The ‘str’ functions are declared in stdlib.h and those
beginning with ‘wcs’ are declared in wchar.h. One might
wonder about the use of
restrict in the prototypes of the
functions in this section. It is seemingly useless but the ISO C
standard uses it (for the functions defined there) so we have to do it
strtod(“string-to-double”) function converts the initial part of string to a floating-point number, which is returned as a value of type
This function attempts to decompose string as follows:
- A (possibly empty) sequence of whitespace characters. Which characters are whitespace is determined by the
isspacefunction (see Classification of Characters). These are discarded.
- An optional plus or minus sign (‘+’ or ‘-’).
- A floating point number in decimal or hexadecimal format. The decimal format is:
- A nonempty sequence of digits optionally containing a decimal-point character—normally ‘.’, but it depends on the locale (see General Numeric).
- An optional exponent part, consisting of a character ‘e’ or ‘E’, an optional sign, and a sequence of digits.
The hexadecimal format is as follows:
- A 0x or 0X followed by a nonempty sequence of hexadecimal digits optionally containing a decimal-point character—normally ‘.’, but it depends on the locale (see General Numeric).
- An optional binary-exponent part, consisting of a character ‘p’ or ‘P’, an optional sign, and a sequence of digits.
- Any remaining characters in the string. If tailptr is not a null pointer, a pointer to this tail of the string is stored in
If the string is empty, contains only whitespace, or does not contain an initial substring that has the expected syntax for a floating-point number, no conversion is performed. In this case,
strtodreturns a value of zero and the value returned in
*tailptr is the value of string.
In a locale other than the standard
"POSIX"locales, this function may recognize additional locale-dependent syntax.
If the string has valid syntax for a floating-point number but the value is outside the range of a
strtodwill signal overflow or underflow as described in Math Error Reporting.
strtodrecognizes four special input strings. The strings
"infinity"are converted to ∞, or to the largest representable value if the floating-point format doesn't support infinities. You can prepend a
"-"to specify the sign. Case is ignored when scanning these strings.
)"are converted to NaN. Again, case is ignored. If chars... are provided, they are used in some unspecified fashion to select a particular representation of NaN (there can be several).
Since zero is a valid result as well as the value returned on error, you should check for errors in the same way as for
strtol, by examining errno and tailptr.
— Function: long double strtold (const char *string, char **tailptr)
These functions are analogous to
strtod, but return
long doublevalues respectively. They report errors in the same way as
strtofcan be substantially faster than
strtod, but has less precision; conversely,
strtoldcan be much slower but has more precision (on systems where
long doubleis a separate type).
These functions have been GNU extensions and are new to ISO C99.
— Function: float wcstof (const wchar_t *string, wchar_t **tailptr)
— Function: long double wcstold (const wchar_t *string, wchar_t **tailptr)
wcstolfunctions are equivalent in nearly all aspect to the
strtoldfunctions but it handles wide character string.
wcstodfunction was introduced in Amendment 1 of ISO C90. The
wcstoldfunctions were introduced in ISO C99.
This function is similar to the
strtodfunction, except that it need not detect overflow and underflow errors. The
atoffunction is provided mostly for compatibility with existing code; using
strtodis more robust.
The GNU C Library also provides ‘_l’ versions of these functions, which take an additional argument, the locale to use in conversion. See Parsing of Integers.