Some applications may need to read or write data to multiple buffers,
which are separated in memory. Although this can be done easily enough
with multiple calls to
write, it is inefficient
because there is overhead associated with each kernel call.
Instead, many platforms provide special high-speed primitives to perform
these scatter-gather operations in a single kernel call. The GNU C Library
will provide an emulation on any system that lacks these
primitives, so they are not a portability threat. They are defined in
These functions are controlled with arrays of
which describe the location and size of each buffer.
iovecstructure describes a buffer. It contains two fields:
- Contains the address of a buffer.
- Contains the length of the buffer.
readvfunction reads data from filedes and scatters it into the buffers described in vector, which is taken to be count structures long. As each buffer is filled, data is sent to the next.
readvis not guaranteed to fill all the buffers. It may stop at any point, for the same reasons
The return value is a count of bytes (not buffers) read, 0 indicating end-of-file, or -1 indicating an error. The possible errors are the same as in
writevfunction gathers data from the buffers described in vector, which is taken to be count structures long, and writes them to
filedes. As each buffer is written, it moves on to the next.
writevmay stop midstream under the same conditions
The return value is a count of bytes written, or -1 indicating an error. The possible errors are the same as in
Note that if the buffers are small (under about 1kB), high-level streams
may be easier to use than these functions. However,
writev are more efficient when the individual buffers themselves
(as opposed to the total output), are large. In that case, a high-level
stream would not be able to cache the data effectively.