to your need. A disk is made of heads, cylinders and sectors (we won't go in detail about what these really mean). A sector has a constant size of 512 bytes and there are at most 255 heads and 63 sectors. The total size of a disk is C * H * S * 512. We'll use the maximum capacity for S and 16 sectors and that will give us how much cylinders we need : C = E(30,000,000 / (16 * 63 * 512)) = 58. The exact size of our image will then be : 58 * 16 * 63 * 512 = 29,933,568 bytes and we will have 58 * 16 * 63 = 58464 pieces of 512 bytes.
Let's create it : we use the magic command
dd on the special device which contain an infinity of 0.
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=hurd_l4.img bs=512 count=58464 58464+0 records in 58464+0 records out
We will mount it in loopback :
$ losetup /dev/loop0 hurd_l4.img
We need now to have it recognized as a hard disk :
$ fdisk -u -C58 -S63 -H16 /dev/loop0 Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable. Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite) Command (m for help):
We should create a new primary partition (press:
'1', default, default) and toggle it bootable (
'1'). Now, if you press
'p', you should see something like :
Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/loop0: 29 MB, 29933568 bytes 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 58 cylinders, total 58464 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/loop0p1 * 63 58463 29200+ 83 Linux
If everything is fine (especially check the
End fields), you can press
'w' to write the table on the disk:
Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table. WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 22: Invalid argument. The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at the next reboot. Syncing disks.
You will have noticed that the partition only starts at the 63rd sector. The beginning of the disk contains the MBR which is used for booting. We must then remount the disk making sure that this part is skipped before formating it. We know that a sector uses 512 bytes so we should begin at 63 * 512 = 32256 :
$ losetup -d /dev/loop0 $ losetup -o32256 /dev/loop0 hurd_l4.img
Now comes time to format it into a decent filesystem :
$ mke2fs /dev/loop0 mke2fs 1.35 (28-Feb-2004) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=1024 (log=0) Fragment size=1024 (log=0) 7328 inodes, 29200 blocks 1460 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=1 4 block groups 8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group 1832 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 8193, 24577 Writing inode tables: done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 22 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
We should now be able to mount it the right way :
$ mkdir mnt $ losetup -d /dev/loop0 $ mount -o loop,offset=32256 hurd_l4.img mnt/
Here comes grub time (I assume you have the grub files in
/boot/grub and the
menu.lst we've obtained in the previous section is in
$ mkdir -p mnt/boot/grub $ cp /boot/grub/stage1 /boot/grub/stage2 /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 mnt/boot/grub/ $ cp ~/menu.lst mnt/boot/grub
We will make a grub bootimage and boot it with bochs :
$ cat stage1 stage2 > grubboot.img
Copy the following into
.bochsrc (replace the parts in caps by the right info) :
config_interface: textconfig display_library: x romimage: file=/usr/share/bochs/BIOS-bochs-latest, address=0xf0000 megs: 32 vgaromimage: /usr/share/bochs/VGABIOS-elpin-2.40 floppya: 1_44=PATH_TO_YOUR_GRUBBOOT_IMAGE, status=inserted ata0: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x1f0, ioaddr2=0x3f0, irq=14 ata1: enabled=0, ioaddr1=0x170, ioaddr2=0x370, irq=15 ata0-master: type=disk, path="PATH_TO_YOUR_DISK_IMAGE", cylinders=NUMBER_OF_CYLINDERS, heads=16, spt=63 newharddrivesupport: enabled=1 boot: a log: /dev/stdout panic: action=ask error: action=report info: action=report debug: action=ignore debugger_log: - com1: enabled=1, dev=/dev/ttyS0 vga_update_interval: 300000 keyboard_serial_delay: 250 keyboard_paste_delay: 100000 floppy_command_delay: 500 ips: 1000000 mouse: enabled=0 private_colormap: enabled=0 fullscreen: enabled=0 screenmode: name="sample" keyboard_mapping: enabled=0, map=/usr/share/bochs/keymaps/x11-pc-fr.map i440fxsupport: enabled=0
And start Bochs with this configuration :
$ bochs -qf .bochsrc
When asked, choose
5. begin simulation. It is possible that you enter first into a debugger, answer
'c' to make it continue. You should see a grub commandline. Tell it to install grub on the disk :
grub> root (hd0,0) Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83 grub> setup (hd0) Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes Checking if "/boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5" exists... yes Running "embed /boot/grub/e2fs_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 15 sectors are embedded. succeeded Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+15 p (hd0,0)/boot/grub/stage2/boot/grub/menu.lst"... succeeded. Done.
Quit by pressing
^C q in the shell from which you launched bochs. Our image is now ready. Copy all the releving files in
mnt/boot like for the floppy and then umount it and launch qemu :
$ cp /l4/boot/* mnt/boot/ $ umount mnt $ qemu -serial stdio -dummy-net -hda hurd_l4.img -boot c
Still under construction but you should have no problems following
hurd-l4/libc/README now that the hdd image works.
--- 05 Feb 2005
I didn't bother to licence it as it is so small, but consider it is under some sort of creative commons that allows redistribution and modification.
-- Alexandre Buisse < nattfodd@gmailNOSPAM.com >
--- 05 Feb 2005
Comments from Marcus Brinkmann:
Thanks a lot for that. Some comments:
$ ../configure --with-s0-linkbase=0x40000 --prefix=/l4
I'd recommend to explain how to use
--without-com0here (or whatever it is called, don't remember) to choose VGA output, or how to configure the serial port. If you use vga, no
-ooption to laden and wortel should be used so you get all output on vga (but of course you can also mix it, whatever you want).
Serial 1 is currently going to be used for remote debugging of userland apps.
QEMU supports up to four serial ports, I use:
-serial ptyand then I get the debugging output and kernel debugger in the terminal I started qemu in, and can use the pty for remote debugging with gdb (the latter doesn't work yet).
You should modify the first three lines to : ARCH=ia32 CPU=i586 PLATFORM=pc99
I never did that. I did change the menu item Processor Type to Pentium1 though. Maybe it has the same effect (and then your document would be a bit redundant here).
Somebody should at some point document all those menu options, some are quite useful for debugging!
--- 05 Feb 2005
I've been doing this sort of thing (See also
info grub for making bootable eltorito grub cd ISOs):
$ cd /usr/src/controlled/qemu-images $ ls -R l4 ls -R l4 l4: boot deva ia32-kernel laden physmem sigma0 task wortel l4/boot: grub l4/boot/grub: menu.lst stage2_eltorito $ cd /usr/src/controlled/qemu-images # dir above "l4" dir. $ mkisofs -R -b boot/grub/stage2_eltorito -no-emul-boot \ -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \ -o /usr/src/controlled/qemu-images/l4.iso l4 $ qemu -boot d -cdrom /usr/src/controlled/qemu-images/l4.iso
--- 07 Feb 2005
You don't need a compiler targeting the Hurd. The above works with a compiler targeting Linux which are quite a bit easier to find. By adding "--target=i686-unknown-linux-gnu" to my configure line, I was able to cross compile hurd-l4 from Cygwin.
--- 22 Feb 2005
A bootable CD iso image is now available at http://gnuppix.org
--- 03 Mar 2005
Included the anonymous password in the CVSROOT for L4.
--- 19 Mar 2005
I was able to use qemu instead of bochs to install grub on the new disk image. Just use:
qemu -dummy-net -serial stdio -fda grubboot.img -hda hurd_l4.img -boot a
and then the commands to type in the grub shell are the same.
--- 05 May 2005