sleep gives a simple way to make the program wait
for a short interval. If your program doesn't use signals (except to
terminate), then you can expect
sleep to wait reliably throughout
the specified interval. Otherwise,
sleep can return sooner if a
signal arrives; if you want to wait for a given interval regardless of
select (see Waiting for I/O) and don't specify
any descriptors to wait for.
sleepfunction waits for seconds or until a signal is delivered, whichever happens first.
sleepfunction returns because the requested interval is over, it returns a value of zero. If it returns because of delivery of a signal, its return value is the remaining time in the sleep interval.
sleepfunction is declared in unistd.h.
Resist the temptation to implement a sleep for a fixed amount of time by
using the return value of
sleep, when nonzero, to call
sleep again. This will work with a certain amount of accuracy as
long as signals arrive infrequently. But each signal can cause the
eventual wakeup time to be off by an additional second or so. Suppose a
few signals happen to arrive in rapid succession by bad luck—there is
no limit on how much this could shorten or lengthen the wait.
Instead, compute the calendar time at which the program should stop
waiting, and keep trying to wait until that calendar time. This won't
be off by more than a second. With just a little more work, you can use
select and make the waiting period quite accurate. (Of course,
heavy system load can cause additional unavoidable delays—unless the
machine is dedicated to one application, there is no way you can avoid
On some systems,
sleep can do strange things if your program uses
SIGALRM explicitly. Even if
SIGALRM signals are being
ignored or blocked when
sleep is called,
return prematurely on delivery of a
SIGALRM signal. If you have
established a handler for
SIGALRM signals and a
signal is delivered while the process is sleeping, the action taken
might be just to cause
sleep to return instead of invoking your
handler. And, if
sleep is interrupted by delivery of a signal
whose handler requests an alarm or alters the handling of
this handler and
sleep will interfere.
On GNU systems, it is safe to use
the same program, because
sleep does not work by means of
If resolution to seconds is not enough the
nanosleepfunction can be used. As the name suggests the sleep interval can be specified in nanoseconds. The actual elapsed time of the sleep interval might be longer since the system rounds the elapsed time you request up to the next integer multiple of the actual resolution the system can deliver.
requested_timeis the elapsed time of the interval you want to sleep.
The function returns as *
remainingthe elapsed time left in the interval for which you requested to sleep. If the interval completed without getting interrupted by a signal, this is zero.
struct timespecis described in See Elapsed Time.
If the function returns because the interval is over the return value is zero. If the function returns -1 the global variable errno is set to the following values:
- The call was interrupted because a signal was delivered to the thread. If the remaining parameter is not the null pointer the structure pointed to by remaining is updated to contain the remaining elapsed time.
- The nanosecond value in the requested_time parameter contains an illegal value. Either the value is negative or greater than or equal to 1000 million.
This function is a cancellation point in multi-threaded programs. This is a problem if the thread allocates some resources (like memory, file descriptors, semaphores or whatever) at the time
nanosleepis called. If the thread gets canceled these resources stay allocated until the program ends. To avoid this calls to
nanosleepshould be protected using cancellation handlers.
nanosleepfunction is declared in time.h.