Octave provides a few functions for dealing with audio data. An audio ‘sample’ is a single output value from an A/D converter, i.e., a small integer number (usually 8 or 16 bits), and audio data is just a series of such samples. It can be characterized by three parameters: the sampling rate (measured in samples per second or Hz, e.g., 8000 or 44100), the number of bits per sample (e.g., 8 or 16), and the number of channels (1 for mono, 2 for stereo, etc.).
There are many different formats for representing such data. Currently,
only the two most popular, linear encoding and mu-law
encoding, are supported by Octave. There is an excellent FAQ on audio
formats by Guido van Rossum firstname.lastname@example.org which can be found at any
FAQ ftp site, in particular in the directory
/pub/usenet/news.answers/audio-fmts of the archive site
Octave simply treats audio data as vectors of samples (non-mono data are not supported yet). It is assumed that audio files using linear encoding have one of the extensions lin or raw, and that files holding data in mu-law encoding end in au, mu, or snd.
Convert audio data from linear to mu-law. Mu-law values use 8-bit unsigned integers. Linear values use n-bit signed integers or floating point values in the range -1 ≤ x ≤ 1 if n is 0.
If n is not specified it defaults to 0, 8, or 16 depending on the range of values in x.
See also: mu2lin, loadaudio, saveaudio.
Convert audio data from mu-law to linear. Mu-law values are 8-bit unsigned integers. Linear values use n-bit signed integers or floating point values in the range -1≤y≤1 if n is 0.
If n is not specified it defaults to 0.
See also: lin2mu, loadaudio, saveaudio.
Load audio data from the file name.ext into the vector x.
The extension ext determines how the data in the audio file is interpreted; the extensions lin (default) and raw correspond to linear, the extensions au, mu, or snd to mu-law encoding.
The argument bps can be either 8 (default) or 16, and specifies the number of bits per sample used in the audio file.
See also: lin2mu, mu2lin, saveaudio, playaudio, setaudio, record.
Save a vector x of audio data to the file
name.ext. The optional parameters ext and
bps determine the encoding and the number of bits per sample used
in the audio file (see
loadaudio); defaults are lin and
See also: lin2mu, mu2lin, loadaudio, playaudio, setaudio, record.
The following functions for audio I/O require special A/D hardware and operating system support. It is assumed that audio data in linear encoding can be played and recorded by reading from and writing to /dev/dsp, and that similarly /dev/audio is used for mu-law encoding. These file names are system-dependent. Improvements so that these functions will work without modification on a wide variety of hardware are welcome.
Play the audio file name.ext or the audio data stored in the vector x.
See also: lin2mu, mu2lin, loadaudio, saveaudio, setaudio, record.
Record sec seconds of audio input into the vector x. The default value for sampling_rate is 8000 samples per second, or 8kHz. The program waits until the user types RET and then immediately starts to record.
See also: lin2mu, mu2lin, loadaudio, saveaudio, playaudio, setaudio.
Execute the shell command ‘mixer’, possibly with optional arguments w_type and value.
Load the RIFF/WAVE sound file filename, and return the samples in vector y. If the file contains multichannel data, then y is a matrix with the channels represented as columns.
[y, Fs, bps] = wavread (filename)
Additionally return the sample rate (fs) in Hz and the number of bits per sample (bps).
[…] = wavread (filename, n)
Read only the first n samples from each channel.
wavread (filename, [n1 n2])
Read only samples n1 through n2 from each channel.
[samples, channels] = wavread (filename, "size")
Return the number of samples (n) and number of channels (ch) instead of the audio data.
See also: wavwrite.
Write y to the canonical RIFF/WAVE sound file filename with sample rate Fs and bits per sample bps. The default sample rate is 8000 Hz with 16-bits per sample. Each column of the data represents a separate channel. If y is either a row vector or a column vector, it is written as a single channel.
See also: wavread.