NAME

env_parallel - export environment to GNU parallel

SYNOPSIS

env_parallel [options for GNU Parallel]

DESCRIPTION

env_parallel is a shell function that exports the current environment to GNU parallel.

If the shell function is not loaded, a dummy script will be run instead that explains how to install the function.

env_parallel is beta quality and not production ready, but please use it for everyday use and report bugs.

env_parallel is 0.1 sec slower at startup than pure GNU parallel, and takes up to 15 ms to start a job.

Due to the problem with environment space (see below) the recommended usage is:

  # Record the "clean" environment (this only needs to be run once)
  env_parallel --record-env

  # Optionally edit ~/.parallel/ignored_vars (only needed once)

  # Define whatever you want to use
  alias myalias=echo
  myvar=it
  myfunc() { myalias $1 $myvar works.; }

  # Use --env _ to only transfer the names not in the "empty" environment
  env_parallel --env _ -S localhost myfunc ::: Yay,

In csh:

  # Record the "clean" environment (this only needs to be run once)
  env_parallel --record-env

  # Optionally edit ~/.parallel/ignored_vars (only needed once)

  # Define whatever you want to use
  alias myalias 'echo \!* $myvar works.'
  set myvar=it

  # Use --env _ to only transfer the names not in the "empty" environment
  env_parallel --env _ -S localhost myalias ::: Yay,

Environment space

By default env_parallel will export all environment variables, arrays, aliases, functions and shell options (see details for the individual shells below).

But this only works if the size of the current environment is smaller than the maximal length of a command and smaller than half of the max if running remotely. E.g. The max size of Bash's command is 128 KB, so env_parallel will fail if 'set | wc -c' is bigger than 128 KB. Technically the limit is in execve(1) which IPC::open3 uses.

Bash completion functions are well-known for taking up well over 128 KB of environment space and the primary reason for causing env_parallel to fail.

Instead you can use --env to specify which variables, arrays, aliases and functions to export as this will only export those with the given name. Or follow the recommended usage in shown in DESCRIPTION.

OPTIONS

Same as GNU parallel.

SUPPORTED SHELLS

Ash

--env is supported to export only the variable, or alias with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.profile:

  . `which env_parallel.ash`

E.g. by doing:

  echo '. `which env_parallel.ash`' >> $HOME/.profile
aliases
  alias myecho='echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  ash cannot list defined functions - thus is not supported.
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays

Arrays are not supported by Ash.

Bash

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, function, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.bashrc:

  . `which env_parallel.bash`

E.g. by doing:

  echo '. `which env_parallel.bash`' >> $HOME/.bashrc
aliases
  alias myecho='echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  myfunc() { echo functions $*; }
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  myarray=(arrays work, too)
  env_parallel -k echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2

csh

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

env_parallel for csh breaks $PARALLEL, so do not use $PARALLEL.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.cshrc:

  source `which env_parallel.csh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo 'source `which env_parallel.csh`' >> $HOME/.cshrc
aliases
  alias myecho 'echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions

Not supported by csh.

variables
  set myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays with no special chars
  set myarray=(arrays work, too)
  env_parallel -k echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k -S server echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3

Dash

--env is supported to export only the variable, or alias with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.profile:

  . `which env_parallel.dash`

E.g. by doing:

  echo '. `which env_parallel.dash`' >> $HOME/.profile
aliases
  alias myecho='echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  dash cannot list defined functions - thus is not supported.
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  dash does not support arrays.

fish

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, function, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.config/fish/config.fish:

  source (which env_parallel.fish)

E.g. by doing:

  echo 'source (which env_parallel.fish)' >> $HOME/.config/fish/config.fish
aliases
  alias myecho 'echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  function myfunc
    echo functions $argv
  end
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  set myvar variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  set myarray arrays work, too
  env_parallel -k echo '$myarray[{}]' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k -S server echo '$myarray[{}]' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo '$myarray[{}]' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo '$myarray[{}]' ::: 1 2 3

ksh

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, function, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.kshrc:

  source `which env_parallel.ksh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo 'source `which env_parallel.ksh`' >> $HOME/.kshrc
aliases
  alias myecho='echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  myfunc() { echo functions $*; }
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  myarray=(arrays work, too)
  env_parallel -k echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 0 1 2

pdksh

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, function, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.profile:

  source `which env_parallel.pdksh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo 'source `which env_parallel.pdksh`' >> $HOME/.profile
aliases
  alias myecho="echo aliases";
  env_parallel myecho ::: work;
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  myfunc() { echo functions $*; };
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work;
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  myvar=variables;
  env_parallel echo "\$myvar" ::: work;
  env_parallel -S server echo "\$myvar" ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myvar echo "\$myvar" ::: work;
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo "\$myvar" ::: work
arrays
  myarray=(arrays work, too);
  env_parallel -k echo "\${myarray[{}]}" ::: 0 1 2;
  env_parallel -k -S server echo "\${myarray[{}]}" ::: 0 1 2;
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo "\${myarray[{}]}" ::: 0 1 2;
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo "\${myarray[{}]}" ::: 0 1 2

sh

--env is supported to export only the variable, or alias with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.profile:

  . `which env_parallel.sh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo '. `which env_parallel.sh`' >> $HOME/.profile
aliases
  sh does not support aliases.
functions
  myfunc() { echo functions $*; }
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  sh does not support arrays.

tcsh

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

env_parallel for tcsh breaks $PARALLEL, so do not use $PARALLEL.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.tcshrc:

  source `which env_parallel.tcsh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo 'source `which env_parallel.tcsh`' >> $HOME/.tcshrc
aliases
  alias myecho 'echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions

Not supported by tcsh.

variables
  set myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays with no special chars
  set myarray=(arrays work, too)
  env_parallel -k echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k -S server echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo \$'{myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3

Zsh

--env is supported to export only the variable, alias, function, or array with the given name. Multiple --envs can be given.

Installation

Put this in $HOME/.zshrc:

  . `which env_parallel.zsh`

E.g. by doing:

  echo '. `which env_parallel.zsh`' >> $HOME/.zshenv
aliases
  alias myecho='echo aliases'
  env_parallel myecho ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho myecho ::: work
  env_parallel --env myecho -S server myecho ::: work
functions
  myfunc() { echo functions $*; }
  env_parallel myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel -S server myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc myfunc ::: work
  env_parallel --env myfunc -S server myfunc ::: work
variables
  myvar=variables
  env_parallel echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar echo '$myvar' ::: work
  env_parallel --env myvar -S server echo '$myvar' ::: work
arrays
  myarray=(arrays work, too)
  env_parallel -k echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3
  env_parallel -k --env myarray -S server echo '${myarray[{}]}' ::: 1 2 3

EXIT STATUS

Same as GNU parallel.

AUTHOR

When using GNU parallel for a publication please cite:

O. Tange (2011): GNU Parallel - The Command-Line Power Tool, ;login: The USENIX Magazine, February 2011:42-47.

This helps funding further development; and it won't cost you a cent. If you pay 10000 EUR you should feel free to use GNU Parallel without citing.

Copyright (C) 2007-10-18 Ole Tange, http://ole.tange.dk

Copyright (C) 2008,2009,2010 Ole Tange, http://ole.tange.dk

Copyright (C) 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017 Ole Tange, http://ole.tange.dk and Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Parts of the manual concerning xargs compatibility is inspired by the manual of xargs from GNU findutils 4.4.2.

LICENSE

Copyright (C) 2016 Ole Tange and Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or at your option any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Documentation license I

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this documentation under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the file fdl.txt.

Documentation license II

You are free:

to Share

to copy, distribute and transmit the work

to Remix

to adapt the work

Under the following conditions:

Attribution

You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

Share Alike

If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license.

With the understanding that:

Waiver

Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.

Public Domain

Where the work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.

Other Rights

In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license:

Notice

For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work.

A copy of the full license is included in the file as cc-by-sa.txt.

DEPENDENCIES

env_parallel uses GNU parallel.

SEE ALSO

parallel(1),

bash(1), csh(1), fish(1), ksh(1), pdksh(1) tcsh(1), zsh(1).