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Appendix C Complex Makefile Example

Here is the makefile for the GNU tar program. This is a moderately complex makefile. The first line uses a #! setting to allow the makefile to be executed directly.

Because it is the first target, the default goal is ‘all’. An interesting feature of this makefile is that testpad.h is a source file automatically created by the testpad program, itself compiled from testpad.c.

If you type ‘make’ or ‘make all’, then make creates the tar executable, the rmt daemon that provides remote tape access, and the tar.info Info file.

If you type ‘make install’, then make not only creates tar, rmt, and tar.info, but also installs them.

If you type ‘make clean’, then make removes the ‘.o’ files, and the tar, rmt, testpad, testpad.h, and core files.

If you type ‘make distclean’, then make not only removes the same files as does ‘make clean’ but also the TAGS, Makefile, and config.status files. (Although it is not evident, this makefile (and config.status) is generated by the user with the configure program, which is provided in the tar distribution, but is not shown here.)

If you type ‘make realclean’, then make removes the same files as does ‘make distclean’ and also removes the Info files generated from tar.texinfo.

In addition, there are targets shar and dist that create distribution kits.

     #!/usr/bin/make -f
     # Generated automatically from Makefile.in by configure.
     # Un*x Makefile for GNU tar program.
     # Copyright (C) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     
     # This program is free software; you can redistribute
     # it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
     # General Public License ...
     ...
     ...
     
     SHELL = /bin/sh
     
     #### Start of system configuration section. ####
     
     srcdir = .
     
     # If you use gcc, you should either run the
     # fixincludes script that comes with it or else use
     # gcc with the -traditional option.  Otherwise ioctl
     # calls will be compiled incorrectly on some systems.
     CC = gcc -O
     YACC = bison -y
     INSTALL = /usr/local/bin/install -c
     INSTALLDATA = /usr/local/bin/install -c -m 644
     
     # Things you might add to DEFS:
     # -DSTDC_HEADERS        If you have ANSI C headers and
     #                       libraries.
     # -DPOSIX               If you have POSIX.1 headers and
     #                       libraries.
     # -DBSD42               If you have sys/dir.h (unless
     #                       you use -DPOSIX), sys/file.h,
     #                       and st_blocks in `struct stat'.
     # -DUSG                 If you have System V/ANSI C
     #                       string and memory functions
     #                       and headers, sys/sysmacros.h,
     #                       fcntl.h, getcwd, no valloc,
     #                       and ndir.h (unless
     #                       you use -DDIRENT).
     # -DNO_MEMORY_H         If USG or STDC_HEADERS but do not
     #                       include memory.h.
     # -DDIRENT              If USG and you have dirent.h
     #                       instead of ndir.h.
     # -DSIGTYPE=int         If your signal handlers
     #                       return int, not void.
     # -DNO_MTIO             If you lack sys/mtio.h
     #                       (magtape ioctls).
     # -DNO_REMOTE           If you do not have a remote shell
     #                       or rexec.
     # -DUSE_REXEC           To use rexec for remote tape
     #                       operations instead of
     #                       forking rsh or remsh.
     # -DVPRINTF_MISSING     If you lack vprintf function
     #                       (but have _doprnt).
     # -DDOPRNT_MISSING      If you lack _doprnt function.
     #                       Also need to define
     #                       -DVPRINTF_MISSING.
     # -DFTIME_MISSING       If you lack ftime system call.
     # -DSTRSTR_MISSING      If you lack strstr function.
     # -DVALLOC_MISSING      If you lack valloc function.
     # -DMKDIR_MISSING       If you lack mkdir and
     #                       rmdir system calls.
     # -DRENAME_MISSING      If you lack rename system call.
     # -DFTRUNCATE_MISSING   If you lack ftruncate
     #                       system call.
     # -DV7                  On Version 7 Unix (not
     #                       tested in a long time).
     # -DEMUL_OPEN3          If you lack a 3-argument version
     #                       of open, and want to emulate it
     #                       with system calls you do have.
     # -DNO_OPEN3            If you lack the 3-argument open
     #                       and want to disable the tar -k
     #                       option instead of emulating open.
     # -DXENIX               If you have sys/inode.h
     #                       and need it 94 to be included.
     
     DEFS =  -DSIGTYPE=int -DDIRENT -DSTRSTR_MISSING \
             -DVPRINTF_MISSING -DBSD42
     # Set this to rtapelib.o unless you defined NO_REMOTE,
     # in which case make it empty.
     RTAPELIB = rtapelib.o
     LIBS =
     DEF_AR_FILE = /dev/rmt8
     DEFBLOCKING = 20
     
     CDEBUG = -g
     CFLAGS = $(CDEBUG) -I. -I$(srcdir) $(DEFS) \
             -DDEF_AR_FILE=\"$(DEF_AR_FILE)\" \
             -DDEFBLOCKING=$(DEFBLOCKING)
     LDFLAGS = -g
     
     prefix = /usr/local
     # Prefix for each installed program,
     # normally empty or `g'.
     binprefix =
     
     # The directory to install tar in.
     bindir = $(prefix)/bin
     
     # The directory to install the info files in.
     infodir = $(prefix)/info
     
     #### End of system configuration section. ####
     
     SRCS_C  = tar.c create.c extract.c buffer.c   \
               getoldopt.c update.c gnu.c mangle.c \
               version.c list.c names.c diffarch.c \
               port.c wildmat.c getopt.c getopt1.c \
               regex.c
     SRCS_Y  = getdate.y
     SRCS    = $(SRCS_C) $(SRCS_Y)
     OBJS    = $(SRCS_C:.c=.o) $(SRCS_Y:.y=.o) $(RTAPELIB)
     AUX =   README COPYING ChangeLog Makefile.in  \
             makefile.pc configure configure.in \
             tar.texinfo tar.info* texinfo.tex \
             tar.h port.h open3.h getopt.h regex.h \
             rmt.h rmt.c rtapelib.c alloca.c \
             msd_dir.h msd_dir.c tcexparg.c \
             level-0 level-1 backup-specs testpad.c
     
     .PHONY: all
     all:    tar rmt tar.info
     
     tar:    $(OBJS)
             $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $(OBJS) $(LIBS)
     
     rmt:    rmt.c
             $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ rmt.c
     
     tar.info: tar.texinfo
             makeinfo tar.texinfo
     
     .PHONY: install
     install: all
             $(INSTALL) tar $(bindir)/$(binprefix)tar
             -test ! -f rmt || $(INSTALL) rmt /etc/rmt
             $(INSTALLDATA) $(srcdir)/tar.info* $(infodir)
     
     $(OBJS): tar.h port.h testpad.h
     regex.o buffer.o tar.o: regex.h
     # getdate.y has 8 shift/reduce conflicts.
     
     testpad.h: testpad
             ./testpad
     
     testpad: testpad.o
             $(CC) -o $@ testpad.o
     
     TAGS:   $(SRCS)
             etags $(SRCS)
     
     .PHONY: clean
     clean:
             rm -f *.o tar rmt testpad testpad.h core
     
     .PHONY: distclean
     distclean: clean
             rm -f TAGS Makefile config.status
     
     .PHONY: realclean
     realclean: distclean
             rm -f tar.info*
     
     .PHONY: shar
     shar: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
             shar $(SRCS) $(AUX) | compress \
               > tar-`sed -e '/version_string/!d' \
                          -e 's/[^0-9.]*\([0-9.]*\).*/\1/' \
                          -e q
                          version.c`.shar.Z
     
     .PHONY: dist
     dist: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
             echo tar-`sed \
                  -e '/version_string/!d' \
                  -e 's/[^0-9.]*\([0-9.]*\).*/\1/' \
                  -e q
                  version.c` > .fname
             -rm -rf `cat .fname`
             mkdir `cat .fname`
             ln $(SRCS) $(AUX) `cat .fname`
             tar chZf `cat .fname`.tar.Z `cat .fname`
             -rm -rf `cat .fname` .fname
     
     tar.zoo: $(SRCS) $(AUX)
             -rm -rf tmp.dir
             -mkdir tmp.dir
             -rm tar.zoo
             for X in $(SRCS) $(AUX) ; do \
                 echo $$X ; \
                 sed 's/$$/^M/' $$X \
                 > tmp.dir/$$X ; done
             cd tmp.dir ; zoo aM ../tar.zoo *
             -rm -rf tmp.dir