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1 Introduction

The GNU Network Utilities is a distribution of common networking utilities and servers, including for example ping, traceroute and ftp.

This manual is a work in progress: many sections make no attempt to explain basic concepts in a way suitable for novices. Thus, if you are interested, please get involved in improving this manual. The entire GNU community will benefit.

Please report bugs to Remember to include the version number, machine architecture, input files, and any other information needed to reproduce the bug: your input, what you expected, what you got, and why it is wrong. Diffs are welcome, but please include a description of the problem as well, since this is sometimes difficult to infer.

The individual utilities were originally derived from the 4.4BSDLite2 distribution, although some of them have more or less been rewritten. What you are reading now is the authoritative and complete documentation for these utilities; the man pages are now automatically generated.

Many features were integrated from NetBSD, OpenBSD, FreeBSD and GNU/Linux, the merges were done by a group of dedicated hackers (in no particular order): Jeff Bailey, Marcus Brinkmann, Michael Vogt, Bernhard Rosenkraenzer, Kaveh R. Ghazi, NIIBE Yutaka, Nathan Neulinger, Jeff Smith, Dan Stromberg, David O’Shea, Frederic Goudal, Gerald Combs, Joachim Gabler, Marco D’Itri, Sergey Poznyakoff, and many more.