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16.16 INSERT

     INSERT [FILE=]’file_name’
        [ENCODING={LOCALE, ’charset_name’}].

INSERT is similar to INCLUDE (see INCLUDE) but somewhat more flexible. It causes the command processor to read a file as if it were embedded in the current command file.

If CD=YES is specified, then before including the file, the current directory will be changed to the directory of the included file. The default setting is ‘CD=NO’. Note that this directory will remain current until it is changed explicitly (with the CD command, or a subsequent INSERT command with the ‘CD=YES’ option). It will not revert to its original setting even after the included file is finished processing.

If ERROR=STOP is specified, errors encountered in the inserted file will cause processing to immediately cease. Otherwise processing will continue at the next command. The default setting is ERROR=CONTINUE.

If SYNTAX=INTERACTIVE is specified then the syntax contained in the included file must conform to interactive syntax conventions. See Syntax Variants. The default setting is SYNTAX=BATCH.

ENCODING optionally specifies the character set used by the included file. Its argument, which is not case-sensitive, must be in one of the following forms:


The encoding used by the system locale, or as overridden by the SET command (see SET). On GNU/Linux and other Unix-like systems, environment variables, e.g. LANG or LC_ALL, determine the system locale.


One of the character set names listed by IANA at Some examples are ASCII (United States), ISO-8859-1 (western Europe), EUC-JP (Japan), and windows-1252 (Windows). Not all systems support all character sets.


Automatically detects whether a syntax file is encoded in an Unicode encoding such as UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32. If it is not, then PSPP generally assumes that the file is encoded in encoding (an IANA character set name). However, if encoding is UTF-8, and the syntax file is not valid UTF-8, PSPP instead assumes that the file is encoded in windows-1252.

For best results, encoding should be an ASCII-compatible encoding (the most common locale encodings are all ASCII-compatible), because encodings that are not ASCII compatible cannot be automatically distinguished from UTF-8.


Automatic detection, as above, with the default encoding taken from the system locale or the setting on SET LOCALE.

When ENCODING is not specified, the default is taken from the --syntax-encoding command option, if it was specified, and otherwise it is Auto.

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