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The basic numeric formats are used for input and output of real numbers in standard or scientific notation. The following table shows an example of how each format displays positive and negative numbers with the default decimal point setting:

Format | ` 3141.59` | `-3141.59` |
---|---|---|

F8.2 | ` 3141.59` | `-3141.59` |

COMMA9.2 | ` 3,141.59` | `-3,141.59` |

DOT9.2 | ` 3.141,59` | `-3.141,59` |

DOLLAR10.2 | ` $3,141.59` | `-$3,141.59` |

PCT9.2 | ` 3141.59%` | `-3141.59%` |

E8.1 | ` 3.1E+003` | `-3.1E+003` |

On output, numbers in F format are expressed in standard decimal notation with the requested number of decimal places. The other formats output some variation on this style:

- Numbers in COMMA format are additionally grouped every three digits by inserting a grouping character. The grouping character is ordinarily a comma, but it can be changed to a period (see SET DECIMAL).
- DOT format is like COMMA format, but it interchanges the role of the decimal point and grouping characters. That is, the current grouping character is used as a decimal point and vice versa.
- DOLLAR format is like COMMA format, but it prefixes the number with
‘
`$`’. - PCT format is like F format, but adds ‘
`%`’ after the number. - The E format always produces output in scientific notation.

On input, the basic numeric formats accept positive and numbers in standard decimal notation or scientific notation. Leading and trailing spaces are allowed. An empty or all-spaces field, or one that contains only a single period, is treated as the system missing value.

In scientific notation, the exponent may be introduced by a sign
(‘`+`’ or ‘`-`’), or by one of the letters ‘`e`’ or ‘`d`’
(in uppercase or lowercase), or by a letter followed by a sign. A
single space may follow the letter or the sign or both.

On fixed-format `DATA LIST`

(see DATA LIST FIXED) and in a few
other contexts, decimals are implied when the field does not contain a
decimal point. In F6.5 format, for example, the field `314159`

is
taken as the value 3.14159 with implied decimals. Decimals are never
implied if an explicit decimal point is present or if scientific
notation is used.

E and F formats accept the basic syntax already described. The other formats allow some additional variations:

- COMMA, DOLLAR, and DOT formats ignore grouping characters within the integer part of the input field. The identity of the grouping character depends on the format.
- DOLLAR format allows a dollar sign to precede the number. In a negative number, the dollar sign may precede or follow the minus sign.
- PCT format allows a percent sign to follow the number.

All of the basic number formats have a maximum field width of 40 and accept no more than 16 decimal places, on both input and output. Some additional restrictions apply:

- As input formats, the basic numeric formats allow no more decimal places
than the field width. As output formats, the field width must be
greater than the number of decimal places; that is, large enough to
allow for a decimal point and the number of requested decimal places.
DOLLAR and PCT formats must allow an additional column for ‘
`$`’ or ‘`%`’. - The default output format for a given input format increases the field
width enough to make room for optional input characters. If an input
format calls for decimal places, the width is increased by 1 to make
room for an implied decimal point. COMMA, DOT, and DOLLAR formats also
increase the output width to make room for grouping characters. DOLLAR
and PCT further increase the output field width by 1 to make room for
‘
`$`’ or ‘`%`’. The increased output width is capped at 40, the maximum field width. - The E format is exceptional. For output, E format has a minimum width of 7 plus the number of decimal places. The default output format for an E input format is an E format with at least 3 decimal places and thus a minimum width of 10.

More details of basic numeric output formatting are given below:

- Output rounds to nearest, with ties rounded away from zero. Thus, 2.5
is output as
`3`

in F1.0 format, and -1.125 as`-1.13`

in F5.1 format. - The system-missing value is output as a period in a field of spaces, placed in the decimal point’s position, or in the rightmost column if no decimal places are requested. A period is used even if the decimal point character is a comma.
- A number that does not fill its field is right-justified within the field.
- A number is too large for its field causes decimal places to be dropped
to make room. If dropping decimals does not make enough room,
scientific notation is used if the field is wide enough. If a number
does not fit in the field, even in scientific notation, the overflow is
indicated by filling the field with asterisks (‘
`*`’). - COMMA, DOT, and DOLLAR formats insert grouping characters only if space
is available for all of them. Grouping characters are never inserted
when all decimal places must be dropped. Thus, 1234.56 in COMMA5.2
format is output as ‘
`1235`’ without a comma, even though there is room for one, because all decimal places were dropped. - DOLLAR or PCT format drop the ‘
`$`’ or ‘`%`’ only if the number would not fit at all without it. Scientific notation with ‘`$`’ or ‘`%`’ is preferred to ordinary decimal notation without it. - Except in scientific notation, a decimal point is included only when
it is followed by a digit. If the integer part of the number being
output is 0, and a decimal point is included, then the zero before the
decimal point is dropped.
In scientific notation, the number always includes a decimal point, even if it is not followed by a digit.

- A negative number includes a minus sign only in the presence of a
nonzero digit: -0.01 is output as ‘
`-.01`’ in F4.2 format but as ‘`.0`’ in F4.1 format. Thus, a “negative zero” never includes a minus sign. - In negative numbers output in DOLLAR format, the dollar sign follows the
negative sign. Thus, -9.99 in DOLLAR6.2 format is output as
`-$9.99`

. - In scientific notation, the exponent is output as ‘
`E`’ followed by ‘`+`’ or ‘`-`’ and exactly three digits. Numbers with magnitude less than 10**-999 or larger than 10**999 are not supported by most computers, but if they are supported then their output is considered to overflow the field and will be output as asterisks. - On most computers, no more than 15 decimal digits are significant in output, even if more are printed. In any case, output precision cannot be any higher than input precision; few data sets are accurate to 15 digits of precision. Unavoidable loss of precision in intermediate calculations may also reduce precision of output.
- Special values such as infinities and “not a number” values are
usually converted to the system-missing value before printing. In a few
circumstances, these values are output directly. In fields of width 3
or greater, special values are output as however many characters will
fit from
`+Infinity`

or`-Infinity`

for infinities, from`NaN`

for “not a number,” or from`Unknown`

for other values (if any are supported by the system). In fields under 3 columns wide, special values are output as asterisks.

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