This file documents GNU `libmatheval' library.
Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012
Aleksandar Samardzic
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being "Rationale and history", with no Front-Cover
Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled "Copying".
GNU `libmatheval' manual
************************
GNU `libmatheval' is small library of procedures for evaluating
mathematical functions. This manual documents how to use the library;
this is manual edition 1.1.9, last updated 22 September 2012,
corresponding to library version 1.1.9.
License
*******
GNU libmatheval is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.
GNU libmatheval is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU libmatheval. If not, see .
1 Introduction
**************
GNU `libmatheval' is library comprising several procedures that makes
possible to create in-memory tree representation of mathematical
functions over single or multiple variables and later use this
representation to evaluate function for specified variable values, to
create corresponding tree for function derivative over specified
variable or to get back textual representation of in-memory tree.
This section discuss use of programming interface exposed by library
from C programs. Readers interested in Fortran interface should switch
immediately to *note Fortran interface:: section.
In order to use GNU `libmatheval' library from C code, it is
necessary first to include header file `matheval.h' from all files
calling GNU `libmatheval' procedures and then refer to `libmatheval'
library among other linker option. Thus, command to compile C program
using library and stored in file `example.c' using GNU C compiler would
look like (supposing that library is installed using default prefix
`/usr/local/lib'):
gcc example.c -I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib -lmatheval -o example
Alternatively, `pkg-config' metadata file for `libmatheval' is
installed along with the library too, thus on system with `pkg-config'
installed following command could be used instead:
gcc example.c $(pkg-config --cflags --libs) -o example
First step in actually utilizing library after including appropriate
header file would be to declare variable of `void *' type to point to
evaluator object that will represent given mathematical function:
void *f;
Then, given that textual representation of function is stored into
string `buffer', evaluator object corresponding to given mathematical
function could be created using `evaluator_create' procedure (see *note
evaluator_create::) as follows (see documentation for this procedure
also for description of notation that should be used to describe
mathematical functions):
f = evaluator_create (buffer);
assert (f);
Return value should be always checked, because above procedure will
return null pointer if there exist syntax errors in notation. After
that, one could utilize `evaluator_get_variables' (see *note
evaluator_get_variables::) procedure to obtain a list of variable names
appearing in function:
{
char **names;
int count;
int i;
evaluator_get_variables (f, &names, &count);
for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
printf ("%s ", names[i]);
printf ("\n");
}
Procedure `evaluator_evaluate' (see *note evaluator_evaluate::)
could be used to evaluate function for specific variable values. Say
that above function is over variable "x" only, then following code will
evaluate and print function value for x = 0.1:
{
char *names[] = { "x" };
double values[] = { 0.1 };
printf ("f(0.1) = %g\n", evaluator_evaluate (f, 1, names,
values));
}
Or alternatively, since function is over variable with standard name
"x", convenience procedure `evaluator_evaluate_x' (*note
evaluator_evaluate_x::) could be used to accomplish same by following:
printf ("f(0.1) = %g\n", evaluator_evaluate_x (f, 0.1));
Evaluator object for function derivative over some variable could be
created from evaluator object for given function. In order to
accomplish this, a declaration for derivative evaluator object should
be added to variable declarations section:
void *f_prim;
After that (supposing that "x" is used as derivation variable),
derivative evaluator object could be created using
`evaluator_derivative' procedure (see *note evaluator_derivative::):
f_prim = evaluator_derivative (f, "x");
or alternatively using `evaluator_derivative_x' convenience
procedure (see *note evaluator_derivative_x::):
f_prim = evaluator_derivative_x (f);
Derivative evaluator object could be used to evaluate derivative
values or say textual representation of derivative could be written to
standard output through utilizing `evaluator_get_string' procedure (see
*note evaluator_get_string::) to get string representing given
evaluator. Following code would accomplish this:
printf (" f'(x) = %s\n", evaluator_get_string (f_prim));
All evaluator objects must be destroyed after finished with using
them and `evaluator_destroy' procedure (see *note evaluator_destroy::)
is intended for this:
evaluator_destroy (f);
evaluator_destroy (f_prim);
Here follows complete program connecting above fragments. Program
read from standard input string representing function over variable
"x", create evaluators for function and its first derivative, print
textual representation of function derivative to standard output, then
read value of variable "x" and finally print to standard output values
of function and its first derivative for given value of variable "x".
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
/* Size of input buffer. */
#define BUFFER_SIZE 256
/* Program is demonstrating use of GNU libmatheval library of procedures
for evaluating mathematical functions. */
int
main (int argc, char **argv)
{
char buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; /* Input buffer. */
int length; /* Length of above buffer. */
void *f, *f_prim; /* Evaluators for function and function derivative. */
char **names; /* Function variables names. */
int count; /* Number of function variables. */
double x; /* Variable x value. */
int i; /* Loop counter. */
/* Read function. Function has to be over variable x, or result may
be undetermined. Size of textual represenatation of function is
bounded here to 256 characters, in real conditions one should
probably use GNU readline() instead of fgets() to overcome this
limit. */
printf ("f(x) = ");
fgets (buffer, BUFFER_SIZE, stdin);
length = strlen (buffer);
if (length > 0 && buffer[length - 1] == '\n')
buffer[length - 1] = '\0';
/* Create evaluator for function. */
f = evaluator_create (buffer);
assert (f);
/* Print variable names appearing in function. */
evaluator_get_variables (f, &names, &count);
printf (" ");
for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
printf ("%s ", names[i]);
printf ("\n");
/* Create evaluator for function derivative and print textual
representation of derivative. */
f_prim = evaluator_derivative_x (f);
printf (" f'(x) = %s\n", evaluator_get_string (f_prim));
/* Read variable x value. */
printf ("x = ");
scanf ("%lf", &x);
/* Calculate and print values of function and its derivative for given
value of x. */
printf (" f(%g) = %g\n", x, evaluator_evaluate_x (f, x));
printf (" f'(%g) = %g\n", x, evaluator_evaluate_x (f_prim, x));
/* Destroy evaluators. */
evaluator_destroy (f);
evaluator_destroy (f_prim);
exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}
Above example exercise most of library main procedures (see *note
Main entry points::), as well as some of convenience procedures (see
*note Convenience procedures::). For full documentation, see *note
Reference::.
2 Reference
***********
This section documents procedures constituting GNU `libmatheval'
library. The convention is that all procedures have `evaluator_'
prefix.
2.1 Main entry points
=====================
2.1.1 `evaluator_create'
------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void *evaluator_create (char *string);
Description
...........
Create evaluator object from `string' containing mathematical
representation of function. Evaluator object could be used later to
evaluate function for specific variable values or to calculate function
derivative over some variable.
String representation of function is allowed to consist of decimal
numbers, constants, variables, elementary functions, unary and binary
operations.
Supported constants are (names that should be used are given in
parenthesis): e (`e'), log2(e) (`log2e'), log10(e) (`log10e'), ln(2)
(`ln2'), ln(10) (`ln10'), pi (`pi'), pi / 2 (`pi_2'), pi / 4 (`pi_4'),
1 / pi (`1_pi'), 2 / pi (`2_pi'), 2 / sqrt(pi) (`2_sqrtpi'), sqrt(2)
(`sqrt') and sqrt(1 / 2) (`sqrt1_2').
Variable name is any combination of alphanumericals and `_'
characters beginning with a non-digit that is not elementary function
name.
Supported elementary functions are (names that should be used are
given in parenthesis): exponential (`exp'), logarithmic (`log'), square
root (`sqrt'), sine (`sin'), cosine (`cos'), tangent (`tan'), cotangent
(`cot'), secant (`sec'), cosecant (`csc'), inverse sine (`asin'),
inverse cosine (`acos'), inverse tangent (`atan'), inverse cotangent
(`acot'), inverse secant (`asec'), inverse cosecant (`acsc'),
hyperbolic sine (`sinh'), cosine (`cosh'), hyperbolic tangent (`tanh'),
hyperbolic cotangent (`coth'), hyperbolic secant (`sech'), hyperbolic
cosecant (`csch'), hyperbolic inverse sine (`asinh'), hyperbolic
inverse cosine (`acosh'), hyperbolic inverse tangent (`atanh'),
hyperbolic inverse cotangent (`acoth'), hyperbolic inverse secant
(`asech'), hyperbolic inverse cosecant (`acsch'), absolute value
(`abs'), Heaviside step function (`step') with value 1 defined for x =
0, Dirac delta function with infinity (`delta') and not-a-number
(`nandelta') values defined for x = 0, and error function (`erf').
Supported unary operation is unary minus (`'-'').
Supported binary operations are addition (`'+''), subtraction
(`'+''), multiplication (`'*''), division multiplication (`'/'') and
exponentiation (`'^'').
Usual mathematical rules regarding operation precedence apply.
Parenthesis (`'('' and `')'') could be used to change priority order.
Blanks and tab characters are allowed in string representing
function; newline characters must not appear in this string.
Return value
............
Pointer to evaluator object if operation successful, null pointer
otherwise. Evaluator object is opaque, one should only use return
pointer to pass it to other functions from library.
See also
........
*note evaluator_destroy::, *note evaluator_evaluate::, *note
evaluator_get_string::, *note evaluator_get_variables::, *note
evaluator_derivative::
2.1.2 `evaluator_destroy'
-------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void evaluator_destroy (void *evaluator);
Description
...........
Destroy evaluator object pointer by `evaluator' pointer. After
returning from this call `evaluator' pointer must not be dereferenced
because evaluator object gets invalidated.
Return value
............
None.
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::
2.1.3 `evaluator_evaluate'
--------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
double evaluator_evaluate (void *evaluator, int count, char **names,
double *values);
Description
...........
Calculate value of function represented by evaluator object for given
variable values. Evaluator object is pointed by `evaluator' pointer.
Variable names and corresponding values are given by `names' and
`values' array respectively. Length of arrays is given by `count'
argument.
Return value
............
Function value for given variable values. If some variable that
appears in function is not mentioned in arguments, result is
indeterminate. If all variables that appear in function are given,
presence of variable or variables that doesn't appear in function in
arguments has no effect, i.e. result is still exact.
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_evaluate_x::, *note evaluator_evaluate_x_y::, *note
evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z::
2.1.4 `evaluator_get_string'
----------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
char *evaluator_get_string (void *evaluator);
Description
...........
Return textual representation (i.e. mathematical function) of evaluator
object pointed by `evaluator'. For notation used, see *note
evaluator_create:: documentation.
Return value
............
String with textual representation of evaluator object. This string is
stored in evaluator object and caller must not free pointer returned by
this function. Returned string is valid until evaluator object
destroyed.
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_get_variables::
2.1.5 `evaluator_get_variables'
-------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void evaluator_get_variables (void *evaluator, char ***names, int *count);
Description
...........
Return array of strings with names of variables appearing in function
represented by evaluator. Address of array first element is stored by
function in location pointed by second argument and number of array
elements is stored in location pointed by third argument. Array with
function variable names is stored in evaluator object and caller must
not free any of strings returned by this function nor array itself.
Returned values are valid until evaluator object destroyed.
Return value
............
None.
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_get_string::
2.1.6 `evaluator_derivative'
----------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void *evaluator_derivative (void *evaluator, char *name);
Description
...........
Create evaluator for derivative of function represented by given
evaluator object. Evaluator object is pointed to by `evaluator'
pointer and derivation variable is determined by `name' argument.
Calculated derivative is in mathematical sense correct no matters of
fact that derivation variable appears or not in function represented by
evaluator.
Return value
............
Pointer to evaluator object representing derivative of given function.
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_derivative_x::, *note evaluator_derivative_y::, *note
evaluator_derivative_z::
2.2 Convenience procedures
==========================
2.2.1 `evaluator_evaluate_x'
----------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
double evaluator_evaluate_x (void *evaluator, double x);
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variable "x" value.
Function is equivalent to following:
char *names[] = { "x" };
double values[] = { x };
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, sizeof (names) / sizeof(names[0]),
names, values);
See *note evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given value of variable "x".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_evaluate::
2.2.2 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
double evaluator_evaluate_x_y (void *evaluator, double x, double y);
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variables "x" and
"y" values. Function is equivalent to following:
char *names[] = { "x", "y" };
double values[] = { x, y };
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, sizeof (names) / sizeof(names[0]),
names, values);
See *note evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given values of variables "x" and "y".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_evaluate::
2.2.3 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z'
--------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
double evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z (void *evaluator, double x, double y,
double z);
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variables "x", "y"
and "z" values. Function is equivalent to following:
char *names[] = { "x", "y", "z" };
double values[] = { x, y, z };
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, sizeof (names) / sizeof(names[0]),
names, values);
See *note evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given values of variables "x", "y" and "z".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_evaluate::
2.2.4 `evaluator_derivative_x'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void *evaluator_derivative_x (void *evaluator);
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "x" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, "x");
See *note evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "x".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_derivative::
2.2.5 `evaluator_derivative_y'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void *evaluator_derivative_y (void *evaluator);
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "y" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, "y");
See *note evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "y".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_derivative::
2.2.6 `evaluator_derivative_z'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
#include
void *evaluator_derivative_z (void *evaluator);
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "z" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, "z");
See *note evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "z".
See also
........
*note evaluator_create::, *note evaluator_destroy::, *note
evaluator_derivative::
3 Fortran interface
*******************
Fortran interface to GNU `libmatheval' library is very similar to C
interface; still, complete documentation from *note Reference:: is
reproduced here using Fortran terms in order to have Fortran programmer
not to mess with C terms that he may not understand. Besides
documentation for all library exported procedures, an example Fortran
program of structure similar to sequence of code fragments presented
for C programmers in *note Introduction:: section as well as notes on
how to link library with Fortran programs are presented here.
Since passing arguments between C and Fortran is not (yet)
standardized, Fortran interface of library applies only to GNU Fortran
77 compiler; but note that same interface is working fine for GNU
Fortran 95 compiler. Requests to adapt interface to other Fortran
compilers are welcome (see section *note Bugs:: for contact
information), under condition that access to corresponding compiler is
provided.
3.1 Fortran main entry points
=============================
3.1.1 `evaluator_create'
------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer*8 function evaluator_create (string) character(len=*) ::
string end function evaluator_create
Description
...........
Create evaluator object from `string' containing mathematical
representation of function. Evaluator object could be used later to
evaluate function for specific variable values or to calculate function
derivative over some variable.
String representation of function is allowed to consist of decimal
numbers, constants, variables, elementary functions, unary and binary
operations.
Supported constants are (names that should be used are given in
parenthesis): e (`e'), log2(e) (`log2e'), log10(e) (`log10e'), ln(2)
(`ln2'), ln(10) (`ln10'), pi (`pi'), pi / 2 (`pi_2'), pi / 4 (`pi_4'),
1 / pi (`1_pi'), 2 / pi (`2_pi'), 2 / sqrt(pi) (`2_sqrtpi'), sqrt(2)
(`sqrt') and sqrt(1 / 2) (`sqrt1_2').
Variable name is any combination of alphanumericals and `_'
characters beginning with a non-digit that is not elementary function
name.
Supported elementary functions are (names that should be used are
given in parenthesis): exponential (`exp'), logarithmic (`log'), square
root (`sqrt'), sine (`sin'), cosine (`cos'), tangent (`tan'), cotangent
(`cot'), secant (`sec'), cosecant (`csc'), inverse sine (`asin'),
inverse cosine (`acos'), inverse tangent (`atan'), inverse cotangent
(`acot'), inverse secant (`asec'), inverse cosecant (`acsc'),
hyperbolic sine (`sinh'), cosine (`cosh'), hyperbolic tangent (`tanh'),
hyperbolic cotangent (`coth'), hyperbolic secant (`sech'), hyperbolic
cosecant (`csch'), hyperbolic inverse sine (`asinh'), hyperbolic
inverse cosine (`acosh'), hyperbolic inverse tangent (`atanh'),
hyperbolic inverse cotangent (`acoth'), hyperbolic inverse secant
(`asech'), hyperbolic inverse cosecant (`acsch'), absolute value
(`abs'), Heaviside step function (`step') with value 1 defined for x =
0, Dirac delta function with infinity (`delta') and not-a-number
(`nandelta') values defined for x = 0, and error function (`erf')
Supported unary operation is unary minus (`'-'').
Supported binary operations are addition (`'+''), subtraction
(`'+''), multiplication (`'*''), division multiplication (`'/'') and
exponentiation (`'^'').
Usual mathematical rules regarding operation precedence apply.
Parenthesis (`'('' and `')'') could be used to change priority order.
Blanks and tab characters are allowed in string representing
function; newline characters must not appear in this string.
Return value
............
Positive 64-bit integer representing evaluator object unique handle if
operation successful, 0 otherwise. Return value should be used only to
pass it to other functions from library.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_destroy::, *note Fortran evaluator_evaluate::,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_string_length::, *note Fortran
evaluator_get_string_chars::, *note Fortran
evaluator_get_variables_length::, *note Fortran
evaluator_get_variables_chars::, *note Fortran evaluator_derivative::
3.1.2 `evaluator_destroy'
-------------------------
Synopsis
........
subroutine evaluator_destroy (evaluator) integer*8 :: evaluator end
subroutine evaluator_destroy
Description
...........
Destroy evaluator object denoted by `evaluator' handle. After
returning from this call evaluator object gets invalidated, so value of
`evaluator' handle should not be used any more.
Return value
............
None.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::
3.1.3 `evaluator_evaluate'
--------------------------
Synopsis
........
double precision function evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, count, names,
values) integer*8 :: evaluator integer :: count character(len=*) ::
names double precision :: values dimension values(*) end function
evaluator_evaluate
Description
...........
Calculate value of function represented by evaluator object for given
variable values. Evaluator object is identified by `evaluator' handle.
Variable names are given by `names' string and corresponding values are
given by `values' array respectively. Number of variables is given by
`count' argument. Variable names in `names' string should be delimited
by one or more blank characters.
Return value
............
Function value for given variable values. If some variable that
appears in function is not mentioned in arguments, result is
indeterminate. If all variables that appear in function are given,
presence of variable or variables that doesn't appear in function in
arguments has no effect, i.e. result is still exact.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_evaluate_x::, *note Fortran
evaluator_evaluate_x_y::, *note Fortran evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z::
3.1.4 `evaluator_get_string_length'
-----------------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer function evaluator_get_string_length (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator end function evaluator_get_string_length
Description
...........
Return length of textual representation (i.e. mathematical function) of
evaluator object pointed by `evaluator'.
Return value
............
Evaluator textual representation string length.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_string_chars::
3.1.5 `evaluator_get_string_chars'
----------------------------------
Synopsis
........
subroutine evaluator_get_string_chars (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator character(len=*) :: string end subroutine
evaluator_get_string_chars
Description
...........
Write textual representation (i.e. mathematical function) of evaluator
object pointed by `evaluator' to string specified. For notation used,
see *note Fortran evaluator_create:: documentation. In order to
declare string of appropriate length to be passed to this function,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_string_length:: function should be utilized.
Return value
............
None.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_string_length::
3.1.6 `evaluator_get_variables_length'
--------------------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer function evaluator_get_variables_length (evaluator) integer*8
:: evaluator end function evaluator_get_variables_length
Description
...........
Return length of string with names of all variables (separated by a
blank character) appearing in evaluator object pointed by `evaluator'.
Return value
............
Variable names string length.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_variables_chars::
3.1.7 `evaluator_get_variables_chars'
-------------------------------------
Synopsis
........
subroutine evaluator_get_variables_chars (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator character(len=*) :: string end subroutine
evaluator_get_variables_chars
Description
...........
Write names of all variables appearing in evaluator object pointed by
`evaluator' into given string (separated by a blank character). In
order to declare string of appropriate length to be passed to this
function, *note Fortran evaluator_get_variables_length:: function should
be utilized.
Return value
............
None.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_get_variables_length::
3.1.8 `evaluator_derivative'
----------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer*8 function evaluator_derivative (evaluator, name) integer*8 ::
evaluator character(len=*) :: name end function evaluator_derivative
Description
...........
Create evaluator for derivative of function represented by given
evaluator object. Evaluator object is identified by `evaluator' handle
and derivation variable is determined by `name' argument. Calculated
derivative is in mathematical sense correct no matters of fact that
derivation variable appears or not in function represented by evaluator.
Return value
............
64-bit integer uniquely identifying evaluator object representing
derivative of given function.
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_derivative_x::, *note Fortran
evaluator_derivative_y::, *note Fortran evaluator_derivative_z::
3.2 Fortran convenience procedures
==================================
3.2.1 `evaluator_evaluate_x'
----------------------------
Synopsis
........
double precision function evaluator_evaluate_x (evaluator, x)
integer*8 :: evaluator double precision :: x end function
evaluator_evaluate_x
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variable "x" value.
Function is equivalent to following:
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, 1, 'x', (/ x /))
See *note Fortran evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given value of variable "x".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_evaluate::
3.2.2 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
double precision function evaluator_evaluate_x_y (evaluator, x, y)
integer*8 :: evaluator double precision :: x, y end function
evaluator_evaluate_x_y
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variables "x" and
"y" values. Function is equivalent to following:
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, 2, 'x y', (/ x, y /))
See *note Fortran evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given values of variables "x" and "y".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_evaluate::
3.2.3 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z'
--------------------------------
Synopsis
........
double precision function evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z (evaluator, x, y,
z) integer*8 :: evaluator double precision :: x, y, z end function
evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z
Description
...........
Convenience function to evaluate function for given variables "x", "y"
and "z" values. Function is equivalent to following:
evaluator_evaluate (evaluator, 2, 'x y z', (/ x, y, z /))
See *note Fortran evaluator_evaluate:: for further information.
Return value
............
Value of function for given values of variables "x", "y" and "z".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_evaluate::
3.2.4 `evaluator_derivative_x'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer*8 function evaluator_derivative_x (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator end function evaluator_derivative_x
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "x" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, 'x');
See *note Fortran evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "x".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_derivative::
3.2.5 `evaluator_derivative_y'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer*8 function evaluator_derivative_y (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator end function evaluator_derivative_y
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "y" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, 'y');
See *note Fortran evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "y".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_derivative::
3.2.6 `evaluator_derivative_z'
------------------------------
Synopsis
........
integer*8 function evaluator_derivative_z (evaluator) integer*8 ::
evaluator end function evaluator_derivative_z
Description
...........
Convenience function to differentiate function using "z" as derivation
variable. Function is equivalent to:
evaluator_derivative (evaluator, 'z');
See *note Fortran evaluator_derivative:: for further information.
Return value
............
Evaluator object representing derivative of function over variable "z".
See also
........
*note Fortran evaluator_create::, *note Fortran evaluator_destroy::,
*note Fortran evaluator_derivative::
3.3 Fortran sample program
==========================
Here follows sample program demonstrating use of library Fortran
interface. Hopefully, comments throughout code will be enough for
Fortran programmer to get acquainted with library usage. Basic
functioning of program is equivalent to code presented for C programmer
in *note Introduction:: sequence, except that textual representation of
function derivative is not printed to standard output and this is
avoided simply because of Fortran 77 ugly string handling. Following
code is written in Fortran 77 with GNU Fortran 77 compiler extensions
(most notable of these certainly is free form of source code).
! Program is demonstrating use of GNU libmatheval library of procedures
! for evaluating mathematical functions.
program evaluator
implicit none
! Declarations of GNU libmatheval procedures used.
integer*8 evaluator_create
integer*8 evaluator_derivative_x
double precision evaluator_evaluate_x
external evaluator_destroy
! Size of input buffer.
integer :: BUFFER_SIZE
parameter(BUFFER_SIZE = 256)
character(len = BUFFER_SIZE) :: buffer ! Input buffer.
integer*8 :: f, f_prim ! Evaluators for function and function derivative.
double precision :: x ! Variable x value.
! Read function. Function has to be over variable x, or result may
! be undetermined. Size of textual represenatation will be truncated
! here to BUFFER_SIZE characters, in real conditions one should
! probably come with something smarter to avoid this limit.
write (*, '(A)') 'f(x) = '
read (*, '(A)') buffer
! Create evaluator for function.
f = evaluator_create (buffer);
if (f == 0) stop
! Create evaluator for function derivative.
f_prim = evaluator_derivative_x (f);
if (f_prim == 0) stop
! Read variable x value.
write (*, '(A)') 'x = '
read (*, *) x
! Calculate and print values of function and its derivative for given
! value of x.
write (*,*) ' f (', x, ') = ', evaluator_evaluate_x (f, x)
write (*,*) ' f'' (', x, ') = ', evaluator_evaluate_x (f_prim, x)
! Destroy evaluators.
call evaluator_destroy (f)
call evaluator_destroy (f_prim)
end program evaluator
3.4 Fortran build process
=========================
In order to be able to reference GNU `libmatheval' procedures from
Fortran code, declarations of procedures that will be used should be
repeated, like demonstrated by *note Fortran sample program:: (once
when interface upgraded to Fortran 90, modules and `use' statement will
be employed here). Command for compilation Fortran program using
library and stored in file `example.f' using GNU Fortran 77 compiler
would look like (again supposing that library is installed using
default prefix `/usr/local/lib'):
f77 example.f -ff90 -ffree-form -L/usr/local/lib -lmatheval -o example
4 Hacking
*********
4.1 Design notes
================
As usual with a free software project, ultimate reference for anyone
willing to hack on it is its source code. Every effort is put to have
source code properly commented; having in mind that GNU `libmatheval'
is rather simple project, it is reasonable to expect that this would be
enough for anyone interested in project internals to get acquainted
with it. Still, this section will briefly explain project design. See
*note Project structure:: section for description of where each
functionality is located in source code.
Mathematical functions are represented as trees in computer memory.
There are five different nodes in such a tree: number, constants,
variables, functions, unary operations and binary operations. Single
data structure is employed for tree nodes, while union is used over
what is different among them. Numbers have unique value, unary and
binary operations have unique pointer(s) to their operand(s) node(s).
To represent constants, variables and functions, a symbol table is
employed; thus constants, variables and functions have unique pointers
to corresponding symbol table records (functions also have unique
pointer to their argument node). All operations related to functions
(e.g. evaluation or derivative calculation) are implemented as
recursive operations on tree nodes. There exist a node operation that
is not visible as external procedure and this is node simplification;
this operation is very important regarding overall efficiency of other
operations and is employed each time when new tree created.
Symbol table is implemented as hash table, where each bucket has
linked list of records stored in it. Records store information of
symbol name and type (variable or function), as well as some unique
information related to evaluation: variable records store temporary
variable value and function records store pointer to procedure used to
actually calculate function value during evaluation. Hashing function
described in `A.V. Aho, R. Sethi, J.D. Ullman, "Compilers - Principle,
Techniques, and Tools", Addison-Wesley, 1986, pp 435-437' is used.
Symbol tables are reference counted objects, i.e. could be shared.
Evaluator objects actually consists of function tree and reference to
symbol table. Most of operations on evaluator objects are simply
delegated to function tree root node.
For parsing strings representing mathematical functions, Lex and Yacc
are employed. Scanner is creating symbol table records for variables,
while for constants and functions it is only looking up existing symbol
table records (before starting scanning, symbol table should be
populated with records for constants and functions recognized by
scanner). Parser is responsible for building function tree
representation.
Couple error reporting procedures, as well as replacements for
standard memory allocation routines are also present. These are rather
standard for all GNU projects, so deserve no further discussion.
Further present in project are couple procedures for mathematical
functions not implemented by C standard library, like cotangent,
inverse cotangent and some hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions.
Also present in project are stubs for Fortran code calling library.
These stubs uses knowledge of GNU Fortran 77 compiler calling
conventions, take parameters from Fortran 77 calls, eventually mangle
them to satisfy primary C library interface and call library procedures
to actually do the work, finally eventually mangling return values to
satisfy Fortran 77 calling conventions again.
Most important thing to know before criticizing library design is
that it is intentionally left as simple as it could be. Decision is now
that eventual library usage should direct its improvements. Some
obvious and intended improvements if enough interest for library arise
are enumerated in *note Intended improvements:: section. If having
further suggestions, pleas see *note Bugs:: sections for contact
information.
4.2 Project structure
=====================
Interesting source files are mostly concentrated in `lib' subdirectory
of distribution. Basic arrangement is rather standard for GNU
projects, thus scanner is in `scanner.l' file, parser in `parser.y',
error handling routines are in `error.c' and `error.h' files,
replacements for standard memory allocation routines are in `xmalloc.c'
and `xmalloc.h', additional mathematical functions are in `xmath.c' and
`xmath.c'. Project specific files are: `node.h' and `node.c' files for
tree representing mathematical function data structures and procedures,
`symbol_table.c' and `symbol_table.h' for symbol table data structures
and procedures and finally `evaluator.c' and `matheval.h' for evaluator
object data structures and procedures (evaluator object data structure
is moved to `.c' file because `matheval.h' is public header file and
this data structure should be opaque). Fortran interface is
implemented in `f77_interface.c' file.
File `libmatheval.texi' under `doc' subdirectory of distribution
contains Texinfo source of project documentation (i.e. what you are
reading now).
Subdirectory `tests' contains library test suite. Kind of mixed
design is employed here - GNU autotest is used for test framework in
order to achieve more portability, while number of small Guile scripts
are performing tests. File `matheval.c' in `tests' subdirectory
contains program extending Guile interpreter with GNU `libmatheval'
procedures. Files with `.at' extension in same subdirectory in turn
consist of fragments of Guile code that this extended Guile interpreter
executes in order to conduct tests. File `matheval.sh' is shell
wrapper for program contained in `matheval.c' file; this wrapper is
used by autotest during testing instead of original program. Most
interesting aspect of code from `tests' subdirectory is certainly Guile
interface for library that is implemented in `matheval.c' file; anyone
intending to write more tests must before approaching this task become
familiar with this interface.
4.3 Intended improvements
=========================
As stated in *note Design notes:: section, GNU `libmatheval' is
designed with intention to be simple and understandable and to
eventually have its usage to govern improvements. Thus, further work
will be primarily directed by user requests and of course, as usual
with free software projects, with amount of spare time of primary
developer (see *note Bugs:: for contact information). However, there
exist several obvious improvements that I'm willing to work on
immediately if any interest of library arise and these are (in random
order) listed below:
* Extend scanner to recognize more mathematical functions, to
recognize alternative names for existing functions (e.g. to
recognize both `tg' and `tan' as names for tangent function) and to
recognize more constants.
* Implement variable hash table length for symbol table. As for now,
hash table length is fixed to 211 that is reasonable for most
cases, but it would certainly be more robust to have hash table to
be constructed of length proportional say to length of string
representing function.
* Add more simplifications to function tree representation. Only
basic simplifications, mostly related to numbers subtrees
consolidation and binary operations neutral elements are employed
now. More ambitious optimization, using commutative, associative
and distributive rules for binary operations would be desirable.
* Improve output when evaluator object is printed. Presently,
parenthesis are always used around operations, while using them
when necessary to establish proper evaluation priority order only
would give prettier output
* Add more tests. Basic functionality of library is exercised
through existing test suite, but present number of tests is
certainly far from enough.
* Extend and improve error handling. There are couple `assert's
left in code that may be replaced with some other mechanism, also
probably error handling of more error conditions should be added to
library.
* Add command line interface to library, i.e. write a program that
will make possible to evaluate expression for given variable
values where both specified in command line, as program arguments
(for expressions without variables this program could be useful as
a calculator).
There exists also an improvement that is obvious and necessary but
because I'm not native speaker I'm unfortunately not able to accomplish
it anything more than I already tried:
* Clean up English used in documentation.
5 Bugs
******
If you encounter something that you think is a bug, please report it
immediately. Try to include a clear description of the undesired
behavior. A test case that exhibits the bug or maybe even patch fixing
it, would too be of course very useful.
Suggestions on improving library would be also more than welcome.
Please see *note Hacking::, for further information.
Please direct bug reports and eventual patches to
mailing list. For suggestions regarding
improvements and other `libmatheval' related conversation use author
e-mail address .
6 Rationale and history
***********************
The library is developed as a back-end for "Numerical Analysis" course
taught during 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 school years at
Department of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. Most numerical
libraries (library accompanying "Numerical Recipes" book most notably
example) are asking programmer to write corresponding C code when it
comes to evaluate mathematical functions. It seemed to me that it
would be more appropriate (well, at least for above mentioned course)
to have library that will make possible to specify functions as strings
and then have them evaluated for given variable values, so I wrote
first version of library during November 1999. Fortran interface is
added to the library later; during January 2001 interface for Pacific
Sierra VAST Fortran 90 translator was implemented and during September
2001 it was replaced by interface for Intel Fortran 90 compiler (1).
This library eventually went into rather stable state and was tested by
number of other programs implementing various numerical methods and
developed for the same course.
After completing engagement with this course, I thought it may be
interesting for someone else to use this code and decided to make it
publicly available. So, having some spare time during June 2002, I
re-wrote whole library in preparation for public release, now employing
simpler overall design and also using GNU auto-tools and what else was
necessary according to GNU guidelines. The benefit is that final
product looks much better now (well, at least to me and at least at the
very moment of this writing), the drawback is that code is not
thoroughly tested again. But certainly author would be more than happy
to further improve and maintain it. Please see *note Bugs::, for
contact information.
The library source code was hosted on Savannah
(`http://savannah.gnu.org/') since Septembar 2002. In September 2003,
library officially became part of GNU project.
---------- Footnotes ----------
(1) That was in turn replaced by interface for GNU Fortran 77
compiler in order to meet requirement that no GNU project should
require use of non-free software
7 GNU Free Documentation License
********************************
Version 1.1, March 2000
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Index
*****
bugs: See 5. (line 1410)
convenience procedures: See 2.2. (line 474)
copying: See 7. (line 1468)
design notes: See 4.1. (line 1244)
evaluator_create: See 2.1.1. (line 242)
evaluator_derivative: See 2.1.6. (line 442)
evaluator_derivative_x: See 2.2.4. (line 583)
evaluator_derivative_y: See 2.2.5. (line 614)
evaluator_derivative_z: See 2.2.6. (line 645)
evaluator_destroy: See 2.1.2. (line 316)
evaluator_evaluate: See 2.1.3. (line 343)
evaluator_evaluate_x: See 2.2.1. (line 477)
evaluator_evaluate_x_y: See 2.2.2. (line 512)
evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z: See 2.2.3. (line 547)
evaluator_get_string: See 2.1.4. (line 379)
evaluator_get_variables: See 2.1.5. (line 410)
Fortran interface: See 3. (line 676)
Fortran, build process: See 3.4. (line 1227)
Fortran, convenience procedures: See 3.2. (line 980)
Fortran, evaluator_create: See 3.1.1. (line 699)
Fortran, evaluator_derivative: See 3.1.8. (line 949)
Fortran, evaluator_derivative_x: See 3.2.4. (line 1076)
Fortran, evaluator_derivative_y: See 3.2.5. (line 1106)
Fortran, evaluator_derivative_z: See 3.2.6. (line 1136)
Fortran, evaluator_destroy: See 3.1.2. (line 774)
Fortran, evaluator_evaluate: See 3.1.3. (line 800)
Fortran, evaluator_evaluate_x: See 3.2.1. (line 983)
Fortran, evaluator_evaluate_x_y: See 3.2.2. (line 1014)
Fortran, evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z: See 3.2.3. (line 1045)
Fortran, evaluator_get_string_chars: See 3.1.5. (line 863)
Fortran, evaluator_get_string_length: See 3.1.4. (line 837)
Fortran, evaluator_get_variables_chars: See 3.1.7. (line 919)
Fortran, evaluator_get_variables_length: See 3.1.6. (line 893)
Fortran, main entry points: See 3.1. (line 696)
Fortran, sample program: See 3.3. (line 1166)
GNU Free Documentation License: See 7. (line 1468)
hacking: See 4. (line 1241)
history: See 6. (line 1426)
intended improvements: See 4.3. (line 1353)
introduction: See 1. (line 40)
license:
See ``License''. (line 24)
main entry points: See 2.1. (line 239)
physical structure: See 4.2. (line 1316)
rationale: See 6. (line 1426)
reference: See 2. (line 232)
usage: See 1. (line 40)
Table of Contents
*****************
GNU `libmatheval' manual
License
1 Introduction
2 Reference
2.1 Main entry points
2.1.1 `evaluator_create'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.1.2 `evaluator_destroy'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.1.3 `evaluator_evaluate'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.1.4 `evaluator_get_string'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.1.5 `evaluator_get_variables'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.1.6 `evaluator_derivative'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2 Convenience procedures
2.2.1 `evaluator_evaluate_x'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2.2 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2.3 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2.4 `evaluator_derivative_x'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2.5 `evaluator_derivative_y'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
2.2.6 `evaluator_derivative_z'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3 Fortran interface
3.1 Fortran main entry points
3.1.1 `evaluator_create'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.2 `evaluator_destroy'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.3 `evaluator_evaluate'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.4 `evaluator_get_string_length'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.5 `evaluator_get_string_chars'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.6 `evaluator_get_variables_length'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.7 `evaluator_get_variables_chars'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.1.8 `evaluator_derivative'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2 Fortran convenience procedures
3.2.1 `evaluator_evaluate_x'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2.2 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2.3 `evaluator_evaluate_x_y_z'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2.4 `evaluator_derivative_x'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2.5 `evaluator_derivative_y'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.2.6 `evaluator_derivative_z'
Synopsis
Description
Return value
See also
3.3 Fortran sample program
3.4 Fortran build process
4 Hacking
4.1 Design notes
4.2 Project structure
4.3 Intended improvements
5 Bugs
6 Rationale and history
7 GNU Free Documentation License
Index